103 research outputs found

    Are Individual and Community Acceptance and Witnessing of Intimate Partner Violence Related to Its Occurrence? Multilevel Structural Equation Model

    Get PDF
    Background:Intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW) is a serious and widespread problem worldwide. Much of the research on IPVAW focused on individual-level factors and attention has been paid to the contextual factors. The aim of this study was to develop and test a model of individual- and community-level factors associated with IPVAW. Methods and Findings: We conducted a (multivariate) multilevel structural equation analysis on 8731 couples nested within 883 communities in Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey 2008. Variables included in the model were derived from respondents' answers to the experience of IPVAW, attitudes towards wife beating and witnessing physical violence in childhood. We found that women that witnessed physical violence were more likely to have tolerant attitudes towards IPVAW and women with tolerant attitudes were more likely to have reported spousal IPVAW abuse. Women with husbands with tolerant attitudes towards IPVAW were more likely to have reported spousal abuse. We found that an increasing proportion of women in the community with tolerant attitudes was significantly positively associated with spousal sexual and emotional abuse, but not significantly associated with spousal physical abuse. In addition, we found that an increasing proportion of men in the community with tolerant attitudes and an increasing proportion of women who had witnessed physical violence in the community was significantly positively associated with spousal physical abuse, but not significantly associated with spousal sexual and emotional abuse. There was a positive correlation between all three types of IPVAW at individual- and community-level. Conclusions: We found that community tolerant attitudes context in which people live is associated with exposure to IPVAW even after taking into account individual tolerant attitudes. Public health interventions designed to reduce IPVAW must address people and the communities in which they live in order to be successful

    Comparison of the transcriptomic "stress response" evoked by antimycin A and oxygen deprivation in saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Get PDF
    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Acute changes in environmental parameters (e.g., O<sub>2</sub>, pH, UV, osmolarity, nutrients, etc.) evoke a common transcriptomic response in yeast referred to as the "environmental stress response" (ESR) or "common environmental response" (CER). Why such a diverse array of insults should elicit a common transcriptional response remains enigmatic. Previous functional analyses of the networks involved have found that, in addition to up-regulating those for mitigating the specific stressor, the majority appear to be involved in balancing energetic supply and demand and modulating progression through the cell cycle. Here we compared functional and regulatory aspects of the stress responses elicited by the acute inhibition of respiration with antimycin A and oxygen deprivation under catabolite non-repressed (galactose) conditions.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Gene network analyses of the transcriptomic responses revealed both treatments result in the transient (10 – 60 min) down-regulation of MBF- and SBF-regulated networks involved in the G1/S transition of the cell cycle as well as Fhl1 and PAC/RRPE-associated networks involved in energetically costly programs of ribosomal biogenesis and protein synthesis. Simultaneously, Msn2/4 networks involved in hexose import/dissimilation, reserve energy regulation, and autophagy were transiently up-regulated. Interestingly, when cells were treated with antimycin A well before experiencing anaerobiosis these networks subsequently failed to respond to oxygen deprivation. These results suggest the transient stress response is elicited by the acute inhibition of respiration and, we postulate, changes in cellular energetics and/or the instantaneous growth rate, not oxygen deprivation <it>per se</it>. After a considerable delay (≥ 1 generation) under anoxia, predictable changes in heme-regulated gene networks (e.g., Hap1, Hap2/3/4/5, Mot3, Rox1 and Upc2) were observed both in the presence and absence of antimycin A.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>This study not only differentiates between the gene networks that respond to respiratory inhibition and those that respond to oxygen deprivation but suggests the function of the ESR or CER is to balance energetic supply/demand and coordinate growth with the cell cycle, whether in response to perturbations that disrupt catabolic pathways or those that require rapidly up-regulating energetically costly programs for combating specific stressors.</p

    A predominance of R5-like HIV genotypes in vaginal secretions is associated with elevated plasma HIV-1 RNA levels and the absence of anti-retroviral therapy

    Get PDF
    HIV expressed in genital secretions provides the inoculum from which transmitting variants are selected, both in sexual transmission and mother-to-infant transmission during partuition. Characterization of HIV levels and genotypes found in vaginal secretions and the impact of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) on this virus can provide valuable insight for the prevention of HIV transmission. Vaginal HIV was evaluated in a cohort of 43 women attending a New Orleans HIV outpatient clinic. Predominant vaginal genotypes were characterized as R5- or X4-like by heteroduplex tracking analyses of the envelope V3 region. Most women (67.4%) shed R5-like genotypes in vaginal secretions which was associated with elevated plasma HIV levels (≥ 10,000 copies HIV-RNA/mL) and absence of ART. Because R5-like genotypes are more frequently associated with transmission, these observations suggest that the majority of women shedding HIV in genital secretions present a transmission risk. The levels of vaginal virus were similar between both groups, but shedding of X4-like genotypes was associated with lower plasma viral loads and the use of ART, suggesting that ART use may impact the genotypes of virus found in the female genital compartment

