2,564 research outputs found

    A small bacteriophage protein determines the hierarchy over co-residential jumbo phage in Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis

    Full text link
    Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis is the most widely used biopesticide against insects, including vectors of animal and human diseases. Among several extrachromosomal elements, this endospore-forming entomopathogen harbors two bacteriophages: a linear DNA replicon named GIL01 that does not integrate into the chromosome during lysogeny and a circular-jumbo prophage known as pBtic235. Here, we show that GIL01 hinders the induction of cohabiting prophage pBtic235. The GIL01-encoded small protein, gp7, which interacts with the host LexA repressor, is a global transcription regulator and represses the induction of pBtic235 after DNA damage to presumably allow GIL01 to multiply first. In a complex with host LexA in stressed cells, gp7 down-regulates the expression of more than 250 host and pBtic235 genes, many of which are involved in the cellular functions of genome maintenance, cell-wall transport, and membrane and protein stability. We show that gp7 homologs that are found exclusively in bacteriophages act in a similar fashion to enhance LexAÔÇÖs binding to DNA, while likely also affecting host gene expression. Our results provide evidence that GIL01 influences both its host and its co-resident bacteriophage

    Alterations in immunophenotype and metabolic profile of mononuclear cells during follow up in children with multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C)

    Full text link
    Introduction: Although children seem to be less susceptible to COVID-19, some of them develop a rare but serious hyperinflammatory condition called multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). While several studies describe the clinical conditions of acute MIS-C, the status of convalescent patients in the months after acute MIS-C is still unclear, especially the question of persistence of changes in the specific subpopulations of immune cells in the convalescent phase of the disease. Methods: We therefore analyzed peripheral blood of 14 children with MIS-C at the onset of the disease (acute phase) and 2 to 6 months after disease onset (post-acute convalescent phase) for lymphocyte subsets and antigen-presenting cell (APC) phenotype. The results were compared with six healthy age-matched controls. Results: All major lymphocyte populations (B cells, CD4 + and CD8+ T cells, and NK cells) were decreased in the acute phase and normalized in the convalescent phase. T cell activation was increased in the acute phase, followed by an increased proportion of ╬│/╬┤-double-negative T cells (╬│/╬┤ DN Ts) in the convalescent phase. B cell differentiation was impaired in the acute phase with a decreased proportion of CD21 expressing, activated/memory, and class-switched memory B cells, which normalized in the convalescent phase. The proportion of plasmacytoid dendritic cells, conventional type 2 dendritic cells, and classical monocytes were decreased, while the proportion of conventional type 1 dendritic cells was increased in the acute phase. Importantly the population of plasmacytoid dendritic cells remained decreased in the convalescent phase, while other APC populations normalized. Immunometabolic analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in the convalescent MIS-C showed comparable mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis rates to healthy controls. Conclusions: While both immunophenotyping and immunometabolic analyzes showed that immune cells in the convalescent MIS-C phase normalized in many parameters, we found lower percentage of plasmablasts, lower expression of T cell co-receptors (CD3, CD4, and CD8), an increased percentage of ╬│/╬┤ DN Ts and increased metabolic activity of CD3/CD28-stimulated T cells. Overall, the results suggest that inflammation persists for months after the onset of MIS-C, with significant alterations in some immune system parameters, which may also impair immune defense against viral infections

    Naravoslovna pismenost - za─Źnimo zgodaj

    Full text link
    ┬╗─îeprav naravoslovna pismenost samoumevno razvijamo pri naravoslovnih dejavnostih v vrtcu in v ┼íoli, se ka┼że, da pogosto pozabimo na njena elementa: odnos in raziskovanje. Slednja sta pomembna za ┼żivljenje tu in zdaj, ─Źeprav nista toliko izpostavljena v Kurikulumu za vrtce in v u─Źnih na─Źrtih. Zato velja, opolnomo─Źiti se z znanji o naravoslovni pismenosti, na─Źrtovati, implementirati dejavnosti v pedago┼íki proces in reflektirati ter poskusiti vedno in znova.┬ź (J. Pavlin

