199 research outputs found

    Analysis of prevalence of HIV-1 drug resistance in primary infections in the United Kingdom

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    Objectives: To identify changes since 1994 in the prevalence of resistance to anti-HIV drugs in primary HIV-1 infections in the United Kingdom. Design: Retrospective and prospective assessment of viruses obtained from people recently infected with HIV. Setting: Multiple centres (patients enrolled in the UK register of seroconverters) and a single large HIV clinic (active case ascertainment). Participants: 69 patients infected with HIV between June 1994 and August 2000. Main outcome measures: Prevalence of key mutations associated with drug resistance in the reverse transcriptase and protease genes of HIV-1, by year of infection. Results: Between June 1994 and August 2000, 10 (14%) of 69 newly infected patients had one or more key HIV-1 mutations associated with drug resistance. The risk of being infected with drug resistant virus increased over time (adjusted relative risk per year 1.74 (95% confidence interval 0.93 to 3.27), P=0.06). The estimated prevalence of drug resistance in those infected in 2000 was 27% (12% to 48%). Conclusions: Transmission of drug resistant HIV-1 in the United Kingdom seems to be increasing. New approaches to encourage safer sexual behaviour in all sectors of the population are urgently needed. What is already known on this topic: The emergence of HIV drug resistance in patients receiving antiretroviral therapy is common. Transmission of virus variants resistant to anti-HIV drugs has been documented. What this paper adds: The prevalence of transmitted HIV drug resistance in the United Kingdom is increasing, exceeding 20% in 2000. New approaches to encourage safer sexual behaviour are urgently needed

    NOTCH2 in breast cancer: association of SNP rs11249433 with gene expression in ER-positive breast tumors without TP53 mutations

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) has identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs11249433 in the 1p11.2 region as a novel genetic risk factor for breast cancer, and this association was stronger in patients with estrogen receptor (ER)<sup>+ </sup>versus ER<sup>- </sup>cancer.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>We found association between SNP rs11249433 and expression of the <it>NOTCH2 </it>gene located in the 1p11.2 region. Examined in 180 breast tumors, the expression of <it>NOTCH2 </it>was found to be lowest in tumors with <it>TP53 </it>mutations and highest in <it>TP53 </it>wild-type/ER<sup>+ </sup>tumors (p = 0.0059). In the latter group, the <it>NOTCH2 </it>expression was particularly increased in carriers of the risk genotypes (AG/GG) of rs11249433 when compared to the non-risk AA genotype (p = 0.0062). Similar association between <it>NOTCH2 </it>expression and rs11249433 was observed in 60 samples of purified monocytes from healthy controls (p = 0.015), but not in total blood samples from 302 breast cancer patients and 76 normal breast tissue samples. We also identified the first possible dominant-negative form of <it>NOTCH2</it>, a truncated version of <it>NOTCH2 </it>consisting of only the extracellular domain.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>This is the first study to show that the expression of <it>NOTCH2 </it>differs in subgroups of breast tumors and by genotypes of the breast cancer-associated SNP rs11249433. The NOTCH pathway has key functions in stem cell differentiation of ER<sup>+ </sup>luminal cells in the breast. Therefore, increased expression of <it>NOTCH2 </it>in carriers of rs11249433 may promote development of ER<sup>+ </sup>luminal tumors. Further studies are needed to investigate possible mechanisms of regulation of <it>NOTCH2 </it>expression by rs11249433 and the role of <it>NOTCH2 </it>splicing forms in breast cancer development.</p

    Differential Analysis of Ovarian and Endometrial Cancers Identifies a Methylator Phenotype

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    Despite improved outcomes in the past 30 years, less than half of all women diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer live five years beyond their diagnosis. Although typically treated as a single disease, epithelial ovarian cancer includes several distinct histological subtypes, such as papillary serous and endometrioid carcinomas. To address whether the morphological differences seen in these carcinomas represent distinct characteristics at the molecular level we analyzed DNA methylation patterns in 11 papillary serous tumors, 9 endometrioid ovarian tumors, 4 normal fallopian tube samples and 6 normal endometrial tissues, plus 8 normal fallopian tube and 4 serous samples from TCGA. For comparison within the endometrioid subtype we added 6 primary uterine endometrioid tumors and 5 endometrioid metastases from uterus to ovary. Data was obtained from 27,578 CpG dinucleotides occurring in or near promoter regions of 14,495 genes. We identified 36 locations with significant increases or decreases in methylation in comparisons of serous tumors and normal fallopian tube samples. Moreover, unsupervised clustering techniques applied to all samples showed three major profiles comprising mostly normal samples, serous tumors, and endometrioid tumors including ovarian, uterine and metastatic origins. The clustering analysis identified 60 differentially methylated sites between the serous group and the normal group. An unrelated set of 25 serous tumors validated the reproducibility of the methylation patterns. In contrast, >1,000 genes were differentially methylated between endometrioid tumors and normal samples. This finding is consistent with a generalized regulatory disruption caused by a methylator phenotype. Through DNA methylation analyses we have identified genes with known roles in ovarian carcinoma etiology, whereas pathway analyses provided biological insight to the role of novel genes. Our finding of differences between serous and endometrioid ovarian tumors indicates that intervention strategies could be developed to specifically address subtypes of epithelial ovarian cancer

