337 research outputs found

    Perennial biomass cropping and use:Shaping the policy ecosystem in European countries

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    Demand for sustainably produced biomass is expected to increase with the need to provide renewable commodities, improve resource security, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in line with COP26 commitments. Studies have demonstrated additional environmental benefits of using perennial biomass crops (PBCs), when produced appropriately, as a feedstock for the growing bioeconomy, including utilisation for bioenergy (with or without carbon capture and storage). PBCs can potentially contribute to Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) (2023-27) objectives provided they are carefully integrated into farming systems and landscapes. Despite significant research and development (R&D) investment over decades in herbaceous and coppiced woody PBCs, deployment has largely stagnated due to social, economic and policy uncertainties. This paper identifies the challenges in creating policies that are acceptable to all actors. Development will need to be informed by measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) of greenhouse gas emissions reductions and other environmental, economic and social metrics. It discusses interlinked issues that must be considered in the expansion of PBC production: i) available land; ii) yield potential; iii) integration into farming systems; iv) R&D requirements; v) utilisation options; and vi) market systems and the socio-economic environment. It makes policy recommendations that would enable greater PBC deployment: 1) incentivise farmers and land managers through specific policy measures, including carbon pricing, to allocate their less productive and less profitable land for uses which deliver demonstrable greenhouse gas reductions; 2) enable GHG mitigation markets to develop and offer secure contracts for commercial developers of verifiable low carbon bioenergy and bio-products; 3) support innovation in biomass utilisation value chains; and 4) continue long-term, strategic R&D and education for positive environmental, economic and social sustainability impacts

    Perennial biomass cropping and use: Shaping the policy ecosystem in European countries

    No full text
    Abstract Demand for sustainably produced biomass is expected to increase with the need to provide renewable commodities, improve resource security and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in line with COP26 commitments. Studies have demonstrated additional environmental benefits of using perennial biomass crops (PBCs), when produced appropriately, as a feedstock for the growing bioeconomy, including utilisation for bioenergy (with or without carbon capture and storage). PBCs can potentially contribute to Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) (2023–27) objectives provided they are carefully integrated into farming systems and landscapes. Despite significant research and development (R&D) investment over decades in herbaceous and coppiced woody PBCs, deployment has largely stagnated due to social, economic and policy uncertainties. This paper identifies the challenges in creating policies that are acceptable to all actors. Development will need to be informed by measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) of greenhouse gas emissions reductions and other environmental, economic and social metrics. It discusses interlinked issues that must be considered in the expansion of PBC production: (i) available land; (ii) yield potential; (iii) integration into farming systems; (iv) R&D requirements; (v) utilisation options; and (vi) market systems and the socio‐economic environment. It makes policy recommendations that would enable greater PBC deployment: (1) incentivise farmers and land managers through specific policy measures, including carbon pricing, to allocate their less productive and less profitable land for uses which deliver demonstrable greenhouse gas reductions; (2) enable greenhouse gas mitigation markets to develop and offer secure contracts for commercial developers of verifiable low‐carbon bioenergy and bioproducts; (3) support innovation in biomass utilisation value chains; and (4) continue long‐term, strategic R&D and education for positive environmental, economic and social sustainability impacts

    Building the Policy Ecosystem in Europe for Cultivation and Use of Perennial Biomass Crops

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    Perennial biomass crops (PBCs) can potentially contribute to all ten Common Agricultural Policy (2023-27) objectives and up to eleven of the seventeen UN Sustainable Development Goals. This paper discusses interlinked issues that must be considered in the expansion of PBC production: i) available land; ii) yield potential; iii) integration into farming systems; iv) research and development requirements; v) utilisation options; and vi) market systems and the socio-economic environment. The challenge to create development pathways that are acceptable for all actors, relies on measurement, reporting and verification of greenhouse gas emissions reduction in combination with other environmental, economic and social aspects. This paper makes the following policy recommendations to enable greater PBC deployment: 1) incentivise farmers and land managers through specific policy measures, including carbon pricing, to allocate their less productive and less profitable land for uses which deliver demonstrable greenhouse gas reductions; 2) enable greenhouse gas mitigation markets to develop and offer secure contracts for commercial developers of verifiable low carbon bioenergy and bio-products; 3) support innovation in biomass utilisation value chains; and 4) continue long-term, strategic research and development and education for positive environmental, economic and social sustainability impacts. © 2023 ETA-Florence Renewable Energies

    Building the Policy Ecosystem in Europe for Cultivation and use of Perennial Biomass Crops

    No full text
    Perennial biomass crops (PBCs) can potentially contribute to all ten Common Agricultural Policy (2023-27) objectives and up to eleven of the seventeen UN Sustainable Development Goals. This paper discusses interlinked issues that must be considered in the expansion of PBC production: i) available land; ii) yield potential; iii) integration into farming systems; iv) research and development requirements; v) utilisation options; and vi) market systems and the socio-economic environment. The challenge to create development pathways that are acceptable for all actors, relies on measurement, reporting and verification of greenhouse gas emissions reduction in combination with other environmental, economic and social aspects. This paper makes the following policy recommendations to enable greater PBC deployment: 1) incentivise farmers and land managers through specific policy measures, including carbon pricing, to allocate their less productive and less profitable land for uses which deliver demonstrable greenhouse gas reductions; 2) enable greenhouse gas mitigation markets to develop and offer secure contracts for commercial developers of verifiable low carbon bioenergy and bio-products; 3) support innovation in biomass utilisation value chains; and 4) continue long-term, strategic research and development and education for positive environmental, economic and social sustainability impacts.</p

