38 research outputs found

    Evaluation of a quality improvement intervention to reduce anastomotic leak following right colectomy (EAGLE): pragmatic, batched stepped-wedge, cluster-randomized trial in 64 countries

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    Background Anastomotic leak affects 8 per cent of patients after right colectomy with a 10-fold increased risk of postoperative death. The EAGLE study aimed to develop and test whether an international, standardized quality improvement intervention could reduce anastomotic leaks. Methods The internationally intended protocol, iteratively co-developed by a multistage Delphi process, comprised an online educational module introducing risk stratification, an intraoperative checklist, and harmonized surgical techniques. Clusters (hospital teams) were randomized to one of three arms with varied sequences of intervention/data collection by a derived stepped-wedge batch design (at least 18 hospital teams per batch). Patients were blinded to the study allocation. Low- and middle-income country enrolment was encouraged. The primary outcome (assessed by intention to treat) was anastomotic leak rate, and subgroup analyses by module completion (at least 80 per cent of surgeons, high engagement; less than 50 per cent, low engagement) were preplanned. Results A total 355 hospital teams registered, with 332 from 64 countries (39.2 per cent low and middle income) included in the final analysis. The online modules were completed by half of the surgeons (2143 of 4411). The primary analysis included 3039 of the 3268 patients recruited (206 patients had no anastomosis and 23 were lost to follow-up), with anastomotic leaks arising before and after the intervention in 10.1 and 9.6 per cent respectively (adjusted OR 0.87, 95 per cent c.i. 0.59 to 1.30; P = 0.498). The proportion of surgeons completing the educational modules was an influence: the leak rate decreased from 12.2 per cent (61 of 500) before intervention to 5.1 per cent (24 of 473) after intervention in high-engagement centres (adjusted OR 0.36, 0.20 to 0.64; P < 0.001), but this was not observed in low-engagement hospitals (8.3 per cent (59 of 714) and 13.8 per cent (61 of 443) respectively; adjusted OR 2.09, 1.31 to 3.31). Conclusion Completion of globally available digital training by engaged teams can alter anastomotic leak rates. Registration number: NCT04270721 (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov)

    Proposal and definition of an intelligent clinical decision support system applied to the screening and early diagnosis of breast cancer

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    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed tumor pathology on a global scale, being the leading cause of mortality in women. In light of this problem, screening programs have been implemented on the population at risk in the form of mammograms, starting in the 20th century. This has considerably reduced the associated deaths, as well as improved the prognosis of the patients who suffer from this disease. In spite of this, the evaluation of mammograms is not without certain variability and depends, to a large extent, on the experience and training of the medical team carrying out the assessment. With the aim of supporting the evaluation process of mammogram images and improving the diagnosis process, this work presents the design, development and proof of concept of a novel intelligent clinical decision support system, grounded on two predictive approaches that work concurrently. The first of them applies a series of expert systems based on fuzzy inferential engines, geared towards the treatment of the characteristics associated with the main findings present in mammograms. This allows the determination of a series of risk indicators, the Symbolic Risks, related to the risk of developing breast cancer according to the different findings. The second one implements a classification machine learning algorithm, which using data related to mammography findings as well as general patient information determines another metric, the Statistical Risk, also linked to the risk of developing breast cancer. These risk indicators are then combined, resulting in a new indicator, the Global Risk. This could then be corrected using a weighting factor according to the BI-RADS category, allocated to each patient by the medical team in charge. Thus, the Corrected Global Risk is obtained, which after interpretation can be used to establish the patient’s status as well as generate personalized recommendations. The proof of concept and software implementation of the system were carried out using a data set with 130 patients from a database from the School of Medicine and Public Health of the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The results obtained were encouraging, highlighting the potential use of the application, albeit pending intensive clinical validation in real environments. Moreover, its possible integration in hospital computer systems is expected to improve diagnostic processes as well as patient prognosis.Xunta de Galicia | Ref. ED481A-2020/03

    Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST) and its relationship with germline mutations

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    We present the case of a 38-year-old man with a history of abdominal paraganglioma 10 years ago, who consulted for hematemesis and asthenia of 5 days' evolution. An upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed where a raised submucosal lesion, about 2 cm, with ulceration on its surface, was observed at the corporal-antral junction. The CT scan revealed nodular thickening of the gastric wall at the level of the lesser curvature. After the resolution of his hematemesis, it was decided to intervene on the patient, performing a partial gastrectomyUniversidad de Málaga. Campus de Excelencia Internacional Andalucía Tec

    The cognitive and psychiatric subacute impairment in severe Covid-19.

