154 research outputs found

    Two coiled-coil domains of Chlamydia trachomatis IncA affect membrane fusion events during infection.

    Get PDF
    Chlamydia trachomatis replicates in a parasitophorous membrane-bound compartment called an inclusion. The inclusions corrupt host vesicle trafficking networks to avoid the degradative endolysosomal pathway but promote fusion with each other in order to sustain higher bacterial loads in a process known as homotypic fusion. The Chlamydia protein IncA (Inclusion protein A) appears to play central roles in both these processes as it participates to homotypic fusion and inhibits endocytic SNARE-mediated membrane fusion. How IncA selectively inhibits or activates membrane fusion remains poorly understood. In this study, we analyzed the spatial and molecular determinants of IncA\u27s fusogenic and inhibitory functions. Using a cell-free membrane fusion assay, we found that inhibition of SNARE-mediated fusion requires IncA to be on the same membrane as the endocytic SNARE proteins. IncA displays two coiled-coil domains showing high homology with SNARE proteins. Domain swap and deletion experiments revealed that although both these domains are capable of independently inhibiting SNARE-mediated fusion, these two coiled-coil domains cooperate in mediating IncA multimerization and homotypic membrane interaction. Our results support the hypothesis that Chlamydia employs SNARE-like virulence factors that positively and negatively affect membrane fusion and promote infection

    Structural basis for the homotypic fusion of chlamydial inclusions by the SNARE-like protein IncA.

    Get PDF
    Many intracellular bacteria, including Chlamydia, establish a parasitic membrane-bound organelle inside the host cell that is essential for the bacteria\u27s survival. Chlamydia trachomatis forms inclusions that are decorated with poorly characterized membrane proteins known as Incs. The prototypical Inc, called IncA, enhances Chlamydia pathogenicity by promoting the homotypic fusion of inclusions and shares structural and functional similarity to eukaryotic SNAREs. Here, we present the atomic structure of the cytoplasmic domain of IncA, which reveals a non-canonical four-helix bundle. Structure-based mutagenesis, molecular dynamics simulation, and functional cellular assays identify an intramolecular clamp that is essential for IncA-mediated homotypic membrane fusion during infection

    Management of Rare Case of Massive Bleeding from a Right-sided Colonic Diverticular Disease

    Get PDF
    Bleeding related to diverticular disease occurs in 10 to 30% of patients suffering from diverticular disease. The source is more frequently in the right colon. Typically, the bleeding is massive, with 15% of the patients admitted in shock [1]. We report a case of 70 year old man presented to the emergency department with sudden rectal bleeding in need of transfusion, just after two days of non steroidal anti-inflammatory auto medication for joint pain. The patient treated with oral anticoagulation for coronary artery disease. Laboratory findings revealed very low hemoglobin of 5,1 g/dl when the patient presented at hospital. The esophagogastroduodenoscopy was normal. An abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed contrast extravasation in the ascending colon from a solitary diverticulum .we didn’t have the ability to perform an artery embolization or an endoscopic treatment especially because the patient was shocked. So the patient was operated and a right hemicolectomy was performed. After the surgery he recovered quickly and no bleeding recurred

    Chlamydia Trachomatis Subverts Alpha-Actinins To Stabilize Its Inclusion

    Get PDF
    Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading cause of sexually transmitted bacterial disease and a global health burden. As an obligate intracellular pathogen, Chlamydia has evolved many strategies to manipulate its host and establish its intracellular niche called the inclusion. C. trachomatis reorganizes the host actin cytoskeleton to form scaffolds around the inclusion and reinforce the growing inclusion membrane. To control the kinetics and formation of actin scaffolds, Chlamydia expresses the effector InaC/CT813, which activates the host GTPase RhoA. Here, we have discovered that InaC stabilizes actin scaffolds through the host actin cross-linking proteins α-actinins 1 and 4. We demonstrate that α-actinins are recruited to the inclusion membrane in an InaC-dependent manner and associate with actin scaffolds that envelop the inclusion. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of α-actinins differentially regulate the frequency of actin scaffolds and impair inclusion stability, leaving them susceptible to rupture and to nonionic detergent extraction. Overall, our data identify new host effectors that are subverted by InaC to stabilize actin scaffolds, highlighting the versatility of InaC as a key regulator of the host cytoskeletal network during Chlamydia infection

    Chlamydia Hijacks ARF GTPases To Coordinate Microtubule Posttranslational Modifications and Golgi Complex Positioning.

    Get PDF
    The intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis develops in a parasitic compartment called the inclusion. Posttranslationally modified microtubules encase the inclusion, controlling the positioning of Golgi complex fragments around the inclusion. The molecular mechanisms by which Chlamydia coopts the host cytoskeleton and the Golgi complex to sustain its infectious compartment are unknown. Here, using a genetically modified Chlamydia strain, we discovered that both posttranslationally modified microtubules and Golgi complex positioning around the inclusion are controlled by the chlamydial inclusion protein CT813/CTL0184/InaC and host ARF GTPases. CT813 recruits ARF1 and ARF4 to the inclusion membrane, where they induce posttranslationally modified microtubules. Similarly, both ARF isoforms are required for the repositioning of Golgi complex fragments around the inclusion. We demonstrate that CT813 directly recruits ARF GTPases on the inclusion membrane and plays a pivotal role in their activation. Together, these results reveal that Chlamydia uses CT813 to hijack ARF GTPases to couple posttranslationally modified microtubules and Golgi complex repositioning at the inclusion.IMPORTANCEChlamydia trachomatis is an important cause of morbidity and a significant economic burden in the world. However, how Chlamydia develops its intracellular compartment, the so-called inclusion, is poorly understood. Using genetically engineered Chlamydia mutants, we discovered that the effector protein CT813 recruits and activates host ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1) and ARF4 to regulate microtubules. In this context, CT813 acts as a molecular platform that induces the posttranslational modification of microtubules around the inclusion. These cages are then used to reposition the Golgi complex during infection and promote the development of the inclusion. This study provides the first evidence that ARF1 and ARF4 play critical roles in controlling posttranslationally modified microtubules around the inclusion and that Chlamydia trachomatis hijacks this novel function of ARF to reposition the Golgi complex

