91 research outputs found

    Phthalate concentrations in house dust in relation to autism spectrum disorder and developmental delay in the CHildhood Autism Risks from Genetics and the Environment (CHARGE) study

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    Acoustic waves are transmitted into the subsurface ocean will experience scattering (scattering) caused by marine organisms, material distributed in the ocean, the structure is not homogeneous in seawater, as well as reflections from the surface and the seabed. Estimation of fish stocks in the waters wide as in Indonesia have a lot of them are using the acoustic method. The acoustic method has high speed in predicting the size of fish stocks so as to allow acquiring data in real time, accurate and high speed so as to contribute fairly high for the provision of data and information of fishery resources.  Split beam echo sounder comprises two aspects, and a transducer. The first aspect is the high-resolution color display for displaying echogram at some observations and also serves as a controller in the operation of the echo sounder. The second aspect is transceiver consisting of transmitter and receiver. The Echosounder divided beam first inserted into the ES 3800 by SIMRAD beginning of the 1980s and in 1985 was introduced to fishermen in Japan as a tool for catching up. Split beam transducer is divided into four quadrants.  Factors that contribute affect the value of Target Strength (TS) fish Strength target can generally be influenced by three factors: a target factor itself, environmental factors, and factors acoustic instrument. Factors include the size of the target, the anatomy of fish, swim bladder, the behavior of orientation

    Exposure to Phthalates and Phenols during Pregnancy and Offspring Size at Birth

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    Background: Data concerning the effects of prenatal exposures to phthalates and phenols on fetal growth are limited in humans. Previous findings suggest possible effects of some phenols on male birth weight

    Prenatal Exposure to Environmental Phenols: Concentrations in Amniotic Fluid and Variability in Urinary Concentrations during Pregnancy

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    Background: Maternal urinary biomarkers are often used to assess fetal exposure to phenols and their precursors. Their effectiveness as a measure of exposure in epidemiological studies depends on their variability during pregnancy and their ability to accurately predict fetal exposure

    Maternal imprinting and determinants of neonates’ immune function in the SEPAGES mother-child cohort

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    IntroductionImmune function in pregnancy is influenced by host-specific and environmental factors. This may impact fetal immune development, but the link between maternal and neonatal immune function is still poorly characterized. Here, we investigate the relationship between maternal and neonatal immune function, and identify factors affecting the association between maternal and child cytokine secretion.MethodsIn the French prospective cohort SEPAGES, blood samples were obtained from pregnant women (n=322) at gestational week 20 ± 4 and from their child at birth (n=156). Maternal and cord blood cytokine and chemokine (CK) levels were measured at baseline in all subjects and after T cell or dendritic cell activation with phytohemagglutinin or R848 (in total 29 and 27 measures in maternal and cord blood samples, respectively). Associations between environmental, individual factors and CK level were estimated by linear regression modeling. The maternal-cord blood CK relations were assessed by Pearson correlation and regression models.ResultsWe observed that pregnant women and neonates displayed specific CK secretion profiles in the innate and adaptive compartments at baseline and upon activation. Activation of T cells in cord blood induced high levels of IL-2, but low levels of IFNγ, IL-13 or IL-10, in comparison to maternal blood samples. Elsewhere, neonatal innate immune responses were characterized by low production of IFNα, while productions of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and TNFα were higher than maternal responses. Strong correlations were observed between most CK after activation in maternal and cord blood samples. Strikingly, a statistical association between global mother and child cytokine profiles was evidenced. Correlations were observed between some individual CK of pregnant women and their children, both at baseline (MCP1, RANTES) and after activation with R848 (IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10). We looked for factors which could influence cytokine secretion in maternal or cord blood, and found that leucocyte counts, maternal age, pre-conception BMI, smoking and season were associated with the levels of several CK in mothers or children. DiscussionOur study reveals in utero immune imprinting influencing immune responses in infants, opening the way to investigate the mechanisms responsible for this imprinting. Whether such influences have long lasting effects on children health warrants further investigation

    In utero exposure to bisphenols and asthma, wheeze, and lung function in school-age children: a prospective meta-analysis of 8 European birth cohorts