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    Neurologic impairment persisting months after acute severe SARS-CoV-2 infection has been described because of several pathogenic mechanisms, including persistent systemic inflammation. The objective of this study is to analyze the selective involvement of the different cognitive domains and the existence of related biomarkers. Cross-sectional multicentric study of patients who survived severe infection with SARS-CoV-2 consecutively recruited between 90 and 120 days after hospital discharge. All patients underwent an exhaustive study of cognitive functions as well as plasma determination of pro-inflammatory, neurotrophic factors and light-chain neurofilaments. A principal component analysis extracted the main independent characteristics of the syndrome. 152 patients were recruited. The results of our study preferential involvement of episodic and working memory, executive functions, and attention and relatively less affectation of other cortical functions. In addition, anxiety and depression pictures are constant in our cohort. Several plasma chemokines concentrations were elevated compared with both, a non-SARS-Cov2 infected cohort of neurological outpatients or a control healthy general population. Severe Covid-19 patients can develop an amnesic and dysexecutive syndrome with neuropsychiatric manifestations. We do not know if the deficits detected can persist in the long term and if this can trigger or accelerate the onset of neurodegenerative diseases

    Gastrointestinal cancer: Relationship between histology and microbiota

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    Este trabajo fue presentado como comunicación tipo póster en el citado congreso.Objectives: Review of the published literature concerning the relationship between microbiome and gastrointestinal cancer. Methods: Present work is focused on systematic research in the most prominent biomedical databases finds relevant works in Pubmed and the library’s catalog of the University of Málaga (Jábega) of published journals in the last 5 years. Results: In this work, the mechanisms used by the microbiome to damage gastrointestinal epithelial cells and cause cancer are explained. Some of them are the dysbiosis, destruction of the mucosal barrier, chronic inflammation, damage caused by metabolites produced in the digestion and the direct attack of certain toxins to the cell’s DNA. These mechanisms adjust the immune response, by activation or inhibition using different cytokines. There is also a deeper look into several microorganisms and how they cause gastrointestinal cancer using toxins or virulence factors to activate them. Conclusions: The evidence found so far about the microbiota and gastrointestinal cancer is enough to assume the relationship between them, although there is much left to research. With these findings, it can be expected that in a near future certain microorganisms could be used for screening purposes, due to their increase in early stages of the tumor genesis and also, in a preventive way to try to eradicate them, even avoid cancer. Studies on the microbiota are hardly beginning, and results appear to be promising.Universidad de Málaga. Campus de Excelencia Internacional Andalucía Tech

    Oligodendrocyte metabolism throughout its differentiation: immunocytochemistry study and its impact in remyelination

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    Introduction: Oligodendrocytes (OL) role in demyelinating pathologies such as multiple sclerosis and other neurodegenerative diseases is only recently being subject of extensive research. While the genetic and molecular aspects have been thoroughly studied, their metabolism was overshadowed. In order to develop new therapies to promote remyelination of already damaged axons, we need to accurately describe how OL metabolism affects axon myelination and trophic support (1). The objective of this study is to obtain cytological evidence of the extent of both glycolytic metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation by immunocytochemistry throughout the development of OL. Methods: Oligodendroglia cells from post-natal mice cortices were obtained and cultured. A wide assortment of differentiation-stage-specific cell surface antigens, a glycolytic and an oxidative phosphorylation marker were combined in several immunofluorescences to study both metabolic pathways in each step of differentiation. Results: After analysing them under confocal microscopy and imaging software, we observed a constant upregulation of glycolytic metabolism throughout differentiation, while oxidative phosphorylation seemed to increase with differentiation to then decrease when oligodendrocytes achieved their final maturation stage. Conclusions: Therefore, oxidative phosphorylation may be crucial in the differentiation of precursors and glycolysis would thus be the preferred metabolic pathway for fully matured OL. [1] Rosko L. et al. Neuroscientist. 2019;25(4):334‚Äď43.Supported by UMA and IBIMA and funding from two ongoing projects: - ‚ÄėModulation of oligodendrocyte metabolism via blood vessel remodelling as target to promote remyelination‚Äô (funding by NEURATRIS). - ‚ÄėBlood vessel remodelling modulates remyelination by oligodendrocyte metabolic reprogramming‚Äô (funding by Arsep Foundation). Universidad de M√°laga. Campus de Excelencia Internacional Andaluc√≠a Tec

    Postoperative continuous positive airway pressure to prevent pneumonia, re-intubation, and death after major abdominal surgery (PRISM): a multicentre, open-label, randomised, phase 3 trial

