5,591 research outputs found

    Inverted-S Antenna with Wideband Circular Polarization and Wide Axial Ratio Beamwidth

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    A novel broadband circularly polarized (CP) antenna with wide axial ratio (AR) beamwidth is proposed. It is composed of two curved arms shaped like an inverted “S”. The mechanisms of wideband CP operation and wide AR beamwidth are explained. To validate the concept, a prototype at C-band is manufactured and measured. Experimental results confirm that the antenna achieves an impedance bandwidth of 63% and a CP bandwidth of 42%. Furthermore, maximum AR beamwidth of 140o is achieved and wide AR beamwidth can be maintained in a frequency bandwidth of 35% in nearly all elevation planes. In addition, the antenna has the advantage of being easily extended to arrays. A 4-element array using the proposed antenna is investigated through both simulations and experiments, and achieves 60% CP bandwidth and wide AR beamwidth. The proposed inverted-S antenna can realize wide CP bandwidth and wide AR beamwidth, and is easy to form wideband CP arrays

    Planar Ultra-Thin Small Beam-Switching Antenna

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    A novel planar ultrathin electronically steerable parasitic array radiator (ESPAR) is presented in this paper. Through theoretical analysis of the electric fields of orthogonally crossed dipoles in phase quadrature, it is found that the crossed dipoles radiate linearly polarized wave with a rotational electric field in the azimuth plane. This characteristic is then utilized to design a planar crossed dipole ESPAR, termed as “CD-ESPAR.” Furthermore, a simple but effective impedance matching method is also proposed and analyzed. To verify these concepts, a prototype with compact size and very low profile (0.42 ?0 × 0.42 ?0 ×0.006 ?0) resonating at 2.3 GHz is designed, fabricated, and measured. The measured results indicate that the proposed antenna achieves more than 17.8% impedance bandwidth and can produce four directional beams, covering the whole azimuth plane. Owing to its planar ultrathin structure, compact size, electronically beam-switching ability, low power, and low cost characteristics, it is promising for applications in wireless communication

    Wideband Loop Antenna with Electronically Switchable Circular Polarization

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    This paper presents a novel printed antenna with wide bandwidth, high gain and reconfigurable circular polarizations. A loop antenna is printed on both sides of a dielectric substrate: a dual PIN diode loaded loop is printed on one side while a dual gap loaded smaller loop is printed on the other side. By controlling the ON/OFF states of the PIN diodes, the polarization of the proposed antenna can be switched electronically to right-hand circular polarization (RHCP) or left-hand circular polarization (LHCP) over a wideband frequency range. A prototype is fabricated and measured to verify the performance of the antenna. The measured results indicate that the antenna achieves an impedance bandwidth of over 30%, and a 3-dB axial ratio (AR) bandwidth of 12.7% and 14.9% for RHCP and LHCP, respectively. The measured gain is around 8 dBic for LHCP state and 7 dBic for RHCP state. Due to advantages of wide overlapped bandwidth, simple feeding structure and high gain, this antenna is promising for applications in dual-CP wireless communication systems

    The chiral phase transition in charge ordered 1T-TiSe2

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    It was recently discovered that the low temperature, charge ordered phase of 1T-TiSe2 has a chiral character. This unexpected chirality in a system described by a scalar order parameter could be explained in a model where the emergence of relative phase shifts between three charge density wave components breaks the inversion symmetry of the lattice. Here, we present experimental evidence for the sequence of phase transitions predicted by that theory, going from disorder to non-chiral and finally to chiral charge order. Employing X-ray diffraction, specific heat, and electrical transport measurements, we find that a novel phase transition occurs ~7 K below the main charge ordering transition in TiSe2, in agreement with the predicted hierarchy of charge ordered phases.Comment: 5 pages, 3 figures; includes additional experimental and theoretical results; fixed typo

    Inference With Interference Between Units in an fMRI Experiment of Motor Inhibition