    Effect of an Online Video-Based Intervention to Increase HIV Testing in Men Who Have Sex with Men in Peru

    Get PDF
    Although many men who have sex with men (MSM) in Peru are unaware of their HIV status, they are frequent users of the Internet, and can be approached by that medium for promotion of HIV testing.We conducted an online randomized controlled trial to compare the effect of HIV-testing motivational videos versus standard public health text, both offered through a gay website. The videos were customized for two audiences based on self-identification: either gay or non-gay men. The outcomes evaluated were ‘intention to get tested’ and ‘HIV testing at the clinic.’In the non-gay identified group, 97 men were randomly assigned to the video-based intervention and 90 to the text-based intervention. Non-gay identified participants randomized to the video-based intervention were more likely to report their intention of getting tested for HIV within the next 30 days (62.5% vs. 15.4%, Relative Risk (RR): 2.77, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.42–5.39). After a mean of 125.5 days of observation (range 42–209 days), 11 participants randomized to the video and none of the participants randomized to text attended our clinic requesting HIV testing (p = 0.001). In the gay-identified group, 142 men were randomized to the video-based intervention and 130 to the text-based intervention. Gay-identified participants randomized to the video were more likely to report intentions of getting an HIV test within 30 days, although not significantly (50% vs. 21.6%, RR: 1.54, 95% CI: 0.74–3.20). At the end of follow up, 8 participants who watched the video and 10 who read the text visited our clinic for HIV testing (Hazard Ratio: 1.07, 95% CI: 0.40–2.85).This study provides some evidence of the efficacy of a video-based online intervention in improving HIV testing among non-gay-identified MSM in Peru. This intervention may be adopted by institutions with websites oriented to motivate HIV testing among similar MSM populations

    Past incarceration and chlamydia infection among young Black men in New Orleans

    Get PDF
    BackgroundYoung Black men are disproportionately and adversely affected by incarceration and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), both of which share common social and structural determinants. It is well documented that incarcerated individuals, including youth, are more likely to acquire STIs in the carceral setting compared to the general population. However, the effects of imprisonment on sexual health outcomes after imprisonment are not well-understood. The relationship between incarceration history (having ever spent time in a correctional institution such as prison, jail, or juvenile detention) and chlamydia positivity was examined in this study.MethodsA secondary analysis of the Check it Program, a Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) community-based seek, test, and treat screening program for Black men aged 15–24 who have sex with women in New Orleans was conducted. Participants completed a computer-assisted self-administered questionnaire on relevant sexual and social histories and provided a urine specimen for a Ct urine nucleic acid amplification test. Bivariate and multivariable regressions were used to estimate the association between incarceration history and chlamydia positivity.ResultsParticipants (N = 1,907) were enrolled from May 2017 to March 2020. Of those, 351/1,816 (19.3%) reported past incarceration and 203/1,888 (10.8%) tested positive for Ct. When adjusted for age, insurance status, and condom use, having a history of incarceration was positively associated with a positive Ct test (adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval):1.61 (1.12, 2.31), p = 0.0095).ConclusionsInteracting with the carceral system is associated with a positive Ct test post-incarceration. Incarceration may be an important marker for Ct acquisition in young Black men who have sex with women and those with a history of incarceration should be prioritized for Ct screening after release

    Cost-Effectiveness of Newborn Circumcision in Reducing Lifetime HIV Risk among U.S. Males

    Get PDF
    BACKGROUND: HIV incidence was substantially lower among circumcised versus uncircumcised heterosexual African men in three clinical trials. Based on those findings, we modeled the potential effect of newborn male circumcision on a U.S. male's lifetime risk of HIV, including associated costs and quality-adjusted life-years saved. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Given published estimates of U.S. males' lifetime HIV risk, we calculated the fraction of lifetime risk attributable to heterosexual behavior from 2005-2006 HIV surveillance data. We assumed 60% efficacy of circumcision in reducing heterosexually-acquired HIV over a lifetime, and varied efficacy in sensitivity analyses. We calculated differences in lifetime HIV risk, expected HIV treatment costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) among circumcised versus uncircumcised males. The main outcome measure was cost per HIV-related QALY saved. Circumcision reduced the lifetime HIV risk among all males by 15.7% in the base case analysis, ranging from 7.9% for white males to 20.9% for black males. Newborn circumcision was a cost-saving HIV prevention intervention for all, black and Hispanic males. The net cost of newborn circumcision per QALY saved was $87,792 for white males. Results were most sensitive to the discount rate, and circumcision efficacy and cost. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Newborn circumcision resulted in lower expected HIV-related treatment costs and a slight increase in QALYs. It reduced the 1.87% lifetime risk of HIV among all males by about 16%. The effect varied substantially by race and ethnicity. Racial and ethnic groups who could benefit the most from circumcision may have least access to it due to insurance coverage and state Medicaid policies, and these financial barriers should be addressed. More data on the long-term protective effect of circumcision on heterosexual males as well as on its efficacy in preventing HIV among MSM would be useful