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    Background: Respiratory complications are an important cause of postoperative morbidity. We aimed to investigate whether continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) administered immediately after major abdominal surgery could prevent postoperative morbidity. Methods: PRISM was an open-label, randomised, phase 3 trial done at 70 hospitals across six countries. Patients aged 50 years or older who were undergoing elective major open abdominal surgery were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive CPAP within 4 h of the end of surgery or usual postoperative care. Patients were randomly assigned using a computer-generated minimisation algorithm with inbuilt concealment. The primary outcome was a composite of pneumonia, endotracheal re-intubation, or death within 30 days after randomisation, assessed in the intention-to-treat population. Safety was assessed in all patients who received CPAP. The trial is registered with the ISRCTN registry, ISRCTN56012545. Findings: Between Feb 8, 2016, and Nov 11, 2019, 4806 patients were randomly assigned (2405 to the CPAP group and 2401 to the usual care group), of whom 4793 were included in the primary analysis (2396 in the CPAP group and 2397 in the usual care group). 195 (8\ub71%) of 2396 patients in the CPAP group and 197 (8\ub72%) of 2397 patients in the usual care group met the composite primary outcome (adjusted odds ratio 1\ub701 [95% CI 0\ub781-1\ub724]; p=0\ub795). 200 (8\ub79%) of 2241 patients in the CPAP group had adverse events. The most common adverse events were claustrophobia (78 [3\ub75%] of 2241 patients), oronasal dryness (43 [1\ub79%]), excessive air leak (36 [1\ub76%]), vomiting (26 [1\ub72%]), and pain (24 [1\ub71%]). There were two serious adverse events: one patient had significant hearing loss and one patient had obstruction of their venous catheter caused by a CPAP hood, which resulted in transient haemodynamic instability. Interpretation: In this large clinical effectiveness trial, CPAP did not reduce the incidence of pneumonia, endotracheal re-intubation, or death after major abdominal surgery. Although CPAP has an important role in the treatment of respiratory failure after surgery, routine use of prophylactic post-operative CPAP is not recommended

    Externado de Ginecología y Obstetricia - ME215 - 202102

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    Curso de la carrera de medicina, de car√°cter te√≥rico-pr√°ctico del ciclo 10, en el que los estudiantes presentan una historia cl√≠nica con su respectivo plan diagn√≥stico, terap√©utico y procedimientos en un paciente con una condici√≥n ginecol√≥gica u obst√©trica, a trav√©s de la realizaci√≥n de actividades de simulaci√≥n y metodolog√≠a activa en aula. El curso del externado de ginecolog√≠a y obstetricia, busca desarrollar las competencias espec√≠ficas de profesionalismo-sentido √©tico y legal y responsabilidad profesional(nivel 3). El externado de ginecolog√≠a y obstetricia, le permitir√° al estudiante plantear un adecuado tratamiento y plan de trabajo seg√ļn el diagn√≥stico de los principales problemas ginecol√≥gicos y obst√©tricos que le servir√°n en su vida futura profesional

    TIV - Arquitectura y Funcionalidad - AR308 - 202102

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    Descripci√≥n: El curso TIV - Arquitectura y funcionalidad, familiariza al estudiante con los requerimientos de la funci√≥n arquitect√≥nica. Si bien en todos los talleres el requerimiento funcional debe estar presente, pues es inherente a la arquitectura, este taller se concentra en esta tarea, enfatizando el correcto funcionamiento de sus espacios. El estudiante afronta una edificaci√≥n nueva de escala menor, en la que deban existir diversos accesos y circulaciones: P√ļblica, semi-p√ļblica, privada y de servicio. Esta red de circulaciones debe quedar adecuadamente resuelta. Los ambientes principales a los que dan acceso estas circulaciones, est√°n destinados a funciones debidamente definidas. Los requerimientos de ventilaci√≥n e iluminaci√≥n (asoleamiento) tambi√©n deben haber sido analizados y resueltos. A partir de un programa presentado por los docentes, el estudiante aprende a analizar los sectores del proyecto y los configuran en paquetes funcionales. Adem√°s, determina las necesidades de ubicaci√≥n que existe entre ellos y establece el car√°cter y la expresi√≥n que considera debe tener el proyecto en su aspecto exterior. En este taller se suelen hacer dise√Īos de proyectos de vivienda de mediana densidad, mercados y proyectos de tipolog√≠a de servicio comunal (centros culturales, estaciones de bomberos, mediatecas, peque√Īos museos y bibliotecas). Prop√≥sito: El TIV- arquitectura y funcionalidad ha sido dise√Īado con el prop√≥sito de permitir al futuro arquitecto desarrollar sus competencias de dise√Īo funcional, a trav√©s de la aplicaci√≥n de esquemas organizacionales, funcionales, sistemas ordenadores y la resoluci√≥n de un proyecto arquitect√≥nico. El curso contribuye a desarrollar la competencia espec√≠fica: Dise√Īo fundamentado (que corresponde a los criterios NAAB1: PC2, PC5 y SC5) en el nivel A1. Este curso tiene como requisito previo haber aprobado el Taller AR307 TIII - Arquitectura y entorno
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