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    An experimental unit is an opportunity to randomly apply or withhold a treatment. There is interference between units if the application of the treatment to one unit may also affect other units. In cognitive neuroscience, a common form of experiment presents a sequence of stimuli or requests for cognitive activity at random to each experimental subject and measures biological aspects of brain activity that follow these requests. Each subject is then many experimental units, and interference between units within an experimental subject is, likely, in part because the stimuli follow one another quickly and in part because human subjects learn or become experienced or primed or bored as the experiment proceeds. We use a recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment concerned with the inhibition of motor activity to illustrate and further develop recently proposed methodology for inference in the presence of interference. A simulation evaluates the power of competing procedures

    First Galaxy-Galaxy Lensing Measurement of Satellite Halo Mass in the CFHT Stripe-82 Survey

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    We select satellite galaxies from the galaxy group catalog constructed with the SDSS spectroscopic galaxies and measure the tangential shear around these galaxies with source catalog extracted from CFHT/MegaCam Stripe-82 Survey to constrain the mass of subhalos associated with them. The lensing signal is measured around satellites in groups with masses in the range [10^{13}, 5x10^{14}]h^{-1}M_{sun}, and is found to agree well with theoretical expectation. Fitting the data with a truncated NFW profile, we obtain an average subhalo mass of log M_{sub}= 11.68 \pm 0.67 for satellites whose projected distances to central galaxies are in the range [0.1, 0.3] h^{-1}Mpc, and log M_{sub}= 11.68 \pm 0.76 for satellites with projected halo-centric distance in [0.3, 0.5] h^{-1}Mpc. The best-fit subhalo masses are comparable to the truncated subhalo masses assigned to satellite galaxies using abundance matching and about 5 to 10 times higher than the average stellar mass of the lensing satellite galaxies.Comment: 7 pages, 4 figures, accepted by MNRA

    The stellar halo of isolated central galaxies in the Hyper Suprime-Cam imaging survey

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    We study the faint stellar halo of isolated central galaxies, by stacking galaxy images in the HSC survey and accounting for the residual sky background sampled with random points. The surface brightness profiles in HSC rr-band are measured for a wide range of galaxy stellar masses (9.2<log10M/M<11.49.2<\log_{10}M_\ast/M_\odot<11.4) and out to 120 kpc. Failing to account for the stellar halo below the noise level of individual images will lead to underestimates of the total luminosity by 15%\leq 15\%. Splitting galaxies according to the concentration parameter of their light distributions, we find that the surface brightness profiles of low concentration galaxies drop faster between 20 and 100 kpc than those of high concentration galaxies. Albeit the large galaxy-to-galaxy scatter, we find a strong self-similarity of the stellar halo profiles. They show unified forms once the projected distance is scaled by the halo virial radius. The colour of galaxies is redder in the centre and bluer outside, with high concentration galaxies having redder and more flattened colour profiles. There are indications of a colour minimum, beyond which the colour of the outer stellar halo turns red again. This colour minimum, however, is very sensitive to the completeness in masking satellite galaxies. We also examine the effect of the extended PSF in the measurement of the stellar halo, which is particularly important for low mass or low concentration galaxies. The PSF-corrected surface brightness profile can be measured down to \sim31 mag/arcsec2\mathrm{mag}/\mathrm{arcsec}^2 at 3-σ\sigma significance. PSF also slightly flattens the measured colour profiles.Comment: accepted by MNRAS - Significant changes have been made compared with the first version, including discussions on the extended PSF wings, robustness of our results to source detection and masking thresholds and more detailed investigations on the indications of positive colour gradient

    CNTF Induces Regeneration of Cone Outer Segments in a Rat Model of Retinal Degeneration