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    [EN] BACKGROUND: In utero exposure to bisphenols, widely used in consumer products, may alter lung development and increase the risk of respiratory morbidity in the offspring. However, evidence is scarce and mostly focused on bisphenol A (BPA) only. OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations of in utero exposure to BPA, bisphenol F (BPF), and bisphenol S (BPS) with asthma, wheeze, and lung function in school-age children, and whether these associations differ by sex. METHODS: We included 3,007 mother-child pairs from eight European birth cohorts. Bisphenol concentrations were determined in maternal urine samples collected during pregnancy (1999-2010). Between 7 and 11years of age, current asthma and wheeze were assessed from questionnaires and lung function by spirometry. Wheezing patterns were constructed from questionnaires from early to mid-childhood. We performed adjusted random-effects meta-analysis on individual participant data. RESULTS: Exposure to BPA was prevalent with 90% of maternal samples containing concentrations above detection limits. BPF and BPS were found in 27% and 49% of samples. In utero exposure to BPA was associated with higher odds of current asthma (OR=1.13, 95% CI=1.01, 1.27) and wheeze (OR=1.14, 95% CI=1.01, 1.30) (p-interaction sex=0.01) among girls, but not with wheezing patterns nor lung function neither in overall nor among boys. We observed inconsistent associations of BPF and BPS with the respiratory outcomes assessed in overall and sex-stratified analyses. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that in utero BPA exposure may be associated with higher odds of asthma and wheeze among school-age girls.The research leading to these results has received funding from Instituto de Salud Carlos III and European Union’s FEDER funds (CP16/00128 – the ENDOLUNG project, and PI17/01194 – the INMA-Ado-Respi Project), the European Community’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007–206) under grant agreement no 308,333 - the HELIX project –, and from the EC’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 874,583 – the ATHLETE project. Generation R: This study was funded by The Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, the Erasmus University Rotterdam and the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development. The project received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (LIFECYCLE, grant agreement No 733206, 2016; EUCAN-Connect grant agreement No 824989; ATHLETE, grant agreement No 874583). Dr. Vincent Jaddoe received a grant from the European Research Council (ERC-2014-CoG-648916). This study was supported by grant R01-ES022972 and R01-ES029779 from the National Institutes of Health, USA. The researchers are independent from the funders. The study sponsors had no role in the study design, data analysis, interpretation of data, or writing of this report. INMA Gipuzkoa: This study was funded by grants from Instituto de Salud Carlos III (FIS-PI13/02187 and FIS-PI18/01142 incl. FEDER funds), CIBERESP, Department of Health of the Basque Government (2015111065), and the Provincial Government of Gipuzkoa (DFG15/221) and annual agreements with the municipalities of the study area (Zumarraga, Urretxu, Legazpi, Azkoitia y Azpeitia y Beasain). INMA Sabadell: This study was funded by grants from Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Red INMA G03/176; CB06/02/0041; PI041436; PI081151 incl. FEDER funds; PI12/01890 incl. FEDER funds; CP13/00054 incl. FEDER funds), CIBERESP, Generalitat de Catalunya-CIRIT 1999SGR 00241, Generalitat de Catalunya-AGAUR (2009 SGR 501, 2014 SGR 822), Fundació La marató de TV3 (090430), Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (SAF2012-32991 incl. FEDER funds), Agence Nationale de Securite Sanitaire de l’Alimentation de l’Environnement et du Travail (1262C0010), European Commission (261357, 308333, 603,794 and 634453). Alicia Abellan holds a LifeCycle fellowship, funded from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 733206. Maribel Casas holds a Miguel Servet fellowship (CP16/00128) funded by Instituto de Salud Carlos III and co-funded by European Social Fund “Investing in your future“. We acknowledge support from the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation through the “Centro de Excelencia Severo Ochoa 2019–2023” Program (2018–000806-S), and support from the Generalitat de Catalunya through the CERCA Program. INMA Valencia: INMA Valencia was funded by Grants from UE (FP7-ENV-2011 cod 282,957 and HEALTH.2010.2.4.5–1), Spain: ISCIII (G03/176; FIS-FEDER: PI09/02647, PI11/01007, PI11/02591, PI11/02038, PI13/1944, PI13/2032, PI14/00891, PI14/01687, PI16/1288, PI17/00663, and PI19/1338; Miguel Servet-FEDER CP11/00178, CP15/00025, and CPII16/00051), Alicia Koplowitz Foundation, and Generalitat Valenciana: FISABIO (UGP 15–230, UGP-15–244, UGP-15–249, and AICO/2020/285). BiB: This report is independent research funded by the National Institute for Health Research Yorkshire and Humber ARC (NIHR200166) and BiB receives core infrastructure funding from the Wellcome Trust (WT101597MA). The views expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and not necessarily those of the National Institute for Health Research or the Department of Health and Social Care. EDEN: The EDEN study was supported by Foundation for medical research (FRM), National Agency for Research (ANR), National Institute for Research in Public health (IRESP: TGIR cohorte santé 2008 program), French Ministry of Health (DGS), French Ministry of Research, INSERM Bone and Joint Diseases National Research (PRO-A), and Human Nutrition National Research Programs, Paris-Sud University, Nestlé, French National Institute for Population Health Surveillance (InVS), French National Institute for Health Education (INPES), the European Union FP7 programmes (FP7/2007–2013, HELIX, ESCAPE, ENRIECO, Medall projects), Diabetes National Research Program (through a collaboration with the French Association of Diabetic Patients (AFD)), French Agency for Environmental Health Safety (now ANSES), Mutuelle Générale de l’Education Nationale a complementary health insurance (MGEN), French national agency for food security, French-speaking association for the study of diabetes and metabolism (ALFEDIAM). MoBa: The Norwegian Mother, Father and Child Cohort Study is supported by the Norwegian Ministry of Health and Care Services and the Ministry of Education and Research. RHEA: The Rhea project was financially supported by European projects (EU FP6-2003-Food-3-NewGeneris, EU FP6. STREP Hiwate, EU FP7 ENV.2007.1.2.2.2. Project No 211,250 Escape, EU FP7-2008-ENV-1.2.1.4 Envirogenomarkers, EU FP7-HEALTH-2009- single stage CHICOS, EU FP7 ENV.2008.1.2.1.6. Proposal No 226,285 ENRIECO, EU- FP7- HEALTH-2012 Proposal No 308,333 HELIX, H2020 LIFECYCLE, grant agreement No 733206, H2020 ATHLETE, grant agreement No 874583), and the Greek Ministry of Health (Program of Prevention of obesity and neurodevelopmental disorders in preschool children, in Heraklion district, Crete, Greece: 2011–2014; “Rhea Plus”: Primary Prevention Program of Environmental Risk Factors for Reproductive Health, and Child Health: 2012–15). Additional funding from NIEHS supported Dr Chatzi (R01ES030691, R01ES029944, R01ES030364, R21ES029681, R21ES028903, and P30ES007048)

