91 research outputs found

    sj-docx-1-cjk-10.1177_20543581231162218 – Supplemental material for Magnitude of the Potential Screening Gap for Fabry Disease in Manitoba: A Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Study

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    Supplemental material, sj-docx-1-cjk-10.1177_20543581231162218 for Magnitude of the Potential Screening Gap for Fabry Disease in Manitoba: A Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Study by Reid H. Whitlock, Mohammad Nour-Mohammadi, Sarah Curtis, Paul Komenda, Clara Bohm, David Collister, Navdeep Tangri and Claudio Rigatto in Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease</p

    Magnitude of the Potential Screening Gap for Fabry Disease in Manitoba: A Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Study

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    Background: Fabry disease is a rare disorder caused by the deficient activity of α-galactosidase A (GLA) that often leads to organ damage. Fabry disease can be treated with enzyme replacement or pharmacological therapy, but due to its rarity and nonspecific manifestations, it often goes undiagnosed. Mass screening for Fabry disease is impractical; however, a targeted screening program for high-risk individuals may uncover previously unknown cases. Objective: Our objective was to use population-level administrative health databases to identify patients at high risk of Fabry disease. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Setting: Population-level health administrative databases housed at the Manitoba Centre for Health Policy. Patients: All residents of Manitoba, Canada, between 1998 and 2018. Measurements: We ascertained the evidence of GLA testing in a cohort of patients at high risk of Fabry disease. Methods: Individuals without a hospitalization or prescription indicative of Fabry disease were included if they had evidence of 1 of 4 high-risk conditions for Fabry disease: (1) ischemic stroke <45 years of age, (2) idiopathic hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, (3) proteinuric chronic kidney disease or kidney failure of unknown cause, or (4) peripheral neuropathy. Patients were excluded if they had known contributing factors to these high-risk conditions. Those who remained and had no prior GLA testing were assigned a 0% to 4.2% probability of having Fabry disease depending on their high-risk condition and sex. Results: After applying exclusion criteria, 1386 individuals were identified as having at least 1 high-risk clinical condition for Fabry disease in Manitoba. There were 416 GLA tests conducted during the study period, and of those, 22 were conducted in individuals with at least 1 high-risk condition. This leaves a screening gap of 1364 individuals with a high-risk clinical condition for Fabry disease in Manitoba who have not been tested. At the end of the study period, 932 of those individuals were still alive and residing in Manitoba, and if screened today, we expect between 3 and 18 would test positive for Fabry disease. Limitations: The algorithms we used to identify our patients have not been validated elsewhere. Diagnoses of Fabry disease, idiopathic hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and peripheral neuropathy were only available via hospitalizations and not physician claims. We were only able to capture GLA testing processed through public laboratories. Patients identified to be at high risk of Fabry disease by the algorithm did not undergo GLA testing due to a clinical rationale that we were unable to capture. Conclusions: Administrative health databases may be a useful tool to identify patients at higher risk of Fabry disease or other rare conditions. Further directions include designing a program to screen high-risk individuals for Fabry disease as identified by our administrative data algorithms

    A Randomized Trial Examining the Impact of Timing of Intradialytic Cycling on Intradialytic Hypotension

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    Introduction: Intradialytic cycling is often performed during the first half of hemodialysis because of concerns regarding increased frequency of intradialytic hypotension (IDH) late in hemodialysis. This increases exercise program resource needs and limits utility of intradialytic cycling to treat dialysis-related symptoms. Methods: This multicenter, randomized, crossover trial compared IDH rate when cycling during the first half versus the second half of hemodialysis in 98 adults on maintenance hemodialysis. Group A cycled during the first half of hemodialysis for 2 weeks and subsequently during the second half for 2 weeks. In group B, the cycling schedule was reversed. Blood pressure (BP) was measured every 15 minutes throughout hemodialysis. Primary outcome was IDH rate (systolic BP [SBP] decrease of >20 mm Hg or SBP <90 mm Hg). Secondary outcomes included symptomatic IDH rate and time to recover post hemodialysis. Data were analyzed using negative binomial and gamma distribution mixed regression. Results: Mean age 64.7 (SD 12.0) and 64.7 (SD 14.2) years in group A (n = 52) and group B (n = 46), respectively. Proportions of females were 33% in group A and 43% in group B. Median time on hemodialysis was 4.1 (interquartile range [IQR] 2.5, 6.1]) years in group A and 3.9 years (IQR 2.5, 6.7) in group B. IDH rate per 100 hemodialysis hours (95% confidence interval [CI]) was 34.2 (26.4, 42.0) and 36.0 (28.9, 43.1) during early and late intradialytic cycling, respectively (P = 0.53). Timing of intradialytic cycling was not associated with symptomatic IDH (relative risk [RR]: 1.07 [0.75–1.53]) or time to recover post hemodialysis (odds ratio: 0.99 [0.79–1.23]). Conclusion: We found no association between the rate of overall or symptomatic IDH and the timing of intradialytic cycling in patients enrolled in an intradialytic cycling program. Increased use of cycling late in hemodialysis may optimize intradialytic cycling program resource use and should be studied as a possible treatment for symptoms common in late hemodialysis