    A t-SNARE of the endocytic pathway must be activated for fusion

    Get PDF
    The t-SNARE in a late Golgi compartment (Tlg2p) syntaxin is required for endocytosis and localization of cycling proteins to the late Golgi compartment in yeast. We show here that Tlg2p assembles with two light chains, Tlg1p and Vti1p, to form a functional t-SNARE that mediates fusion, specifically with the v-SNAREs Snc1p and Snc2p. In vitro, this t-SNARE is inert, locked in a nonfunctional state, unless it is activated for fusion. Activation can be mediated by a peptide derived from the v-SNARE, which likely bypasses additional regulatory proteins in the cell. Locking t-SNAREs creates the potential for spatial and temporal regulation of fusion by signaling processes that unleash their fusion capacity

    Intracellular Bacteria Encode Inhibitory SNARE-Like Proteins

    Get PDF
    Pathogens use diverse molecular machines to penetrate host cells and manipulate intracellular vesicular trafficking. Viruses employ glycoproteins, functionally and structurally similar to the SNARE proteins, to induce eukaryotic membrane fusion. Intracellular pathogens, on the other hand, need to block fusion of their infectious phagosomes with various endocytic compartments to escape from the degradative pathway. The molecular details concerning the mechanisms underlying this process are lacking. Using both an in vitro liposome fusion assay and a cellular assay, we showed that SNARE-like bacterial proteins block membrane fusion in eukaryotic cells by directly inhibiting SNARE-mediated membrane fusion. More specifically, we showed that IncA and IcmG/DotF, two SNARE-like proteins respectively expressed by Chlamydia and Legionella, inhibit the endocytic SNARE machinery. Furthermore, we identified that the SNARE-like motif present in these bacterial proteins encodes the inhibitory function. This finding suggests that SNARE-like motifs are capable of specifically manipulating membrane fusion in a wide variety of biological environments. Ultimately, this motif may have been selected during evolution because it is an efficient structural motif for modifying eukaryotic membrane fusion and thus contribute to pathogen survival

    Cross Talk between ARF1 and RhoA Coordinates the Formation of Cytoskeletal Scaffolds during Chlamydia Infection

    Get PDF
    Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterium that has developed sophisticated mechanisms to survive inside its infectious compartment, the inclusion. Notably, Chlamydia weaves an extensive network of microtubules (MTs) and actin filaments to enable interactions with host organelles and enhance its stability. Despite the global health and economic burden caused by this sexually transmitted pathogen, little is known about how actin and MT scaffolds are integrated into an increasingly complex virulence system. Previously, we established that the chlamydial effector InaC interacts with ARF1 to stabilize MTs. We now demonstrate that InaC regulates RhoA to control actin scaffolds. InaC relies on cross talk between ARF1 and RhoA to coordinate MTs and actin, where the presence of RhoA downregulates stable MT scaffolds and ARF1 activation inhibits actin scaffolds. Understanding how Chlamydia hijacks complex networks will help elucidate how this clinically significant pathogen parasitizes its host and reveal novel cellular signaling pathways. IMPORTANCE Chlamydia trachomatis is a major cause of human disease worldwide. The ability of Chlamydia to establish infection and cause disease depends on the maintenance of its parasitic niche, called the inclusion. To accomplish this feat, Chlamydia reorganizes host actin and microtubules around the inclusion membrane. How Chlamydia orchestrates these complex processes, however, is largely unknown. Here, we discovered that the chlamydial effector InaC activates Ras homolog family member A (RhoA) to control the formation of actin scaffolds around the inclusion, an event that is critical for inclusion stability. Furthermore, InaC directs the kinetics of actin and posttranslationally modified microtubule scaffolds by mediating cross talk between the GTPases that control these cytoskeletal elements, RhoA and ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1). The precise timing of these events is essential for the maintenance of the inclusion. Overall, this study provides the first evidence of ARF1-RhoA-mediated cross talk by a bacterial pathogen to coopt the host cytoskeleton

    i-SNAREs: inhibitory SNAREs that fine-tune the specificity of membrane fusion

    Get PDF
    A new functional class of SNAREs, designated inhibitory SNAREs (i-SNAREs), is described here. An i-SNARE inhibits fusion by substituting for or binding to a subunit of a fusogenic SNAREpin to form a nonfusogenic complex. Golgi-localized SNAREs were tested for i-SNARE activity by adding them as a fifth SNARE together with four other SNAREs that mediate Golgi fusion reactions. A striking pattern emerges in which certain subunits of the cis-Golgi SNAREpin function as i-SNAREs that inhibit fusion mediated by the trans-Golgi SNAREpin, and vice versa. Although the opposing distributions of the cis- and trans-Golgi SNAREs themselves could provide for a countercurrent fusion pattern in the Golgi stack, the gradients involved would be strongly sharpened by the complementary countercurrent distributions of the i-SNAREs
    corecore