    Utilisation des biomarqueurs d'exposition en épidémiologie environnementale : application à l'étude des effets des expositions intra-utérines aux phénols et au phtalates sur la croissance pré-et post-natale

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    Background: Phthalates and phenols belong to the family of short half-life endocrine disruptors. Data regarding their effects on fetal and early post-natal growth in Human are sparse and suggest a sex-specific effect of some phenols on birth weight. One of the limitations of these studies is exposure assessment usually based on the measurement of their concentrations in a small number of maternal urine samples collected during pregnancy. Because of their low persistence in the organisms and the likely episodic nature of the exposures, urinary concentrations of these chemicals are likely to vary. Chemical concentrations measured in alternative matrix, such as amniotic fluid, might be a relevant dosimeter of fetal exposure.Objectives: Objectives of the thesis were: to study the potential effects of prenatal exposures to phenols and phthalates on pre- and early post-natal growth; to characterize variability in maternal urine concentrations of phenols throughout pregnancy and to compare phenol concentrations in amniotic fluid to those measured in maternal urine collected same day; to characterize the impact of increasing the number of measurements to estimate exposure on bias and statistical power of epidemiological studies.Methods: Associations between phenols, phthalates and growth were studied among a subsample of pregnant women of the French EDEN cohort delivered boys (n =520). We measured fetal growth with ultrasound (three times during pregnancy) and birth measurements. We used standardized measures acquired between birth and 3 years of age to model postnatal growth. We measured biomarkers of phthalates and phenols in maternal urines collected once during pregnancy: 191 women were assessed in 2008 and 410 other women in 2012 (ntot = 601). Variability in phenol urine concentrations and relationship between concentrations measured in amniotic fluid and maternal urine collected on the same day were studied among 71 pregnant women presenting for an amniocentesis at the Mount Sinai Medical Center (NY, USA). Maternal urine was collected at the time of the amniocentesis appointment, and on two subsequent occasions. Urine and amniotic fluid were analyzed for nine phenols.The study aiming at characterizing bias was based on simulated data. Results: Among the subsample of 191 pregnant women from the EDEN cohort, we observed a negative association between dichlorophenols and birth weight and a positive association between benzophenone-3 and birth weight. The associations with dichlorophenols were not replicated in the larger subsample of the EDEN cohort (n = 520). Triclosan concentration was negatively associated with all of the growth parameters measured at the third ultrasound examination (p ≤ 0.16) and with head circumference measured at birth (β = - 1.4 mm, 95% CI; -2.8; 0.0). All of the parabens were positively associated with weight at birth (p < 0.05). These associations remained in childhood for methyl- and propyl-parabens. Regarding the variability in phenol urinary concentrations during pregnancy, the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) ranged between 0.48 and 0.62 for all phenols except bisphenol A (ICC = 0.11). Only benzophenone-3 and propylparaben were detectable in at least half of the amniotic fluid samples; for these phenols, concentrations in maternal urine and amniotic fluid were positively associated. In a simulation study, we estimated that 5 samples will be needed to correctly estimate exposure to chemicals with ICC of 0.6, while for chemicals with ICC of 0.15 around 25 samples would be needed.Conclusion: We only had spot urine sample to assess exposure in the EDEN cohort and findings may be affected by exposure misclassification, especially for bisphenol A for which we observed high variability in urine concentrations. Nevertheless, our