    Building the Policy Ecosystem in Europe for Cultivation and use of Perennial Biomass Crops

    No full text
    Perennial biomass crops (PBCs) can potentially contribute to all ten Common Agricultural Policy (2023-27) objectives and up to eleven of the seventeen UN Sustainable Development Goals. This paper discusses interlinked issues that must be considered in the expansion of PBC production: i) available land; ii) yield potential; iii) integration into farming systems; iv) research and development requirements; v) utilisation options; and vi) market systems and the socio-economic environment. The challenge to create development pathways that are acceptable for all actors, relies on measurement, reporting and verification of greenhouse gas emissions reduction in combination with other environmental, economic and social aspects. This paper makes the following policy recommendations to enable greater PBC deployment: 1) incentivise farmers and land managers through specific policy measures, including carbon pricing, to allocate their less productive and less profitable land for uses which deliver demonstrable greenhouse gas reductions; 2) enable greenhouse gas mitigation markets to develop and offer secure contracts for commercial developers of verifiable low carbon bioenergy and bio-products; 3) support innovation in biomass utilisation value chains; and 4) continue long-term, strategic research and development and education for positive environmental, economic and social sustainability impacts.</p

    Community, state and market: Understanding historical water governance evolution in Central Asia

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    In Central Asia, community water governance institutions emerged and prevailed for a long time. By employing an analytical modelling approach using variants of the evolutionary Hawk-Dove game, we scrutinise three epochs' (pre-Tsarist, Tsarist and Soviet) coordination mechanisms and qualitatively compare them in the efficiency spectrum. We find that the pre-Tsarist community water governance setting, due to its synergetic and pluralistic aspects, was associated with higher efficiency than the Tsarist and Soviet periods' settings. The pre-Tsarist community arrangement linked irrigation duties with benefits. Our analytical model reveals how the Tsarist Russian regulation that replaced the election-sanctioning element with a de-facto system appointing the irrigation staff and paying them fixed wages corrupted the well-established pre-Tsarist decentralised water governance. We term this move the "Kaufman drift". Resulting inadequacies in the water governance could have been averted either by restoring the community mechanism's election-sanctioning attribute or else with an alternative approach such as privatising water resources. With the use of the "Krivoshein game," we produce an alternative scenario for the region where we envisage the potential consequences of the water privatisation. Modelling history might not disentangle the complex nature of water governance evolution fully, however, the heuristics we use in the analysis assist in guiding the diagnosis of the matter and its solution. This makes our study well-timed for contemporary Central Asia. The analyses assess current water management's chances to return to ancient principles of election-sanctioning and perspectives of private irrigation water rights

    Investment traps and resilience to shocks: An experimental study of Central Asian collective water governance

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    We theoretically and empirically investigate the investments of water users in a stylized local irrigation system. We model irrigation self‐management as an interdependent interaction of users in an evolutionary game and study the resilience of the irrigation system. The theoretical model implies multiple stable equilibria at different efficiency levels. Users may be trapped in a low level of collective investment or succeed by being locked in a high collective investment level, implying an irrigation system resilient against external shocks. The study seeks to empirically identify such lock‐ins in experimental interactions among Central Asian farmers. Furthermore, we inquire into whether a pre‐play cheap talk opportunity with peer‐monitoring or sanctioning treatments influence the self‐reinforcing dynamic. Our findings revealed several stable states. Among these states, there are both low and high levels of efficiency, which we measure in the size of public good. Communication among users results in higher collective investment levels. However, this does not guarantee the complete elimination of inferior conventions from best‐response play. Penalties crowded out the intrinsic motivation to cooperate as they reduced collective investment in both low‐ and high‐level equilibria. Our findings imply that institutional settings tailored to each community can improve resilience to climate‐driven perturbations in water resources.VolkswagenStiftung (Volkswagen Foundation) http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001663Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation (BMZ) http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/50110000166

    Identifying Agricultural Factor Productivity from Micro-data: A Review of Approaches with an Application to EU Countries

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    We examine the plausibility of four established and innovative identification strategies for agricultural production functions using farm-level panel datasets from five EU countries. Newly suggested proxy and dynamic panel approaches provide attractive conceptual improvements over received Within and duality models. Even so, empirical implementation of such advancements does not always live up to expectations. This is particularly true for the dynamic panel estimator, which mostly failed to identify reasonable elasticities for the (quasi-) fixed factors. Less demanding proxy approaches represent an interesting alternative for agricultural applications. In our EU sample, high production elasticities for materials prevail. Hence, improving the availability of working capital is the most promising way to increase agricultural productivity

    Determinants of corporate social responsibility among farms in Russia and Kazakhstan: a multilevel approach using survey data

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    Building on the institutional theory of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and research on CSR in the agriculture of post-Soviet transition economies, the present paper investigates the institutional, organizational and individual factors of farm engagement in CSR activities. Based on a survey of 800 farms in Russia and Kazakhstan, the interaction between the farms’ social role and multilevel institutional characteristics is addressed. We observe notable positive effects of local labor sourcing, insecure land use conditions and farm size (in terms of land area) on farms’ CSR engagement. Individually owned farms, as opposed to corporate farms, tend to be more CSR affine. In addition, we find weak statistical evidence of CSR engagement among the farms affiliated with agroholdings. We discuss the results in the context of different levels of CSR analysis
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