696 research outputs found

    Synthesis of Supported Catalysts by Dry Impregnation in Fluidized Bed

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    The synthesis of catalytic or not composite materials by dry impregnation in fluidized bed is described. This process can be carried out under mild conditions from solutions of organometallic precursors or colloidal solutions of preformed nanoparticles giving rise to reproducible metallic nanoparticles containing composite materials with a high reproducibility. The adequate choice of the reaction conditions makes possible to deposit uniformly the metal precursor within the porous matrix or on the support surface. When the ratio between the drying time and the capillary penetration time (tsec/tcap) is higher than 10, the impregnation under soft drying conditions leads to a homogeneous deposit inside the pores of the particles of support. The efficiency of the metal deposition is close to 100%, and the size of the formed metal nanoparticles is controlled by the pores diameter. Finally, some of the presented composite materials have been tested as catalysts: iron-based materials were used in carbon-nanotubes synthesis, while Pd and Rh composite materials have been investigated in hydrogenation reactions

    Dry impregnation in fluidized bed: Drying and calcination effect on nanoparticles dispersion and location in a porous support

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    The synthesis of metal nanoparticles dispersed inside the grains of a porous inorganic support was carried out by ‘‘dry impregnation’’ in a fluidized bed. The principle of this technique consists in the spraying of a solution containing a metal source into a hot fluidized bed of porous particles. The metal source can be of different nature such as metal salts, organometallic precursors or colloidal solutions. The experimental results obtained from iron oxide deposition on a porous silica gel as support, constitute the core of this article but others results concerning the deposition of rhodium from a colloidal suspension containing preformed rhodium nanoparticles are also described. More precisely, this study aims to understand the effect of the bed temperature during the impregnation step, the initial particle porosity and the calcination operating protocol on the metallic nanoparticles dispersion and location in the silica porous particles. The so-obtained products were characterized by various techniques in order to determine their morphology, their surface properties and the dispersion of the nanoparticles inside the support. The results showed that, under the chosen operating conditions, the deposit efficiency is close to 100% and the competition between the drying rate, depending on the process-related variables, and the capillary penetration rate, depending on the physicochemical-related variables, controls the deposit location. A quasi uniform deposit inside the support particles is observed for soft drying. The metal nanoparticles size is controlled by the pore mean diameter of the support as well as the calcination operating protocol

    Compared to conventional, ecological intensive management promotes beneficial proteolytic soil microbial communities for agro-ecosystem functioning under climate change-induced rain regimes

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    Projected climate change and rainfall variability will affect soil microbial communities, biogeochemical cycling and agriculture. Nitrogen (N) is the most limiting nutrient in agroecosystems and its cycling and availability is highly dependent on microbial driven processes. In agroecosystems, hydrolysis of organic nitrogen (N) is an important step in controlling soil N availability. We analyzed the effect of management (ecological intensive vs. conventional intensive) on N-cycling processes and involved microbial communities under climate change-induced rain regimes. Terrestrial model ecosystems originating from agroecosystems across Europe were subjected to four different rain regimes for 263 days. Using structural equation modelling we identified direct impacts of rain regimes on N-cycling processes, whereas N-related microbial communities were more resistant. In addition to rain regimes, management indirectly affected N-cycling processes via modifications of N-related microbial community composition. Ecological intensive management promoted a beneficial N-related microbial community composition involved in N-cycling processes under climate change-induced rain regimes. Exploratory analyses identified phosphorus-associated litter properties as possible drivers for the observed management effects on N-related microbial community composition. This work provides novel insights into mechanisms controlling agro-ecosystem functioning under climate change

    Dual mobility cup reduces dislocation rate after arthroplasty for femoral neck fracture

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Hip dislocation after arthroplasty for femoral neck fractures remains a serious complication. The aim of our study was to investigate the dislocation rate in acute femoral neck fracture patients operated with a posterior approach with cemented conventional or dual articulation acetabular components.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>We compared the dislocation rate in 56 consecutive patients operated with conventional (single mobility) cemented acetabular components to that in 42 consecutive patients operated with dual articulation acetabular components. All the patients were operated via posterior approach and were followed up to one year postoperatively.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>There were 8 dislocations in the 56 patients having conventional components as compared to no dislocations in those 42 having dual articulation components (p = 0.01). The groups were similar with respect to age and gender distribution.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>We conclude that the use of a cemented dual articulation acetabular component significantly reduces the dislocation rates in femoral neck fracture patients operated via posterior approach.</p

    Remotely Sensed Canopy Nitrogen Correlates With Nitrous Oxide Emissions in a Lowland Tropical Rainforest