study lends support to a potential effect of prenatal exposure to some phenols on pre- and early post-natal growth.Contexte : Les phtalates et les phénols sont des perturbateurs endocriniens. Les données concernant leurs effets sur la croissance fœtale et durant l'enfance sont limitées et suggèrent un effet dépendant du sexe de certains phénols sur le poids de naissance. Une des limites de ces études est l'estimation de l'exposition, basée sur la mesure de leurs concentrations dans un petit nombre d'échantillons d'urine maternelle. En raison de la faible persistance de ces composés chimiques dans l'organisme, les concentrations urinaires varient dans le temps. Les concentrations dosées dans d'autres matrices comme le liquide amniotique pourraient être pertinentes pour estimer l'exposition fœtale.Objectifs : Les objectifs de la thèse étaient : 1) d'étudier les impacts potentiels de l'exposition prénatale aux phénols et aux phtalates sur la croissance du fœtus et de l'enfant ; 2) de caractériser la variabilité des concentrations urinaires de phénols au long de la grossesse et de comparer les concentrations de phénols dosées dans le liquide amniotique et l'urine maternelle recueillis le même jour ; 3) de caractériser le biais et l'impact sur la puissance statistique de l'utilisation d'un faible nombre d'échantillons urinaires pour estimer les expositions. Méthodes : Les associations entre les phénols, les phtalates et la croissance ont été étudiées parmi un sous-effectif de la cohorte mère-enfant EDEN ayant accouché de garçons (n =520). La croissance fœtale a été estimée à l'aide d'échographies réalisées pendant la grossesse et de mesures à la naissance. La croissance postnatale a été modélisée à partir de mesures répétées normalisées, réalisées entre la naissance et 3 ans. Les biomarqueurs d'exposition aux phtalates et phénols ont été dosés dans les urines maternelles recueillies une fois pendant la grossesse. La variabilité des concentrations urinaires de phénols et la correspondance avec les concentrations mesurées dans le liquide amniotique ont été étudiées chez 71 femmes enceintes recevant une amniocentèse au centre médical Mount Sinaï (NY, États-Unis). Un échantillon d'urine maternelle a été recueilli le jour de l'amniocentèse, et à deux autres reprises pendant la grossesse. L'étude concernant les biais est basée sur des données simulées. Résultats : Les concentrations de triclosan étaient négativement associées à tous les paramètres de croissance mesurés à la troisième échographie (p ≤ 0,16) et avec la périmètre crânien à la naissance (β = - 1,4 mm, IC 95%; -2.8; 0.0). Les parabènes étaient associés positivement avec le poids à la naissance (p < 0,05). Le méthyle et propyle parabènes étaient aussi positivement associés au poids et à la circonférence abdominale à 3 ans (p-valeurs comprises entre 0,02 et 0,14). En ce qui concerne la variabilité des concentrations urinaires pendant la grossesse, les coefficients de corrélation intra-classe (ICC) variaient entre 0,48 et 0,62 pour l'ensemble des phénols sauf le bisphénol A (ICC = 0,11). Seuls la benzophénone-3 et le propyle parabène ont été détectés dans au moins 50 % des échantillons de liquide amniotique. Pour ces composés les concentrations dosées dans l'urine maternelle et le liquide amniotique, recueillis le même jour, étaient positivement associés. Dans le cadre d'une simulation, nous avons estimé que 5 échantillons d’urine étaient nécessaires pour estimer correctement l’exposition aux produits chimiques ayant un ICC de 0,6, tandis que pour des produits chimiques avec un ICC de 0,15, environ 25 échantillons étaient nécessaires.Conclusion : Un seul échantillon d'urine était disponible pour évaluer les expositions des femmes de la cohorte EDEN et nos résultats peuvent être affectés d'un biais résultant d'erreurs de classification des expositions, notamment pour le bisphenol A pour lequel nous avons observé une variabilité importante des concentrations. Néanmoins, notre étude suggérait un effet de l'exposition prénatale à certains phénols sur la croissance pré- et post-natale

