136 research outputs found

    Thermal Capacitance (Slug) Calorimeter Theory Including Heat Losses and Other Decaying Processes

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    A mathematical model, termed the Slug Loss Model, has been developed for describing thermal capacitance (slug) calorimeter behavior when heat losses and other decaying processes are not negligible. This model results in the temperature time slope taking the mathematical form of exponential decay. When data is found to fit well to this model, it allows a heat flux value to be calculated that corrects for the losses and may be a better estimate of the cold wall fully catalytic heat flux, as is desired in arc jet testing. The model was applied to the data from a copper slug calorimeter inserted during a particularly severe high heating rate arc jet run to illustrate its use. The Slug Loss Model gave a cold wall heat flux 15% higher than the value of 2,250 W/sq cm obtained from the conventional approach to processing the data (where no correction is made for losses). For comparison, a Finite Element Analysis (FEA) model was created and applied to the same data, where conduction heat losses from the slug were simulated. The heat flux determined by the FEA model was found to be in close agreement with the heat flux determined by the Slug Loss Model

    Spin-dependent Bohm trajectories associated with an electronic transition in hydrogen

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    The Bohm causal theory of quantum mechanics with spin-dependence is used to determine electron trajectories when a hydrogen atom is subjected to (semi-classical) radiation. The transition between the 1s ground state and the 2p0 state is examined. It is found that transitions can be identified along Bohm trajectories. The trajectories lie on invariant hyperboloid surfaces of revolution in R^3. The energy along the trajectories is also discussed in relation to the hydrogen energy eigenvalues.Comment: 18 pages, 8 figure

    Grounding Bohmian Mechanics in Weak Values and Bayesianism

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    Bohmian mechanics (BM) is a popular interpretation of quantum mechanics in which particles have real positions. The velocity of a point x in configuration space is defined as the standard probability current j(x) divided by the probability density P(x). However, this ``standard'' j is in fact only one of infinitely many that transform correctly and satisfy \dot P + \del . j=0. In this article I show that there is a unique j that can be determined experimentally as a weak value using techniques that would make sense to a classical physicist. Moreover, this operationally defined j equals the standard j, so, assuming \dot x = j/P, the possible Bohmian paths can also be determined experimentally from a large enough ensemble. Furthermore, this approach to deriving BM singles out x as the hidden variable, because (for example) the operationally defined momentum current is in general incompatible with the evolution of the momentum distribution. Finally I discuss how, in this setting, the usual quantum probabilities can be derived from a Bayesian standpoint, via the principle of indifference.Comment: 11 page

    The food system in the wider bioeconomy: the BioSAM perspective : an economic impact analysis for EU Member States

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    The Bioeconomy emerges as an opportunity towards more economic, social and environmental sustainability, becoming a priority for many countries, including the European Union and its Member States. According to the definition in the European Union strategy, the Bioeconomy includes all sectors of the economy that are based on the use of renewable biological resources to produce value added products such as food, feed, energy, and bio-based products (European Commission, 2012). Due to the importance of promoting the Bioeconomy, it is necessary to analyse the impact of the sectors directly involved. However, the lack of available data is one of the main obstacles for monitoring its progress. As a response to this problem, the Bioeconomy Social Accounting Matrix (BioSAM) database has been developed for the EU Member States (Mainar-Causapé 2021). The purpose of this report is to present an overview of the European Union bio-based products and industries. Our focus is mainly on the analysis of the impacts of final demand variation on value added and employment by sectoral level disaggregation. By using the BioSAM database it is possible to deepen the impact analysis by considering a detailed disaggregation of bio-based products. A country cluster analysis focusing on food system sectors is also introduced. In addition, the results are presented in a dashboard to allow the replication and comparison of different impacts by sector and country.Publishe

    Selection of Conditions for Cellulase and Xylanase Extraction from Switchgrass Colonized by Acidothermus cellulolyticus

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    Solid-state fermentation has been widely used for enzyme production. However, secreted enzymes often bind to the solid substrate preventing their detection and recovery. A series of screening studies was performed to examine the role of extraction buffer composition including NaCl, ethylene glycol, sodium acetate buffer, and Tween 80, on xylanase and cellulase recovery from switchgrass. Our results indicated that the selection of an extraction buffer is highly dependent on the nature and source of the enzyme being extracted. While a buffer containing 50 mM sodium acetate at pH 5 was found to have a positive effect on the recovery of commercial fungal-derived cellulase and xylanase amended to switchgrass, the same buffer had a significant negative effect on enzyme extraction from solid fermentation samples colonized by the bacterium Acidothermus cellulolyticus. Xylanase activity was more affected by components in the extraction buffers compared to cellulase. This study demonstrated that extraction followed by diafiltration is important for assessing enzyme recovery from solid fermentation samples. Reduction in activity due to compounds present in the switchgrass extracts is reversible when the compounds are removed via diafiltration