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    Tropical forests exhibit significant heterogeneity in plant functional and chemical traits that may contribute to spatial patterns of key soil biogeochemical processes, such as carbon storage and greenhouse gas emissions. Although tropical forests are the largest ecosystem source of nitrous oxide (N2O), drivers of spatial patterns within forests are poorly resolved. Here, we show that local variation in canopy foliar N, mapped by remote‐sensing image spectroscopy, correlates with patterns of soil N2O emission from a lowland tropical rainforest. We identified ten 0.25 ha plots (assemblages of 40–70 individual trees) in which average remotely‐sensed canopy N fell above or below the regional mean. The plots were located on a single minimally‐dissected terrace (km2) where soil type, vegetation structure and climatic conditions were relatively constant. We measured N2O fluxes monthly for 1 yr and found that high canopy N species assemblages had on average three‐fold higher total mean N2O fluxes than nearby lower canopy N areas. These differences are consistent with strong differences in litter stoichiometry, nitrification rates and soil nitrate concentrations. Canopy N status was also associated with microbial community characteristics: lower canopy N plots had two‐fold greater soil fungal to bacterial ratios and a significantly lower abundance of ammonia‐oxidizing archaea, although genes associated with denitrification (nirS, nirK, nosZ) showed no relationship with N2O flux. Overall, landscape emissions from this ecosystem are at the lowest end of the spectrum reported for tropical forests, consist with multiple metrics indicating that these highly productive forests retain N tightly and have low plant‐available losses. These data point to connections between canopy and soil processes that have largely been overlooked as a driver of denitrification. Defining relationships between remotely‐sensed plant traits and soil processes offers the chance to map these processes at large scales, potentially increasing our ability to predict N2O emissions in heterogeneous landscapes

    Learning to collaborate: Can young children develop better communication strategies through collaboration with a more popular peer

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    Unpopular children are known to have poor communication skills and experience difficulty in collaborative situations. This study investigated whether pairing unpopular, 5 to 6 year-old, children with a more popular peer would promote more effective collaboration. The study also investigated differences in popular and unpopular children's verbal and non-verbal communication. Thirty-six girls and 36 boys were placed in one of 12 popular, 12 unpopular or 12 mixed pairs. There were no mixed gender pairs. Children were filmed playing a collaborative game. Collaboration in popular pairs was more successful and less disputational than in unpopular pairs. Boys in unpopular pairs broke the rules of the game more often, argued more and did not monitoring their partners' facial expressions effectively. With popular partners they argued less, were more likely to elaborate disagreements, looked at their partner for longer, smiled more and were more likely to offer him a small toy. Unpopular girls' interactions were not markedly disruptive but they clearly benefited from being paired with a child with good communication skills. Popular girls modified their behaviour to take into account an unpopular partner's need for support. These findings suggest that pairing popular and unpopular children may be a useful classroom organisation strategy

    Polymer versus phosphine stabilized Rh nanoparticles as components of supported catalysts : implication in the hydrogenation of cyclohexene model molecule

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    The solution synthesis of rhodium nanoparticles (Rh NPs) was achieved from the organometallic complex [Rh(η³-C₃H₅)₃] under mild reaction conditions in the presence of a polymer (PVP), a monophosphine (PPh₃) and a diphosphine (dppb) as a stabilizer, leading to very small Rh NPs of 2.2, 1.3 and 1.7 nm mean size, with PVP, PPh3 and dppb, respectively. The surface properties of these nanoparticles were compared using a model catalysis reaction namely, hydrogenation of cyclohexene, first under colloidal conditions and then under supported conditions after their immobilization onto an amino functionalized silica-coated magnetite support. PVP-stabilized Rh NPs were the most active catalyst whatever the catalytic conditions as a result of a strong coordination of the phosphine ligands at the metal surface that blocks some surface atoms even after several recycles of the supported nanocatalysts and limit the reactivity of the metallic surface

    On the role of goal relevance in emotional attention: Disgust evokes early attention to cleanliness

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    Prior evidence has shown that aversive emotional states are characterised by an attentional bias towards aversive events. The present study investigated whether aversive emotions also bias attention towards stimuli that represent means by which the emotion can be alleviated. We induced disgust by having participants touch fake disgusting objects. Participants in the control condition touched nondisgusting objects. The results of a subsequent dot-probe task revealed that attention was oriented to disgusting pictures irrespective of condition. However, participants in the disgust condition also oriented towards pictures representing cleanliness. These findings suggest that the deployment of attention in aversive emotional states is not purely stimulus driven but is also guided by the goal to alleviate this emotional state

    Spatial patterns of microbial diversity and activity in an aged creosote-contaminated site

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    Restoration of polluted sites via in situ bioremediation relies heavily on the indigenous microbes and their activities. Spatial heterogeneity of microbial populations, contaminants and soil chemical parameters on such sites is a major hurdle in optimizing and implementing an appropriate bioremediation regime. We performed a grid-based sampling of an aged creosote-contaminated site followed by geostatistical modelling to illustrate the spatial patterns of microbial diversity and activity and to relate these patterns to the distribution of pollutants. Spatial distribution of bacterial groups unveiled patterns of niche differentiation regulated by patchy distribution of pollutants and an east-to-west pH gradient at the studied site. Proteobacteria clearly dominated in the hot spots of creosote pollution, whereas the abundance of Actinobacteria, TM7 and Planctomycetes was considerably reduced from the hot spots. The pH preferences of proteobacterial groups dominating in pollution could be recognized by examining the order and family-level responses. Acidobacterial classes came across as generalists in hydrocarbon pollution whose spatial distribution seemed to be regulated solely by the pH gradient. Although the community evenness decreased in the heavily polluted zones, basal respiration and fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis rates were higher, indicating the adaptation of specific indigenous microbial populations to hydrocarbon pollution. Combining the information from the kriged maps of microbial and soil chemistry data provided a comprehensive understanding of the long-term impacts of creosote pollution on the subsurface microbial communities. This study also highlighted the prospect of interpreting taxa-specific spatial patterns and applying them as indicators or proxies for monitoring polluted sites
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