    A Phylogenetic Analysis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Sequences in Kiev: Findings Among Key Populations

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    Background: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in Ukraine has been driven by a rapid rise among people who inject drugs, but recent studies have shown an increase through sexual transmission. Methods: Protease and reverse transcriptase sequences from 876 new HIV diagnoses (April 2013–March 2015) in Kiev were linked to demographic data. We constructed phylogenetic trees for 794 subtype A1 and 64 subtype B sequences and identified factors associated with transmission clustering. Clusters were defined as ≥2 sequences, ≥80% local branch support, and maximum genetic distance of all sequence pairs in the cluster ≤2.5%. Recent infection was determined through the limiting antigen avidity enzyme immunoassay. Sequences were analyzed for transmitted drug resistance mutations. Results Thirty percent of subtype A1 and 66% of subtype B sequences clustered. Large clusters (maximum 11 sequences) contained mixed risk groups. In univariate analysis, clustering was significantly associated with subtype B compared to A1 (odds ratio [OR], 4.38 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 2.56–7.50]); risk group (OR, 5.65 [95% CI, 3.27–9.75]) for men who have sex with men compared to heterosexual males; recent, compared to long-standing, infection (OR, 2.72 [95% CI, 1.64–4.52]); reported sex work contact (OR, 1.93 [95% CI, 1.07–3.47]); and younger age groups compared with age ≥36 years (OR, 1.83 [95% CI, 1.10–3.05] for age ≤25 years). Females were associated with lower odds of clustering than heterosexual males (OR, 0.49 [95% CI, .31–.77]). In multivariate analysis, risk group, subtype, and age group were independently associated with clustering (P < .001, P = .007, and P = .033, respectively). Eighteen sequences (2.1%) indicated evidence of transmitted drug resistance. Conclusions Our findings suggest high levels of transmission and bridging between risk groups

    Long-term Mortality in HIV-Positive Individuals Virally Suppressed for >3 Years With Incomplete CD4 Recovery

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    Virally suppressed HIV-positive individuals on combination antiretroviral therapy who do not achieve a CD4 count >200 cells/µL have substantially increased long-term mortality. The increased mortality was seen across different patient groups and for all causes of deat

    Symptom-based stratification of patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome: multi-dimensional characterisation of international observational cohorts and reanalyses of randomised clinical trials

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    Background Heterogeneity is a major obstacle to developing effective treatments for patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome. We aimed to develop a robust method for stratification, exploiting heterogeneity in patient-reported symptoms, and to relate these differences to pathobiology and therapeutic response. Methods We did hierarchical cluster analysis using five common symptoms associated with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pain, fatigue, dryness, anxiety, and depression), followed by multinomial logistic regression to identify subgroups in the UK Primary Sjögren's Syndrome Registry (UKPSSR). We assessed clinical and biological differences between these subgroups, including transcriptional differences in peripheral blood. Patients from two independent validation cohorts in Norway and France were used to confirm patient stratification. Data from two phase 3 clinical trials were similarly stratified to assess the differences between subgroups in treatment response to hydroxychloroquine and rituximab. Findings In the UKPSSR cohort (n=608), we identified four subgroups: Low symptom burden (LSB), high symptom burden (HSB), dryness dominant with fatigue (DDF), and pain dominant with fatigue (PDF). Significant differences in peripheral blood lymphocyte counts, anti-SSA and anti-SSB antibody positivity, as well as serum IgG, κ-free light chain, β2-microglobulin, and CXCL13 concentrations were observed between these subgroups, along with differentially expressed transcriptomic modules in peripheral blood. Similar findings were observed in the independent validation cohorts (n=396). Reanalysis of trial data stratifying patients into these subgroups suggested a treatment effect with hydroxychloroquine in the HSB subgroup and with rituximab in the DDF subgroup compared with placebo. Interpretation Stratification on the basis of patient-reported symptoms of patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome revealed distinct pathobiological endotypes with distinct responses to immunomodulatory treatments. Our data have important implications for clinical management, trial design, and therapeutic development. Similar stratification approaches might be useful for patients with other chronic immune-mediated diseases. Funding UK Medical Research Council, British Sjogren's Syndrome Association, French Ministry of Health, Arthritis Research UK, Foundation for Research in Rheumatology
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