51 research outputs found

    A new species of Myrmecotypus Pickard-Cambridge spider (araneae: corinnidae: castianeirinae) from the Bolivian orocline, imitating one of the world's most aggressive ants

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    A new species of ant-mimicking spider of the subfamily Castianeirinae, Myrmecotypus rubrofemoratus Perger and Rubio, new species (Araneae: Corinnidae), is described from the Pre-Andean area of the Bolivian orocline. Adults of M. rubrofemoratus new species resemble the carpenter ant Camponotus femoratus Forel, 1907, which is considered one of the most aggressive ants in the world.Fil: Perger, Robert. No especifĂ­ca;Fil: Rubio, Gonzalo Daniel. Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria. Centro Regional Misiones. Estacion Experimental Agropecuaria Cerro Azul.; Argentina. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones CientĂ­ficas y TĂ©cnicas. Centro CientĂ­fico TecnolĂłgico Conicet - Nordeste; Argentin

    A Wolf in sheep’s clothing: The description of a fly resembling jumping spider of the genus Scoturius Simon, 1901 (Araneae: Salticidae: Huriini)

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    Fly resemblance in arthropods is much less common than e.g., resemblance to ants or wasps, and has been mainly observed in beetles. Putative fly mimicry in arachnids has been reported only from the jumping spider genus Saitis. However, recent literature has attributed the fly-resembling characteristics in Saitis to sexual signalling during courtship. The lack of observation of fly mimicry in spiders is not surprising as flies belong to the most important prey item group of spiders. In this study, a new fly-resembling species of the jumping spider tribe Huriini, Scoturius dipterioides sp. nov., from the pre-Andean Chiquitano forest at the Bolivian orocline is described and illustrated. The new species was tentatively placed into Scoturius because the epigynum has a single large elliptical opening. Scoturius dipterioides sp. nov. is distinguished from all other species of this tribe by a combination of following characteristics: epigynum with a large anterior elliptical atrium and initial portion of the copulation ducts dilated as a chamber (shared with Urupuyu); relatively joined copulation openings and short copulation ducts; kidney-shaped spermathecae, advanced at the atrium level. Several somatic features, two of them found exclusively in S. dipterioides sp. nov., increase the resemblance to flies. The Huriini are currently the only spider tribe that is suggested to feature fly mimics.Fil: Perger, Robert. ColecciĂłn Boliviana de Fauna; BoliviaFil: Rubio, Gonzalo Daniel. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones CientĂ­ficas y TĂ©cnicas. Centro CientĂ­fico TecnolĂłgico Conicet - Nordeste; Argentina. Instituto Nacional de TecnologĂ­a Agropecuaria. Centro Regional Misiones; Argentin

    Sympolymnia, a new genus of neotropical ant-like spider, with description of two new species and indirect evidence for transformational mimicry (araneae, salticidae, simonellini)

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    Sympolymnia, a new genus of myrmecomorph jumping spider belonging to the tribe Simonellini Peckham, Peckham & Wheeler, 1889, is described. It comprises five species: the type species, Sympolymnia lucasi (Taczanowski, 1871), comb. nov., Sympolymnia lauretta (Peckham & Peckham, 1892), comb. nov., Sympolymnia edwardsi (Cutler, 1985), comb. nov. and Sympolymnia shinahota sp. nov. and S. cutleri sp. nov. Sympolymnia lauretta (Peckham & Peckham, 1892) is recorded from Bolivia for the first time. Ontogenetic shifts of ant-resemblance are observed: Juveniles of S. cutleri sp. nov. and S. lauretta mimic black ants of the genus Crematogaster Lund, 1831, but those of S. shinahota sp. nov. most closely resemble Pseudomyrmex ethicus (Forel, 1911). Adults of S. cutleri sp. nov., S. lauretta and S. shinahota sp. nov. resemble the ant Camponotus sanctaefidei Dalla Torre, 1892 and orange adults of S. shinahota sp. nov. are putative mimics of Camponotus latangulus Roger, 1863.Fil: Perger, Robert. No especifĂ­ca;Fil: Rubio, Gonzalo Daniel. Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria. Centro Regional Misiones. Estacion Experimental Agropecuaria Cerro Azul.; Argentina. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones CientĂ­ficas y TĂ©cnicas. Centro CientĂ­fico TecnolĂłgico Conicet - Nordeste; Argentin