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    Cone photoreceptors are responsible for color and central vision. In the late stage of retinitis pigmentosa and in geographic atrophy associated with age-related macular degeneration, cone degeneration eventually causes loss of central vision. In the present work, we investigated cone degeneration secondary to rod loss in the S334ter-3 transgenic rats carrying the rhodopsin mutation S334ter.Recombinant human ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) was delivered by intravitreal injection to the left eye of an animal, and vehicle to the right eye. Eyes were harvested 10 days after injection. Cone outer segments (COS), and cell bodies were identified by staining with peanut agglutinin and cone arrestin antibodies in whole-mount retinas. For long-term treatment with CNTF, CNTF secreting microdevices were implanted into the left eyes at postnatal day (PD) 20 and control devices into the right eyes. Cone ERG was recorded at PD 160 from implanted animals. Our results demonstrate that an early sign of cone degeneration is the loss of COS, which concentrated in many small areas throughout the retina and is progressive with age. Treatment with CNTF induces regeneration of COS and thus reverses the degeneration process in early stages of cone degeneration. Sustained delivery of CNTF prevents cones from degeneration and helps them to maintain COS and light-sensing function.Loss of COS is an early sign of secondary cone degeneration whereas cell death occurs much later. At early stages, degenerating cones are capable of regenerating outer segments, indicating the reversal of the degenerative process. Sustained delivery of CNTF preserves cone cells and their function. Long-term treatment with CNTF starting at early stages of degeneration could be a viable strategy for preservation of central vision for patients with retinal degenerations

    Discovery of Selective Inhibitors Against EBNA1 via High Throughput In Silico Virtual Screening

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    Background: Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) latent infection is associated with several human malignancies and is a causal agent of lymphoproliferative diseases during immunosuppression. While inhibitors of herpesvirus DNA polymerases, like gancyclovir, reduce EBV lytic cycle infection, these treatments have limited efficacy for treating latent infection. EBNA1 is an EBVencoded DNA-binding protein required for viral genome maintenance during latent infection. Methodology: Here, we report the identification of a new class of small molecules that inhibit EBNA1 DNA binding activity. These compounds were identified by virtual screening of 90,000 low molecular mass compounds using computational docking programs with the solved crystal structure of EBNA1. Four structurally related compounds were found to inhibit EBNA1-DNA binding in biochemical assays with purified EBNA1 protein. Compounds had a range of 20–100 mM inhibition of EBNA1 in fluorescence polarization assays and were further validated for inhibition using electrophoresis mobility shift assays. These compounds exhibited no significant inhibition of an unrelated DNA binding protein. Three of these compounds inhibited EBNA1 transcription activation function in cell-based assays and reduced EBV genome copy number when incubated with a Burkitt lymphoma cell line. Conclusions: These experiments provide a proof-of-principle that virtual screening can be used to identify specific inhibitor

    Genome-wide analysis of regulatory proteases sequences identified through bioinformatics data mining in Taenia solium

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    Background Cysticercosis remains a major neglected tropical disease of humanity in many regions, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, Central America and elsewhere. Owing to the emerging drug resistance and the inability of current drugs to prevent re-infection, identification of novel vaccines and chemotherapeutic agents against Taenia solium and related helminth pathogens is a public health priority. The T. solium genome and the predicted proteome were reported recently, providing a wealth of information from which new interventional targets might be identified. In order to characterize and classify the entire repertoire of protease-encoding genes of T. solium, which act fundamental biological roles in all life processes, we analyzed the predicted proteins of this cestode through a combination of bioinformatics tools. Functional annotation was performed to yield insights into the signaling processes relevant to the complex developmental cycle of this tapeworm and to highlight a suite of the proteases as potential intervention targets. Results Within the genome of this helminth parasite, we identified 200 open reading frames encoding proteases from five clans, which correspond to 1.68% of the 11,902 protein-encoding genes predicted to be present in its genome. These proteases include calpains, cytosolic, mitochondrial signal peptidases, ubiquitylation related proteins, and others. Many not only show significant similarity to proteases in the Conserved Domain Database but have conserved active sites and catalytic domains. KEGG Automatic Annotation Server (KAAS) analysis indicated that ~60% of these proteases share strong sequence identities with proteins of the KEGG database, which are involved in human disease, metabolic pathways, genetic information processes, cellular processes, environmental information processes and organismal systems. Also, we identified signal peptides and transmembrane helices through comparative analysis with classes of important regulatory proteases. Phylogenetic analysis using Bayes approach provided support for inferring functional divergence among regulatory cysteine and serine proteases. Conclusion Numerous putative proteases were identified for the first time in T. solium, and important regulatory proteases have been predicted. This comprehensive analysis not only complements the growing knowledge base of proteolytic enzymes, but also provides a platform from which to expand knowledge of cestode proteases and to explore their biochemistry and potential as intervention targets
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