    A Novel Bathing Therapeutic Approach for Diabetic Foot Ulcers

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    Ineffective healing and treatment of foot ulcers can lead to an infection and gangrene of the wound area that ultimately results in the loss of the limb. The incidence of foot ulcers is higher in patients with diabetes, peripheral vascular disease and kidney disease. Accordingly, this study was undertaken to assess the ability of foot bathing in CO2-enriched water to heal foot ulcers. The design was a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Patients with at least one foot ulcer were randomized to receive either a treatment with bath therapy at 37 ± 0.5 °C containing either 1000–1200 ppm CO2-enriched tap water (the intervention) or non-carbonated tap water at 37 ± 0.5 °C (the control group). Treatment was conducted three times/week for 15 min per session for up to 16 weeks for a total of 48 treatment sessions. Before and at the end of every treatment month, wound size, wound area oxygenation and the ankle brachial index were measured. In addition, the McGill pain questionnaire was conducted. Blood was also collected at these time points (for a total of five collections) for the measurement of different biomarkers. While no significant differences (p &lt; 0.05) in the group/time interaction effect were observed, a clear separation within the wound area reduction/wound area/oxygenated Hb outcomes was seen between placebo (control) and treatment (CO2) group. This pilot study is suggestive that bathing in CO2-enriched water may accelerate the healing of foot ulcers

    Heart failure in chronic kidney disease: conclusions from a Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Controversies conference

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    The incidence and prevalence of heart failure (HF) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are increasing, and as such a better understanding of the interface between both conditions is imperative for developing optimal strategies for their detection, prevention, diagnosis, and management. To this end, Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) convened an international, multidisciplinary Controversies Conference titled Heart Failure in CKD. Breakout group discussions included (i) HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and nondialysis CKD, (ii) HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and nondialysis CKD, (iii) HFpEF and dialysis-dependent CKD, (iv) HFrEF and dialysis-dependent CKD, and (v) HF in kidney transplant patients. The questions that formed the basis of discussions are available on the KDIGO website http://kdigo.org/conferences/heart-failure-in-ckd/, and the deliberations from the conference are summarized here

    Integrating Risk-Based Care for Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease in the Community: Study Protocol for a Cluster Randomized Trial

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    Background: A risk-based model of care for managing patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) using the Kidney Failure Risk Equation (KFRE) has been successfully integrated into nephrology care pathways in several jurisdictions. However, as most patients with CKD can be managed in primary care, the next pertinent steps would be to integrate the KFRE into primary care pathways. Objective: Using a risk-based approach for guiding CKD care in the primary care setting, the objective of the study is to develop, implement, and evaluate tools that can be used by patients and providers. Design: This study is a multicenter cluster randomized control trial. Setting: Thirty-two primary care clinics belonging to the Canadian Primary Care Sentinel Surveillance Network (CPCSSN) across Manitoba and Alberta. Patients: All patients at least 18 years old or older with CKD categories G3-G5 attending the participating clinics; we estimate each clinic will have an average of 185 patients with CKD. Methods: Thirty-two primary care clinics will be randomized to receive either an active knowledge translation intervention or no intervention. The intervention involves the addition of the KFRE and decision aids to clinics’ Data Presentation Tool (DPT), as well as patient-facing visual aids, a medical detailing visit, and sentinel feedback reports. Control clinics will only be exposed to current guidelines for CKD management, without active dissemination. Measurements: Data from the CPCSSN repository will be used to assess whether a risk-based care approach affected management of CKD. Primary outcomes are as follows: the proportion of patients with measured urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio, and the proportion of patients being appropriately treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blockers. Secondary outcomes are as follows: the optimal management of diabetes (hemoglobin A1C <8.5%, and the use of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors in CKD G3 patients), hypertension (office blood pressure <130/80 for patients with diabetes, 140/90 for those without), and cardiovascular risk (statin prescription); prescriptions of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; and decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). In addition, in a substudy, we will measure CKD-specific health literacy and trust in physician care via surveys administered in the clinic post-visit. At the provider level, we will measure satisfaction with the risk prediction tools. Lastly, at the health system level, outcomes include cost of CKD care, and appropriate referrals for patients at high risk of kidney failure based on provincial guidelines. Primary and secondary outcomes will be measured at the patient level and enumerated at the clinic level 1 year after the intervention implementation, except for decline in eGFR, which will be measured 2 years postintervention. Limitations: Limitations include scalability of the proposal in other health care systems. Conclusions: If successful, this intervention has the potential to improve the management of patients with CKD within Canadian primary care settings, leading to health and economic benefits, and influencing practice guidelines. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT0336506

    The Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX®) predicts fracture risk in patients with chronic kidney disease