    Additions and deletions to the known Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) of Bolivia

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    An additional 137 species and two tribes are added to the cerambycid fauna of Bolivia while 12 species are deleted. This brings the total number of species known from Bolivia to 1,561. Comments and statistics regarding the growth of knowledge on the Bolivian Cerambycid fauna and species endemicity are included. Resumen. Ciento treinta y siete especies y dos tribus se añaden a la fauna conocida de cerambícidos en Bolivia, mientras que 12 especies se eliminan. Esto aumenta el numero total de la especies que se conocen en Bolivia a 1,561. Se incluyen comentarios y estadísticas acerca del incremento del conocimiento sobre la fauna boliviana de cerambícidos y tambien acerca de las especies endémicas

    On ant-like Synemosyna Hentz, 1846 spiders from Bolivia, with indirect evidence for polymorphic mimicry complexes (Araneae: Salticidae: Simonellini)

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    Three species of Synemosyna Hentz, 1846 were recorded during a survey in five Bolivian forest ecoregions: S. aurantiaca (Mello-Leitão, 1917), S. myrmeciaeformis (Taczanowski, 1871) and S. nicaraguaensis Cutler, 1993. Synemosyna aurantiaca and S. nicaraguaensis are recorded for Bolivia for the first time and the previously unknown male of S. nicaraguaensis is described and illustrated. The habitus and the genitalia of the female of S. myrmeciaeformis are illustrated for the first time. Synemosyna aurantiaca occurs in semi-deciduous forests south of 18° S and S. myrmeciaeformis in the Bolivian Yungas forest and ecoregions of the Amazon biome north of 16° S. Synemosyna nicaraguaensis is possibly an Andean species that enters into the moist Isthmian forests of Central America. Several potential mimicry complexes with two broad patterns were observed: sex-specific polychromatic mimicry (S. nicaraguaensis), and transformational mimicry involving smaller orange and larger brown to dark-brown forms (S. aurantiaca and S. myrmeciaeformis).Fil: Perger, Robert. Colección Boliviana de Fauna; BoliviaFil: Rubio, Gonzalo Daniel. Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria. Centro Regional Misiones. Estacion Experimental Agropecuaria Cerro Azul.; Argentina. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico Conicet - Nordeste; ArgentinaFil: Haddad, Charles R.. University of the Free State; Sudåfric

    Grismadox gen. nov., a new Neotropical genus of ant-resembling spiders (Araneae, Corinnidae, Castianeirinae), including the description of two new species from Bolivia and Paraguay

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    A new genus and two new species of ant-resembling castianeirine spiders are described from the Neotropics. Grismadox gen. nov. comprises four species: Grismadox baueri sp. nov., and Grismadox mazaxoides (Perger & Duperré, 2021) comb. nov. from Bolivia, and Grismadox karugua sp. nov. (type species) and Grismadox mboitui (Pett, 2021) comb. nov. from Paraguay. All species are diagnosed and the new species are described and illustrated. Available ecological data suggests that all four species are primarily epigeal and inhabit Grassland and savannah type habitats.Fil: Pett, Brogan L.. University of Exeter; Reino Unido. Colección Cientifíca Para La Tierra; Paraguay. Biodiversity Inventory For Conservation; BélgicaFil: Rubio, Gonzalo Daniel. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico Conicet - Nordeste; Argentina. Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria. Centro Regional Misiones. Estación Experimental Agropecuaria Cerro Azul; ArgentinaFil: Perger, Robert. Colección Boliviana de Fauna; Bolivi

    IberĂĄ Wetlands: diversity hotspot, valid ecoregion or transitional area? Perspective from a faunistic jumping spiders revision (Araneae: Salticidae)