    Differential Expression of CD163 on Monocyte Subsets in Healthy and HIV-1 Infected Individuals

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    CD163, a haptoglobin-hemoglobin (Hp-Hb) scavenger receptor, expressed by monocytes and macrophages, is important in resolution of inflammation. Age-related non-AIDS co-morbidities in HIV-infected individuals, particularly dementia and cardiovascular disease, result in part from effects of HIV-1 infection on monocyte and macrophage biology. CD163 co-expression on CD14+CD16++ monocytes has been proposed as a useful biomarker for HIV-1 disease progression and the presence of HIV associated dementia. Here we investigated CD163 expression on monocyte subsets ex vivo, on cultured macrophages, and soluble in plasma, in the setting of HIV-1 infection. Whole blood immunophenotyping revealed CD163 expression on CD14++CD16- monocytes but not on CD14+CD16++ monocytes (P = 0.004), supported by CD163 mRNA levels. Incubation with M-CSF induced CD163 protein expression on CD14+CD16++ monocytes to the same extent as CD14++CD16− monocytes. CD163 expression on CD14++CD16+ monocytes from HIV-infected subjects was significantly higher than from uninfected individuals, with a trend towards increased expression on CD14++CD16− monocytes (P = 0.019 and 0.069 respectively), which is accounted for by HIV-1 therapy including protease inhibitors. Shedding of CD163 was shown to predominantly occur from the CD14++CD16− subset after Ficoll isolation and LPS stimulation. Soluble CD163 concentration in plasma from HIV-1 infected donors was similar to HIV-1 uninfected donors. Monocyte CD163 expression in HIV-1 infected patients showed a complicated relationship with classical measures of disease progression. Our findings clarify technical issues regarding CD163 expression on monocyte subsets and further elucidates its role in HIV-associated inflammation by demonstrating that CD163 is readily lost from CD14++CD16− monocytes and induced in pro-inflammatory CD14+CD16++ monocytes by M-CSF. Our data show that all monocyte subsets are potentially capable of differentiating into CD163-expressing anti-inflammatory macrophages given appropriate stimuli. Levels of CD163 expression on monocytes may be a potential biomarker reflecting efforts by the immune system to resolve immune activation and inflammation in HIV-infected individuals

    Differential Expression of CD163 on Monocyte Subsets in Healthy and HIV-1 Infected Individuals

    Get PDF
    CD163, a haptoglobin-hemoglobin (Hp-Hb) scavenger receptor, expressed by monocytes and macrophages, is important in resolution of inflammation. Age-related non-AIDS co-morbidities in HIV-infected individuals, particularly dementia and cardiovascular disease, result in part from effects of HIV-1 infection on monocyte and macrophage biology. CD163 co-expression on CD14+CD16++ monocytes has been proposed as a useful biomarker for HIV-1 disease progression and the presence of HIV associated dementia. Here we investigated CD163 expression on monocyte subsets ex vivo, on cultured macrophages, and soluble in plasma, in the setting of HIV-1 infection. Whole blood immunophenotyping revealed CD163 expression on CD14++CD16- monocytes but not on CD14+CD16++ monocytes (P = 0.004), supported by CD163 mRNA levels. Incubation with M-CSF induced CD163 protein expression on CD14+CD16++ monocytes to the same extent as CD14++CD16− monocytes. CD163 expression on CD14++CD16+ monocytes from HIV-infected subjects was significantly higher than from uninfected individuals, with a trend towards increased expression on CD14++CD16− monocytes (P = 0.019 and 0.069 respectively), which is accounted for by HIV-1 therapy including protease inhibitors. Shedding of CD163 was shown to predominantly occur from the CD14++CD16− subset after Ficoll isolation and LPS stimulation. Soluble CD163 concentration in plasma from HIV-1 infected donors was similar to HIV-1 uninfected donors. Monocyte CD163 expression in HIV-1 infected patients showed a complicated relationship with classical measures of disease progression. Our findings clarify technical issues regarding CD163 expression on monocyte subsets and further elucidates its role in HIV-associated inflammation by demonstrating that CD163 is readily lost from CD14++CD16− monocytes and induced in pro-inflammatory CD14+CD16++ monocytes by M-CSF. Our data show that all monocyte subsets are potentially capable of differentiating into CD163-expressing anti-inflammatory macrophages given appropriate stimuli. Levels of CD163 expression on monocytes may be a potential biomarker reflecting efforts by the immune system to resolve immune activation and inflammation in HIV-infected individuals
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