2,764 research outputs found

    Ashes for organic farming

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    Nowadays only eight percent of the cultivated field area is used for organic farming. The Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry has published the guidelines for the program of organic farming to diversify the supply and the consumption of organic food. The aim is to increase organically arable land to 20% by the year 2020.The demand of organic fertilizer products is strongly increasing. Interest in forestry by-products (ash, bark, zero fiber, etc.) for use in organic production has recently been exceptionally high. For example, development of pelleted fertilizers with zero fiber, ash and a nitrogen-containing fertilizer material is in progress.The ash fertilizer contains many valuable nutrients in fairly optimal ratios: these include phosphorus, potassium, manganese, magnesium, sulfur, zinc, calcium, boron, cobalt, copper and smaller amounts of other trace elements. Ashes contain phosphorus in large amounts, which is useful in organic production. More important nutrients than phosphorus and potassium are apparently trace elements. Neutralizing value of the ash is quite rapid comparedto many liming materials allowed in organic farming. The price quality ratio of ash as a liming material is also good.The use of clean wood ash is permissible in organic production. Peat and straw ash cannot be used in organic production because of the fact that in the EU peat is not considered a renewable resource. Restrictions include only inputs from outside of the organic farm

    Wealth effects in emerging market economies

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    We build a panel of 14 emerging economies to estimate the magnitude of housing, stock market, and money wealth effects on consumption. Using modern panel data econometric techniques and quarterly data for the period 1990:1-2008:2, we show that: (i) wealth effects are statistically significant and relatively large in magnitude; (ii) housing wealth effects tend to be smaller for Asian emerging markets while stock market wealth effects are, in general, smaller for Latin American countries; (iii) housing wealth effects have increased for Asian coutries in recent years; and (iv) consumption reacts stronger to negative than to positive shocks in housing and financial wealth. JEL Classification: E21, E44, D12Consumption, emerging markets, wealth e¤ects

    Wealth Effects in Emerging Market Economies

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    We build a panel of 14 emerging economies to estimate the magnitude of housing, stock market, and money wealth effects on consumption. Using modern panel data econometric techniques and quarterly data for the period 1990/1-2008/2, we show that; (i) wealth effects are statistically significant and relatively large in magnitude; (ii) housing wealth effects tend to be smaller for Asian emerging markets while stock markets wealth effects are, in general, smaller for Latin American countries; (iii) housing wealth effects have increased for Asian countries in recent years; and (iv) consumption reacts stronger to negative than to positive shocks in housing and financial wealth.wealth effects, consumption, emerging markets.

    Asset prices, Credit and Investment in Emerging Markets

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    We build a panel of 31 emerging economies to uncover the determinants of private investment growth in emerging markets. Using several econometric techniques and quarterly data for the period 1990:1-2008:3, we show that: (i) the GDP and the cost of capital are among the fundamental determinants of private investment; (ii) the equity price impacts positively and significantly on investment; (iii) financial factors (such as, credit and lending rate) play an important role on the dynamics of investment, in particular, for Asian and Latin American countries; (iv) investment growth exhibits substantial persistence and responds sluggishly to shocks; and (v) crises episodes magnify the negative response of investment.investment, credit, asset prices, emerging markets.

    Spectral analysis of the Forbush decrease of 13 July 1982

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    The maximum entropy method has been applied in the spectral analysis of high-energy cosmic-ray intensity during the large Forbush event of July 13, 1982. An oscillation with period of about 2 hours and amplitude of 1 to 3% was found to be present during the decrease phase. This oscillation can be related to a similar periodicity in the magnetospheric field. However, the variation was not observed at all neutron monitor stations. In the beginning of the recovery phase, the intensity oscillated with a period of about 10 hours and amplitude of 3%

    A facility for investigation of multiple hadrons at cosmic-ray energies

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    An experimental arrangement for studying multiple hadrons produced in high-energy hadron-nucleus interactions is under construction at the university of Turku. The method of investigation is based on the detection of hadrons arriving simultaneously at sea level over an area of a few square meters. The apparatus consists of a hadron spectrometer with position-sensitive detectors in connection with a small air shower array. The position resolution using streamer tube detectors will be about 10 mm. Energy spectra of hadrons or groups of simultaneous hadrons produced at primary energies below 10 to the 16th power eV can be measured in the energy range 1 to 2000 GeV

    Observations of cosmic-ray modulations in the fall, 1984

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    Modulation of cosmic-ray energy spectrum was studied by using the Turku double neutron monitor. The multiplicity region of detected neutrons produced by cosmic ray hadrons in the monitor was divided into seven categories corresponding to mean energies 0.1, 0.3, 1.0, 3.2, 8.6, 21, and 94 GeV of hadrons at sea level. Based on 24-hour frequencies, a statistical analysis showed that modulation of the intensity in all categories occurred during several periods in the fall 1984. The magnitude of the variation was a few per cent

    Investigation of cosmic rays in very short time scales

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    A fast databuffer system, where cosmic ray events in the Turku hadron spectrometer, including particle arrival times are recorded with time resolution of 100 ns was constructed. The databuffer can be read continuously by a microprocessor, which preanalyzes the data and transfers it to the main computer. The time span, that can be analyzed in every detail, is a few seconds. The high time resolution enables a study of time correlated groups of high energy particles. In addition the operational characteristics of the spectrometer can be monitored in detail
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