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    The Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX®) was developed to predict fracture risk in the general population, but its applicability to patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is unknown. Using the Manitoba Bone Mineral Density (BMD) Database, we identified adults not receiving dialysis with available serum creatinine measurements and bone densitometry within 1 year. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation. Incident major osteoporotic fractures and hip fractures were ascertained from population-based health care databases. The performance of FRAX, derived without and with BMD, was studied in relation to CKD stage. Among 10,099 subjects (mean age 64 ± 13 years, 13.0% male), 2,154 had eGFR 30-60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (CKD stage 3) and 590 had eGFR <30 mL/min/1.73 m2 (CKD stages 4-5). During a 5-year observation period, 772 individuals experienced a major osteoporotic fracture and 226 had a hip fracture. FRAX predicted risk for major osteoporotic fracture and hip fracture in all eGFR strata. For every standard deviation increase in FRAX score derived with BMD, the hazard ratio (HR) for hip fracture was 4.54 (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.57-5.77) in individuals with eGFR ≥ 60 mL/min/1.73m2, 4.52 (95% CI 3.15-6.49) in individuals with eGFR 30-60 mL/min/1.73m2, and 3.10 (95% CI 1.80-5.33) in individuals with eGFR <30 mL/min/1.73m2. The relationship between FRAX and major osteoporotic fracture was stronger in those with CKD compared to those with preserved eGFR. These findings support the use of FRAX to risk stratify patients with non-dialysis CKD for major osteoporotic fractures and hip fractures

    Programmatic variation in home hemodialysis in Canada: results from a nationwide survey of practice patterns

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    Abstract Background Over 40% of patients with end stage renal disease in the United States were treated with home hemodialysis (HHD) in the early 1970’s. However, this number declined rapidly over the ensuing decades so that the overwhelming majority of patients were treated in-centre 3 times per week on a 3-4 hour schedule. Poor outcomes for patients treated in this fashion led to a renewed interest in home hemodialysis, with more intensive dialysis schedules including short daily (SDHD) and nocturnal (NHD). The relative infancy of these treatment schedules means that there is a paucity of data on ‘how to do it’. Objective We undertook a systematic survey of home hemodialysis programs in Canada to describe current practice patterns. Design Development and deployment of a qualitative survey instrument. Setting Community and academic HHD programs in Canada. Participants Physicians, nurses and technologists. Measurements Programmatic approaches to patient selection, delivery of dialysis, human resources available, and follow up. Methods We developed the survey instrument in three phases. A focus group of Canadian nephrologists with expertise in NHD or SDHD discussed the scope the study and wrote questions on 11 domains. Three nephrologists familiar with all aspects of HHD delivery reviewed this for content validity, followed by further feedback from the whole group. Multidisciplinary teams at three sites pretested the survey and further suggestions were incorporated. In July 2010 we distributed the survey electronically to all renal programs known to offer HHD according to the Canadian Organ Replacement Registry. We compiled the survey results using qualitative and quantitative methods, as appropriate. Results Of the academic and community programs that were invited to participate, 80% and 63%, respectively, completed the survey. We observed wide variation in programmatic approaches to patient recruitment, human resources, equipment, water, vascular access, patient training, dialysis prescription, home requirements, patient follow up, medications, and the approach to non-adherent patients. Limitations Cross-sectional survey, unable to link variation to outcomes. Competition for patients between HHD and home peritoneal dialysis means that case mix for HHD may also vary between centres. Conclusions There is wide variation between programs in all domains of HHD delivery in Canada. We plan further study of the extent to which differences in approach are related to outcomes

    Effect of post-discharge virtual wards on improving outcomes in heart failure and non-heart failure populations: A systematic review and meta-analysis

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    <div><p>Background</p><p>Unplanned hospital admissions in high-risk patients are common and costly in an increasingly frail chronic disease population. Virtual Wards (VW) are an emerging concept to improve outcomes in these patients.</p><p>Purpose</p><p>To evaluate the effect of post-discharge VWs, as an alternative to usual community based care, on hospital readmissions and mortality among heart failure and non-heart failure populations.</p><p>Data sources</p><p>Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, SCOPUS and CINAHL, from inception through to Jan 31, 2017; unpublished data, prior systematic reviews; reference lists.</p><p>Study selection</p><p>Randomized trials of post-discharge VW versus community based, usual care that reported all-cause hospital readmission and mortality outcomes.</p><p>Data extraction</p><p>Data were reviewed for inclusion and independently extracted by two reviewers. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration risk of bias tool.</p><p>Data synthesis</p><p>In patients with heart failure, a post-discharge VW reduced risk of mortality (six trials, n = 1634; RR 0.59, 95% CI = 0.44–0.78). Heart failure related readmissions were reduced (RR 0.61, 95% CI = 0.49–0.76), although all-cause readmission was not. In contrast, a post-discharge VW did not reduce death or hospital readmissions for patients with undifferentiated high-risk chronic diseases (four trials, n = .3186).</p><p>Limitations</p><p>Heterogeneity with respect to intervention and comparator, lacking consistent descriptions and utilization of standardized nomenclature for VW. Some trials had methodologic shortcomings and relatively small study populations.</p><p>Conclusions</p><p>A post-discharge VW can provide added benefits to usual community based care to reduce all-cause mortality and heart failure-related hospital admissions among patients with heart failure. Further research is needed to evaluate the utility of VWs in other chronic disease settings.</p></div