    Distribution of pharmaceutical products on the Croatian market

    No full text
    U radu se daje pregled teorijskih saznanja o farmaceutskoj industriji i sustavima plasmana farmaceutskih proizvoda u svijetu i Europi. Posebno se istra┼żuje plasman farmaceutskih proizvoda na hrvatskom tr┼żi┼ítu. Stroga zakonska regulativa koja prati proizvodnju, distribuciju i potro┼ínju lijekova daje posebnost tr┼żi┼ítu farmaceutskih lijekova, ┼íto ga razlikuje u odnosu na druga tr┼żi┼íta koja su pod utjecajem ponude i potra┼żnje. Osim toga, predstavlja barijeru ulasku inozemnih farmaceutskih proizvoda na hrvatsko tr┼żi┼íte. Zbog toga inozemne farmaceutske tvrtke koriste razli─Źite oblike akvizicije i strate┼íkog partnerstva kako bi mogle u─çi na hrvatsko tr┼żi┼íte. Horizontalne i vertikalne akvizicije prate znatna financijska ulaganja uz rizik njihova povrata ili ni┼że stope povrata u odnosu na ulazak na druga tr┼żi┼íta. Rizik poslovanja prati i kreditni i cjenovni rizik. U radu se dokazuje da veledrogerije u doma─çem vlasni┼ítvu ve─çi plasman farmaceutskih proizvoda u odnosu na veledrogerije u strate┼íkom partnerstvu s inozemnom veledrogerijom i u odnosu na veledrogerije u potpuno inozemnom vlasni┼ítvu. Razlog tome vidi se u strategijama koje primjenjuju a koje se odnose na vertikalnu i horizontalnu akviziciju unutar doma─çeg farmaceutskog sektora. Vertikalne i horizontalne akvizicije unutar nacionalnog farmaceutskog sektora omogu─çuju smanjenje kreditnog i cjenovnog rizika te pove─çanje obujma prodaje farmaceutskih proizvoda na doma─çem tr┼żi┼ítu.The paper provides an overview of theoretical knowledge about the pharmaceutical industry and pharmaceutical product placement systems in Europe and worldwide. The placement of pharmaceutical products on the Croatian market is investigated in particular. The strict legal regulation monitoring the production, distribution and consumption of medicinal products gives the market of pharmaceutical drugs a specificity which distinguishes it from other markets that are influenced by supply and demand. In addition, it acts like a barrier to the entry of foreign pharmaceutical products into the Croatian market. Consequently, foreign pharmaceutical companies use various forms of acquisition and strategic partnership in order to enter the Croatian market. Horizontal and vertical acquisitions are accompanied by significant financial investments with the risk of their return or lower rates of return compared to entering other markets. Business risk is accompanied by both credit and price risk. The paper shows that domestically owned pharmaceutical wholesalers have a higher placement of pharmaceutical products compared to both drugstores in strategic partnership with foreign pharmaceutical wholesalers and pharmaceutical wholesalers which are fully foreign-owned. The reason for this may be seen in the strategies they apply, which refer to vertical and horizontal acquisition within the domestic pharmaceutical sector. Vertical and horizontal acquisitions within the national pharmaceutical sector make it possible to reduce credit and price risk and increase the volume of sales of pharmaceutical products on the domestic market

    Microwave irradiation of alkali - activated metakaolin slurry

    Get PDF
    The building and civil engineering industry generates more than 40% of man-caused carbon emissions, consumes a lot of energy just to produce building materials, generates a large amount of waste through construction and demolition, and consumes a large amount of natural resources. One of the possible solutions is to use alkali-activated materials, which can use waste instead of raw materials and are produced at lower temperatures, with less energy consumption and in less time than traditional building products. All of this lowers the carbon footprint, which could be further reduced by the timely-short implementation of microwave irradiation in the early stages of alkali-activation synthesis. Therefore, metakaolin activated with Na-water glass in a theoretically optimal ratio was irradiated with microwaves of 2.45 GHz at powers of 100 W and 1000 W for 1 min, and compared to non-irradiated reference cured only at room conditions. Samples prepared at higher power, i.e., 1000 W, solidified completely and foamed. TG-DTA was performed on all samples in the early stages of curing, mechanical strengths were measured on 3 and 28-day- old samples, and leaching tests on aged samples

    Uncertainty quantification for a severe accident sequence in a SFP in the frame of the H-2020 project MUSA: First outcomes