    Exposition prénatale aux phénols et neurodéveloppement de l’enfant: Exposition prénatale à des perturbateurs endocriniens à courte demi-vie, axe hypothalamo-hypophysaire et neuro-développement de l’enfant

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    National audienceLa période prénatale et les premières années de vie sont considérées comme des périodes critiques d’exposition, durant lesquelles le cerveau humain est potentiellement plus sensible ou plus réceptif à l’influence des facteurs environnementaux. Parmi ceux-ci, on évoque le stress, les maladies maternelles, la consommation de drogues ou d’alcool ainsi que l’exposition à des polluants chimiques, dont les phénols. Les objectifs du projet HyPAxE sont : 1/D’évaluer l’exposition prénatale, non pas à un seul phénol mais à douze d’entre eux , en association avec des troubles du neurodéveloppement, 2/D’explorer les mécanismes biologiques sous-jacents à ces effets et notamment le rôle du système hypothalamo-hypophysaire

    Biomarkers of Exposure in Environmental Epidemiology : the case of the effects of prenatal exposure to phenols and phthalates on pre- and post-natal growth.

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    Contexte : Les phtalates et les phénols sont des perturbateurs endocriniens. Les données concernant leurs effets sur la croissance fœtale et durant l'enfance sont limitées et suggèrent un effet dépendant du sexe de certains phénols sur le poids de naissance. Une des limites de ces études est l'estimation de l'exposition, basée sur la mesure de leurs concentrations dans un petit nombre d'échantillons d'urine maternelle. En raison de la faible persistance de ces composés chimiques dans l'organisme, les concentrations urinaires varient dans le temps. Les concentrations dosées dans d'autres matrices comme le liquide amniotique pourraient être pertinentes pour estimer l'exposition fœtale.Objectifs : Les objectifs de la thèse étaient : 1) d'étudier les impacts potentiels de l'exposition prénatale aux phénols et aux phtalates sur la croissance du fœtus et de l'enfant ; 2) de caractériser la variabilité des concentrations urinaires de phénols au long de la grossesse et de comparer les concentrations de phénols dosées dans le liquide amniotique et l'urine maternelle recueillis le même jour ; 3) de caractériser le biais et l'impact sur la puissance statistique de l'utilisation d'un faible nombre d'échantillons urinaires pour estimer les expositions. Méthodes : Les associations entre les phénols, les phtalates et la croissance ont été étudiées parmi un sous-effectif de la cohorte mère-enfant EDEN ayant accouché de garçons (n =520). La croissance fœtale a été estimée à l'aide d'échographies réalisées pendant la grossesse et de mesures à la naissance. La croissance postnatale a été modélisée à partir de mesures répétées normalisées, réalisées entre la naissance et 3 ans. Les biomarqueurs d'exposition aux phtalates et phénols ont été dosés dans les urines maternelles recueillies une fois pendant la grossesse. La variabilité des concentrations urinaires de phénols et la correspondance avec les concentrations mesurées dans le liquide amniotique ont été étudiées chez 71 femmes enceintes recevant une amniocentèse au centre médical Mount Sinaï (NY, États-Unis). Un échantillon d'urine maternelle a été recueilli le jour de l'amniocentèse, et à deux autres reprises pendant la grossesse. L'étude concernant les biais est basée sur des données simulées. Résultats : Les concentrations de triclosan étaient négativement associées à tous les paramètres de croissance mesurés à la troisième échographie (p ≤ 0,16) et avec la périmètre crânien à la naissance (β = - 1,4 mm, IC 95%; -2.8; 0.0). Les parabènes étaient associés positivement avec le poids à la naissance (p < 0,05). Le méthyle et propyle parabènes étaient aussi positivement associés au poids et à la circonférence abdominale à 3 ans (p-valeurs comprises entre 0,02 et 0,14). En ce qui concerne la variabilité des concentrations urinaires pendant la grossesse, les coefficients de corrélation intra-classe (ICC) variaient entre 0,48 et 0,62 pour l'ensemble des phénols sauf le bisphénol A (ICC = 0,11). Seuls la benzophénone-3 et le propyle parabène ont été détectés dans au moins 50 % des échantillons de liquide amniotique. Pour ces composés les concentrations dosées dans l'urine maternelle et le liquide amniotique, recueillis le même jour, étaient positivement associés. Dans le cadre d'une simulation, nous avons estimé que 5 échantillons d’urine étaient nécessaires pour estimer correctement l’exposition