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    In the present work, the fauna of jumping spiders or Salticidae of the IberĂĄ Wetlands was investigated. Patterns of species richness, composition and endemism in hygrophilous woodlands and savannah parklands in ten locations covering the IberĂĄ Wetlands were analyzed. Samples were obtained using four methods: garden vacuum, pit-fall trap, beating and litter extraction. 75 species were collected, representing one third of the known Argentine salticids. Six species are recorded for the first time for Argentina. The community structure of the investigated locations suggests that the high diversity of jumping spiders is the result of the mixing of species of adjacent ecoregions such as Humid Chaco, Atlantic forest and Espinal. The transitional character of IberĂĄ Wetlands, in combination with no endemism in nominally identified taxa, questions the ecoregion validity of IberĂĄ for jumping spiders. The importance of taxonomy and the use of mature spiders in ecological studies is discussed.Fil: Rubio, Gonzalo Daniel. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones CientĂ­ficas y TĂ©cnicas. Centro CientĂ­fico TecnolĂłgico Conicet - Nordeste. Instituto de BiologĂ­a Subtropical. Universidad Nacional de Misiones. Instituto de BiologĂ­a Subtropical; Argentina. Instituto Nacional de TecnologĂ­a Agropecuaria. Centro Regional Misiones; ArgentinaFil: Nadal, MarĂ­a Florencia. Universidad Nacional del Nordeste. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Naturales y Agrimensura. Laboratorio de BiologĂ­a de los ArtrĂłpodos; ArgentinaFil: Munevar Lozano, Ana Katerinne. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones CientĂ­ficas y TĂ©cnicas. Centro CientĂ­fico TecnolĂłgico Conicet - Nordeste. Instituto de BiologĂ­a Subtropical. Universidad Nacional de Misiones. Instituto de BiologĂ­a Subtropical; ArgentinaFil: Avalos, Gilberto. Universidad Nacional del Nordeste. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Naturales y Agrimensura. Laboratorio de BiologĂ­a de los ArtrĂłpodos; ArgentinaFil: Perger, Robert. .ColecciĂłn Boliviana de Fauna; Bolivi

    Seasonal iron fluxes and iron cycling in sandy bioirrigated sediments

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    Permeable sediments, which represent more than 50% of the continental shelves, have been largely neglected as a potential source of Fe in current global estimates of benthic dissolved iron (Fed) fluxes. There are open questions regarding the effects of a range of factors on Fed fluxes from these deposits, including seasonal dynamics and the role of bioirrigation. To address these gaps, we performed laboratory-based sediment incubation experiments with muddy sands during summer (21 °C) and winter (7 °C). We used bioirrigation mimics to inject overlying water into the permeable sediment with patterns resembling the bioirrigation activity of the prolific bioturbating polychaete, Clymenella torquata. Newly developed in-line Fe accumulators were used to estimate Fe fluxes with a recirculating set-up. We found high Fed fluxes from sandy sediments, especially in benthic chambers with simulated bioirrigation. In the winter fluxes reached >200 ”mol Fed m-2 d-1 at the onset of irrigation and then decreased over the course of a 13-day experiment while in the summer fluxes from irrigated sediments reached >100 ”mol Fed m-2 d-1 and remained high throughout a 7-day experiment. Despite different geochemical expressions of Fe-S cycling and resulting porewater Fed concentrations in winter and summer, large Fed fluxes were sustained during both seasons. Solid-phase and porewater concentration profiles showed that maximum concentrations of key constituents, including total solid-phase reactive Fe, and porewater Fed and ammonium, were located closer to the sediment water interface (SWI) in irrigated cores than in non-irrigated cores due to the upward advective transport of dissolved porewater constituents. This upward transport also facilitated Fed fluxes out of the sediments, especially during times of active pumping. Our study demonstrates the potential for large Fed fluxes from sandy sediments in both summer and winter, despite relatively low standing stocks of labile organic matter and porewater Fed. The primary driver of these high fluxes was advective porewater transport, in our study induced by the activity of infaunal organisms. These results suggest that permeable sediments, which dominate shelf regions, must be explicitly considered in global estimates of benthic Fed fluxes, and cannot be simply extrapolated from estimates based on muddy sediments