    Obtaining Valid Laboratory Data in Clinical Trials Conducted in Resource Diverse Settings: Lessons Learned from a Microbicide Phase III Clinical Trial

    Get PDF
    BACKGROUND: Over the last decade several phase III microbicides trials have been conducted in developing countries. However, laboratories in resource constrained settings do not always have the experience, infrastructure, and the capacity to deliver laboratory data meeting the high standards of clinical trials. This paper describes the design and outcomes of a laboratory quality assurance program which was implemented during a phase III clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of the candidate microbicide Cellulose Sulfate 6% (CS) [1]. METHODOLOGY: In order to assess the effectiveness of CS for HIV and STI prevention, a phase III clinical trial was conducted in 5 sites: 3 in Africa and 2 in India. The trial sponsor identified an International Central Reference Laboratory (ICRL), responsible for the design and management of a quality assurance program, which would guarantee the reliability of laboratory data. The ICRL provided advice on the tests, assessed local laboratories, organized trainings, conducted supervision visits, performed re-tests, and prepared control panels. Local laboratories were provided with control panels for HIV rapid tests and Chlamydia trachomatis/Neisseria gonorrhoeae (CT/NG) amplification technique. Aliquots from respective control panels were tested by local laboratories and were compared with results obtained at the ICRL. RESULTS: Overall, good results were observed. However, discordances between the ICRL and site laboratories were identified for HIV and CT/NG results. One particular site experienced difficulties with HIV rapid testing shortly after study initiation. At all sites, DNA contamination was identified as a cause of invalid CT/NG results. Both problems were timely detected and solved. Through immediate feedback, guidance and repeated training of laboratory staff, additional inaccuracies were prevented. CONCLUSIONS: Quality control guidelines when applied in field laboratories ensured the reliability and validity of final study data. It is essential that sponsors provide adequate resources for implementation of such comprehensive technical assessment and monitoring systems. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00153777 and Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN9563838

    Low specificity of determine HIV1/2 RDT using whole blood in south west Tanzania

    Get PDF
    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of two rapid detection tests (RDTs) for HIV 1/2 in plasma and in whole blood samples. Methods: More than 15,000 study subjects above the age of two years participated in two rounds of a cohort study to determine the prevalence of HIV. HIV testing was performed using the Determine HIV 1/2 test (Abbott) in the first (2006/2007) and the HIV 1/2 STAT-PAK Dipstick Assay (Chembio) in the second round (2007/2008) of the survey. Positive results were classified into faint and strong bands depending on the visual appearance of the test strip and confirmed by ELISA and Western blot. Results: The sensitivity and specificity of the Determine RDT were 100% (95% confidence interval = 86.8 to 100%) and 96.8% (95.9 to 97.6%) in whole blood and 100% (99.7 to 100%) and 97.9% (97.6 to 98.1%) in plasma respectively. Specificity was highly dependent on the tested sample type: when using whole blood, 67.1% of positive results were false positive, as opposed to 17.4% in plasma. Test strips with only faint positive bands were more often false positive than strips showing strong bands and were more common in whole blood than in plasma. Evaluation of the STAT-PAK RDT in plasma during the second year resulted in a sensitivity of 99.7% (99.1 to 99.9%) and a specificity of 99.3% (99.1 to 99.4%) with 6.9% of the positive results being false. Conclusions: Our study shows that the Determine HIV 1/2 strip test with its high sensitivity is an excellent tool to screen for HIV infection, but that – at least in our setting – it can not be recommended as a confirmatory test in VCT campaigns where whole blood is used

    Implementation of Web-Based Respondent-Driven Sampling among Men who Have Sex with Men in Vietnam

    Get PDF
    Objective: Lack of representative data about hidden groups, like men who have sex with men (MSM), hinders an evidence-based response to the HIV epidemics. Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) was developed to overcome sampling challenges in studies of populations like MSM for which sampling frames are absent. Internet-based RDS (webRDS) can potentially circumvent limitations of the original RDS method. We aimed to implement and evaluate webRDS among a hidden population. Methods and Design: This cross-sectional study took place 18 February to 12 April, 2011 among MSM in Vietnam. Inclusion criteria were men, aged 18 and above, who had ever had sex with another man and were living in Vietnam. Participants were invited by an MSM friend, logged in, and answered a survey. Participants could recruit up to four MSM friends. We evaluated the system by its success in generating sustained recruitment and the degree to which the sample compositions stabilized with increasing sample size. Results: Twenty starting participants generated 676 participants over 24 recruitment waves. Analyses did not show evidence of bias due to ineligible participation. Estimated mean age was 22 year and 82% came from the two large metropolitan areas. 32 out of 63 provinces were represented. The median number of sexual partners during the last six months was two. The sample composition stabilized well for 16 out of 17 variables. Conclusion: Results indicate that webRDS could be implemented at a low cost among Internet-using MSM in Vietnam. WebRDS may be a promising method for sampling of Internet-using MSM and other hidden groups. Key words: Respondent-driven sampling, Online sampling, Men who have sex with men, Vietnam, Sexual risk behavio
    corecore