aux produits chimiques ayant un ICC de 0,6, tandis que pour des produits chimiques avec un ICC de 0,15, environ 25 échantillons étaient nécessaires.Conclusion : Un seul échantillon d'urine était disponible pour évaluer les expositions des femmes de la cohorte EDEN et nos résultats peuvent être affectés d'un biais résultant d'erreurs de classification des expositions, notamment pour le bisphenol A pour lequel nous avons observé une variabilité importante des concentrations. Néanmoins, notre étude suggérait un effet de l'exposition prénatale à certains phénols sur la croissance pré- et post-natale.Background: Phthalates and phenols belong to the family of short half-life endocrine disruptors. Data regarding their effects on fetal and early post-natal growth in Human are sparse and suggest a sex-specific effect of some phenols on birth weight. One of the limitations of these studies is exposure assessment usually based on the measurement of their concentrations in a small number of maternal urine samples collected during pregnancy. Because of their low persistence in the organisms and the likely episodic nature of the exposures, urinary concentrations of these chemicals are likely to vary. Chemical concentrations measured in alternative matrix, such as amniotic fluid, might be a relevant dosimeter of fetal exposure.Objectives: Objectives of the thesis were: to study the potential effects of prenatal exposures to phenols and phthalates on pre- and early post-natal growth; to characterize variability in maternal urine concentrations of phenols throughout pregnancy and to compare phenol concentrations in amniotic fluid to those measured in maternal urine collected same day; to characterize the impact of increasing the number of measurements to estimate exposure on bias and statistical power of epidemiological studies.Methods: Associations between phenols, phthalates and growth were studied among a subsample of pregnant women of the French EDEN cohort delivered boys (n =520). We measured fetal growth with ultrasound (three times during pregnancy) and birth measurements. We used standardized measures acquired between birth and 3 years of age to model postnatal growth. We measured biomarkers of phthalates and phenols in maternal urines collected once during pregnancy: 191 women were assessed in 2008 and 410 other women in 2012 (ntot = 601). Variability in phenol urine concentrations and relationship between concentrations measured in amniotic fluid and maternal urine collected on the same day were studied among 71 pregnant women presenting for an amniocentesis at the Mount Sinai Medical Center (NY, USA). Maternal urine was collected at the time of the amniocentesis appointment, and on two subsequent occasions. Urine and amniotic fluid were analyzed for nine phenols.The study aiming at characterizing bias was based on simulated data. Results: Among the subsample of 191 pregnant women from the EDEN cohort, we observed a negative association between dichlorophenols and birth weight and a positive association between benzophenone-3 and birth weight. The associations with dichlorophenols were not replicated in the larger subsample of the EDEN cohort (n = 520). Triclosan concentration was negatively associated with all of the growth parameters measured at the third ultrasound examination (p ≤ 0.16) and with head circumference measured at birth (β = - 1.4 mm, 95% CI; -2.8; 0.0). All of the parabens were positively associated with weight at birth (p < 0.05). These associations remained in childhood for methyl- and propyl-parabens. Regarding the variability in phenol urinary concentrations during pregnancy, the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) ranged between 0.48 and 0.62 for all phenols except bisphenol A (ICC = 0.11). Only benzophenone-3 and propylparaben were detectable in at least half of the amniotic fluid samples; for these phenols, concentrations in maternal urine and amniotic fluid were positively associated. In a simulation study, we estimated that 5 samples will be needed to correctly estimate exposure to chemicals with ICC of 0.6, while for chemicals with ICC of 0.15 around 25 samples would be needed.Conclusion: We only had spot urine sample to assess exposure in the EDEN cohort and findings may be affected by exposure misclassification, especially for bisphenol A for which we observed high variability in urine concentrations. Nevertheless, our study lends support to a potential effect of prenatal exposure to some phenols on pre- and early post-natal growth
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