184 research outputs found

    Brief fruit and vegetable messages integrated within a community physical activity program successfully change behaviour

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    BACKGROUND: Consumption of the recommended amounts of fruits and vegetables is associated with several health benefits. Currently less than 25% of the American population meets the minimum recommendation of five servings a day. In order to change this health behaviour, interventions should be based on theory and include community-wide social support. METHODS: A low intensity intervention was developed in which participants (n = 86) were randomly assigned to either the fruit and vegetable intervention (FVI) or standard control condition. The intervention was integrated into an ongoing community physical activity program and study participants were drawn from the sample of community members enrolled in the program. The FVI consisted of brief social cognitive theory-based messages delivered in nine weekly newsletters designed to improve participant outcome and self-efficacy expectations related to fruit and vegetable consumption. RESULTS: Participants in the FVI condition increased in their fruit and vegetable consumption by approximately one to one and one-third servings per day. The control condition showed no change in consumption. The effect of the intervention was enhanced when examined by the extent to which it was adopted by participants (i.e., the number of newsletters read). Those participants who read seven or more newsletters showed an increase of two servings per day. CONCLUSION: This intervention was effective at improving fruit and vegetable consumption among adults. Minimal interventions, such as newsletters, have the ability to reach large audiences and can be integrated into ongoing health promotion programs. As such, they have potential for a strong public health impact

    Group versus individual approach? A meta-analysis of the effectiveness of interventions to promote physical activity

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    The purpose of the study was to conduct a meta-analysis to empirically compare the relative merits of different contexts typically employed in the physical activity intervention literature for five categories of outcomes: adherence, social interaction, quality of life, physiological effectiveness, and functional effectiveness. \ud Four contexts were examined: home-based programmes not involving contact from researchers or health-care professionals, home-based programmes that involved some contact, standard exercise classes, and exercise classes where group-dynamics principles were used to increase cohesiveness (‘true groups’). Standard literature searches produced 44 relevant studies containing 214 effect sizes. Results revealed a common trend across dependent variables; exercising in a true group was superior to exercising in a standard exercise class, which in turn, did not differ from exercising at home with contact. Furthermore, exercising at home with contact was superior to exercising at home without contact. These results have implications for practitioners in terms of the importance of contact and social support in physical activity interventions

    Incentive Design to Enhance the Reach of Weight Loss Program

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    This study employed stated-preference methods to elicit individuals’ program participation preference towards different financial incentive attributes. The results of this study show promise for the use of carefully designed incentive programs to raise participation in weight loss programs. Results show that a fungible payment form is important for the incentive to be effective in reach (i.e., cash and grocery gift-cards are preferred over gym passes and waivers of insurance co-payments). Furthermore, immediate payment is preferred over delayed payment.Financial Incentives, Program Reach, Random Parameter Logit, Health Economics and Policy, F10, F13,

    Comparing, contrasting, and integrating dissemination and implementation outcomes included in the RE-AIM and Implementation Outcomes Frameworks

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    As the field of dissemination and implementation science matures, there are a myriad of outcomes, identified in numerous frameworks, that can be considered across individual, organizational, and population levels. This can lead to difficulty in summarizing literature, comparing across studies, and advancing translational science. This manuscript sought to (1) compare, contrast, and integrate the outcomes included in the RE-AIM and Implementation Outcomes Frameworks (IOF) and (2) expand RE-AIM indicators to include relevant IOF dissemination and implementation outcomes. Cross tabular comparisons were made between the constitutive definitions of each construct, across frameworks, to reconcile apparent discrepancies between approaches and to distinguish between implementation outcomes and implementation antecedents. A great deal of consistency was identified across approaches, including adoption (the intention, initial decision, or action to employ an evidence-based intervention), fidelity/implementation (the degree to which an intervention was delivered as intended), organizational maintenance/sustainability (extent to which a newly implemented treatment is maintained or institutionalized), and cost. The IOF construct of penetration was defined as a higher-order construct that may encompass the reach, adoption, and organizational maintenance outcomes within RE-AIM. Within the IOF approach acceptability, appropriateness, and feasibility did not match constitutive definitions of dissemination or implementation but rather reflected theoretical antecedents of implementation outcomes. Integration of the IOF approach across RE-AIM indicators was successfully achieved by expanding the operational definitions of RE-AIM to include antecedents to reach, adoption, implementation, and organizational maintenance. Additional combined metrics were also introduced including penetration, individual level utility, service provider utility, organizational utility, and systemic utility. The expanded RE-AIM indicators move beyond the current approaches described within both the REAIM framework and IOF and provides additional planning and evaluation targets that can contribute to the scientific field and increase the translation of evidence into practice

    Validation of a survey instrument to assess home environments for physical activity and healthy eating in overweight children