    A chemical survey of exoplanets with ARIEL

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    Thousands of exoplanets have now been discovered with a huge range of masses, sizes and orbits: from rocky Earth-like planets to large gas giants grazing the surface of their host star. However, the essential nature of these exoplanets remains largely mysterious: there is no known, discernible pattern linking the presence, size, or orbital parameters of a planet to the nature of its parent star. We have little idea whether the chemistry of a planet is linked to its formation environment, or whether the type of host star drives the physics and chemistry of the planet’s birth, and evolution. ARIEL was conceived to observe a large number (~1000) of transiting planets for statistical understanding, including gas giants, Neptunes, super-Earths and Earth-size planets around a range of host star types using transit spectroscopy in the 1.25–7.8 ÎŒm spectral range and multiple narrow-band photometry in the optical. ARIEL will focus on warm and hot planets to take advantage of their well-mixed atmospheres which should show minimal condensation and sequestration of high-Z materials compared to their colder Solar System siblings. Said warm and hot atmospheres are expected to be more representative of the planetary bulk composition. Observations of these warm/hot exoplanets, and in particular of their elemental composition (especially C, O, N, S, Si), will allow the understanding of the early stages of planetary and atmospheric formation during the nebular phase and the following few million years. ARIEL will thus provide a representative picture of the chemical nature of the exoplanets and relate this directly to the type and chemical environment of the host star. ARIEL is designed as a dedicated survey mission for combined-light spectroscopy, capable of observing a large and well-defined planet sample within its 4-year mission lifetime. Transit, eclipse and phase-curve spectroscopy methods, whereby the signal from the star and planet are differentiated using knowledge of the planetary ephemerides, allow us to measure atmospheric signals from the planet at levels of 10–100 part per million (ppm) relative to the star and, given the bright nature of targets, also allows more sophisticated techniques, such as eclipse mapping, to give a deeper insight into the nature of the atmosphere. These types of observations require a stable payload and satellite platform with broad, instantaneous wavelength coverage to detect many molecular species, probe the thermal structure, identify clouds and monitor the stellar activity. The wavelength range proposed covers all the expected major atmospheric gases from e.g. H2O, CO2, CH4 NH3, HCN, H2S through to the more exotic metallic compounds, such as TiO, VO, and condensed species. Simulations of ARIEL performance in conducting exoplanet surveys have been performed – using conservative estimates of mission performance and a full model of all significant noise sources in the measurement – using a list of potential ARIEL targets that incorporates the latest available exoplanet statistics. The conclusion at the end of the Phase A study, is that ARIEL – in line with the stated mission objectives – will be able to observe about 1000 exoplanets depending on the details of the adopted survey strategy, thus confirming the feasibility of the main science objectives.Peer reviewedFinal Published versio

    Enabling planetary science across light-years. Ariel Definition Study Report

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    Ariel, the Atmospheric Remote-sensing Infrared Exoplanet Large-survey, was adopted as the fourth medium-class mission in ESA's Cosmic Vision programme to be launched in 2029. During its 4-year mission, Ariel will study what exoplanets are made of, how they formed and how they evolve, by surveying a diverse sample of about 1000 extrasolar planets, simultaneously in visible and infrared wavelengths. It is the first mission dedicated to measuring the chemical composition and thermal structures of hundreds of transiting exoplanets, enabling planetary science far beyond the boundaries of the Solar System. The payload consists of an off-axis Cassegrain telescope (primary mirror 1100 mm x 730 mm ellipse) and two separate instruments (FGS and AIRS) covering simultaneously 0.5-7.8 micron spectral range. The satellite is best placed into an L2 orbit to maximise the thermal stability and the field of regard. The payload module is passively cooled via a series of V-Groove radiators; the detectors for the AIRS are the only items that require active cooling via an active Ne JT cooler. The Ariel payload is developed by a consortium of more than 50 institutes from 16 ESA countries, which include the UK, France, Italy, Belgium, Poland, Spain, Austria, Denmark, Ireland, Portugal, Czech Republic, Hungary, the Netherlands, Sweden, Norway, Estonia, and a NASA contribution
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