    Get PDF
    International audienceThe Management and Uncertainties of Severe Accidents (MUSA) project, funded in HORIZON 2020 and coordinated by CIEMAT (Spain), aims at consolidating a harmonized approach for the analysis of uncertainties and sensitivities associated with Severe Accidents (SAs) focusing on Source Term (ST). In this framework, the objectives of the Innovative Management of Spent Fuel Pool Accidents (IMSFP ÔÇô WP6), led by IRSN (France), are to quantify and rank the uncertainties affecting accident analyses in a Spent Fuel Pool (SFP), to review existing and contemplated SA management measures and systems and to assess their possible benefits in terms of reduction of radiological onsequences.To quantify the propagation of the uncertainties of the input parameters to the output uncertainties of severe accident codes (ASTEC, MELCOR, RELAP/SCDAP), a diverse set of uncertainty quantification (UQ) tools (DAKOTA, RAVEN, SUNSET, SUSA) are used. The statistical framework used by the different UQ-tools is similar e.g. pure random (Monte Carlo) and Latin hypercube sampling (LHS).Fourteen partners from three different world regions are involved in the WP6 activities. The target of this paper is to describe the achievements during the first three years ofthe project. In a first part, a description is given of the SFP accidental scenario, of the key target variables and radionuclides chosen as ST Figure of Merits (FoM) and of theidentified uncertainty sources in models and input parameters. A key element when defining the SFP scenario has been the consideration (or not) of the reactor building,as it is expected to significantly affect analyses. In a second part, the first insights coming out from the calculation phase of the project are presented. The review of existing SA management measures is also exposed, as well as systems whose benefits will be assessed in the second phase of the project. Finally, challenges that arise from such an exercise are discussed, as well as major difficulties found when applying UQ methodologies to SFP scenarios and solutions adopted

    The importance of carbon and aramid fiber in damages of surf boards due to hard surface impact

    Full text link
    Danes na razli─Źnih podro─Źjih vse bolj strmimo k la┼żjim konstrukcijam z odli─Źnimi mehanskimi lastnostmi. V ta namen je potrebno oja─Źati tudi desko za jadranje z aramidnimi vlakni, da bi bila odpornej┼ía pri padcih na trde povr┼íine. Pri tem se je porodilo vpra┼íanje, kako mehanske lastnosti aramidnih vlaken, s katerimi ┼żelimo oja─Źati desko, vplivajo na togost deske in v kolik┼íni meri pripomorejo k odpornosti na udarce. Da bi odgovorili na zastavljeno vpra┼íanje, smo izvedli dva testa, in sicer upogibni ter udarni test, na katerih smo testirali ┼ítiri razli─Źne vzorce. Ve─Źina vzorcev je bila sestavljena iz polimerne matrice, ki smo jo oja─Źali s kombinacijo ogljikovih in aramidnih vlaken. Rezultati so pokazali, da se v primeru uporabe aramidnih vlaken togost deske zmanj┼ía, s pomo─Źjo udarnih testov pa smo ugotovili, da dodatek aramidnih vlaken pri izbranih debelinah kompozita izbolj┼ía udarno ┼żilavosti deske.Today, there is a growing trend toward lighter constructions with excellent mechanical properties. For this reason, it is also necessary to produce a windsurfing board, which would be reinforced with aramid fibers to increase its resistance during falls on hard surfaces. However, this raised the question of how the combination of the aramid and carbon fibers would affect the stiffness of the windsurfing board and to what extent the aramid fibers would contribute to the impact resistance. To solve this problem, two types of tests were performed, a bending test and an impact test, on which four different samples were examined. Most of the samples were prepared in combination with carbon fibers and aramid fibers in a polymer binder. The results showed that the use of aramid fibers reduces the stiffness of the board. Moreover, at selected composite thicknesses, the aramid fibers do contribute to impact toughness

    Influence of microwaves in the early stage of alkali activation on the mechanical strength of alkali-activated materials

    Get PDF
    This study focuses on the influence of microwave irradiation dosimetry on alkali-activated slurry in its early stages. The impact on the chemistry and mineralogy along with the mechanical properties were evaluated by changing the power of microwaves and their duration of exposure. This influenced the dissolution of amorphous content, diffusion, and self-assembly into an aluminosilicate network. The precursors used in this study were metakaolin, a non-waste material commonly used in geopolymerisation technology, and local fly ash and ladle furnace slag as secondary materials. Furthermore, they were chemically and mineralogically analysed, and their mixtures with NaOH and Na-water glass provided the optimal ratio of the amount of elements obtained using the pre-calculation approach. However, the potential extra addition of water was experimentally determined to allow complete wetting of the material and solid workability during moulding. Using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, the influence of water was further investigated in alkali-activated slag and fly ash irradiated with microwaves, which resulted in the highest values of mechanical strength in the dosimetry-mapping part of the analysis. In addition to the time dependence of the expected mechanical strength on the ageing of the alkali- activated material, the synthesised material exhibited a significant dependence on the dose of microwave irra- diation, which was different for every precursor as well as every mixture with different chemistries
    • ÔÇŽ