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Few measures exist to measure the overall home environment for its ability to support physical activity (PA) and healthy eating in overweight children. The purpose of this study was to develop and test the reliability and validity of such a measure.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>The Home Environment Survey (HES) was developed to reflect availability, accessibility, parental role modelling, and parental policies related to PA resources, fruits and vegetables (F&V), and sugar sweetened drinks and snacks (SS). Parents of overweight children (n = 219) completed the HES and concurrent behavioural assessments. Children completed the Block Kids survey and wore an accelerometer for one week. A subset of parents (n = 156) completed the HES a second time to determine test-retest reliability. Finally, 41 parent dyads living in the same home (n = 41) completed the survey to determine inter-rater reliability. Initial psychometric analyses were completed to trim items from the measure based on lack of variability in responses, moderate or higher item to scale correlation, or contribution to strong internal consistency. Inter-rater and test-retest reliability were completed using intraclass correlation coefficients. Validity was assessed using Pearson correlations between the HES scores and child and parent nutrition and PA.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Eight items were removed and acceptable internal consistency was documented for all scales (α = .66–84) with the exception of the F&V accessibility. The F&V accessibility was reduced to a single item because the other two items did not meet reliability standards. Test-retest reliability was high (r > .75) for all scales. Inter-rater reliability varied across scales (r = .22–.89). PA accessibility, parent role modelling, and parental policies were all related significantly to child (r = .14–.21) and parent (r = .15–.31) PA. Similarly, availability of F&V and SS, parental role modelling, and parental policies were related to child (r = .14–36) and parent (r = .15–26) eating habits.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>The HES shows promise as a potentially valid and reliable assessment of the physical and social home environment related to a child's physical activity and eating habits.</p

    Mixed methods evaluation of a randomized control pilot trial targeting sugar-sweetened beverage behaviors

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    This is the publisher's version, also available electronically from http://www.scirp.org/journal/ojpm/.This Excessive sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and low health literacy skills have emerged as two public health concerns in the United States (US); however, there is limited research on how to effectively address these issues among adults. As guided by health literacy concepts and the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), this randomized controlled pilot trial applied the RE-AIM framework and a mixed methods approach to examine a sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intervention (SipSmartER), as compared to a matched-contact control intervention targeting physical activity (Move-More). Both 5-week interventions included two interactive group sessions and three support telephone calls. Executing a patient-centered developmental process, the primary aim of this paper was to evaluate patient feedback on intervention content and structure. The secondary aim was to understand the potential reach (i.e., proportion enrolled, representativeness) and effectiveness (i.e. health behaviors, theorized mediating variables, quality of life) of SipS- martER. Twenty-five participants were randomized to SipSmartER (n = 14) or MoveMore (n = 11). Participants’ intervention feedback was positive, ranging from 4.2 - 5.0 on a 5-point scale. Qualitative assessments reavealed several opportuneties to improve clarity of learning materials, enhance instructions and communication, and refine research protocols. Although SSB consumption decreased more among the SipS-martER participants (?256.9 ± 622.6 kcals), there were no significant group differences when compared to control participants (?199.7 ± 404.6 kcals). Across both groups, there were significant improvements for SSB attitudes, SSB behavioral intentions, and two media literacy constructs. The value of using a patient-centered approach in the developmental phases of this intervention was apparent, and pilot findings suggest decreased SSB may be achieved through targeted health literacy and TPB strategies. Future efforts are needed to examine the potential public health impact of a large-scale trial to address health literacy and reduce SSB

    Improving Participation Rates for Women of Color in Health Research: The Role of Group Cohesion

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    The final publication is available at Springer via http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11121-011-0241-6.Adherence to physical activity and dietary interventions is a common challenge. Interventions that use group cohesion strategies show promise for increasing adherence, but have not been tested among women of color. The purpose of this study was to determine whether dimensions of group cohesion mediate the association between intervention condition and attendance within a community physical activity program for women of color. African American and Hispanic or Latina women (N=310) completed measurements at baseline and post-intervention and participated in a social cohesion intervention to improve physical activity and dietary habits. Women were assigned to a physical activity or fruit and vegetable intervention group. Social and task cohesion was measured using the Physical Activity Group Environment Questionnaire (PAGE-Q). Attendance was recorded at each of six intervention sessions. Women were generally middle-age (M age = 46.4 years, SD=9.1) and obese (M BMI = 34.4 kg/m2, SD=7.7). The estimate of the mediated effect was significant for all group cohesion constructs, indicating both task constructs—attraction to the group’s task (SE=0.096, CI: −0.599 to −0.221) and group integration around the task (SE=0.060, CI: −0.092 to −0.328)—and social constructs—attraction to the group’s social aspects (SE=0.046, CI: −0.546 to −0.366) and group integration around social aspects (SE=0.046, CI: −0.546 to −0.366)—significantly mediated the association between group assignment and attendance. Both task and social constructs are important to improve attendance in health promotion interventions for women of color
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