7,797 research outputs found

    Survey of the Beneficial Flowers Available in Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu, India

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    The flora of an area is considered a vital part of the environment, regulating the prosperity of the biosphere and people's health. It is highly suggested that the proper utilization of plant resources in each part of a country has been useful in conserving the availability and productivity of the flora. The present investigation aimed to evaluate the survey of the beneficial flowers available in Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu, India, from December 2019 to February 2020. The survey studies were divided into four different zones in Coimbatore District: Perur, Ganapathy, Thudiyalur, and Periyanaickenpalayam, respectively. The survey resulted in the collection of 40 plant species belonging to 38 genera, dispersed over 25 families of flowering plants / angiosperms. The dominant families were Apocynaceae and Oleaceae when compared to other families. This study reveals that species such as Calotropis gigantean, Chrysanthemum morifolium, Couroupita guianensis, Nerium oleander, Nyctanthes arbortristis, Nelumbo nucifera, and Tabernaemontana divaricata were used as ritual flowers. The beneficial flowers showed a maximum for ornamental flowers (43 percent), followed by ritual flowers (35 percent), medicinal flowers (15 percent), and cooking flowers (7 percent), respectively. The highest blooming of the flowers (14.89 percent) occurred in March, and the lowest in November and December. Flowers were documented as having economic value, with the highest rate in Rosa sp., and Jasminum sp., which were used as ornamental, medicinal, and cosmetic preparations as valuable resources. Scientific key information on taxonomy and technical approaches to beneficial flowers was analyzed. Flowers play a vital role in human life from birth to death and are used in all auspicious events in India, especially in daily prayers in temples and Indian households

    Mangroves in environmental engineering: Harnessing the multifunctional potential of nature's coastal architects for sustainable ecosystem management

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    Mangroves, the distinctive coastal ecosystems of the tropics and sub-tropics, serve as crucial intersections between terrestrial and marine environments. In this review, we delve into the manifold roles of mangroves, showcasing their significance in environmental engineering and sustainable ecosystem practices. Historically undervalued, mangroves have undergone a renaissance in perception, with increasing recognition of their indispensable ecological services, ranging from coastal protection and blue carbon sequestration to fostering biodiversity and supporting sustainable fisheries. As we explore their potential in phytoremediation, bioremediation, urban resilience, and ecosystem-based adaptation, the synergistic relationships between mangroves and their resident microorganisms are highlighted, offering innovative avenues for environmental restoration. Additionally, the review underscores the importance of collaborative partnerships for mangrove conservation, emphasizing the need for a harmonized approach between stakeholders. In an era marked by rapid environmental changes, this review accentuates the multifunctional capability of mangroves as nature's coastal architects, advocating for their conservation and integration into sustainable ecosystem management strategies

    The Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on the Histopathology of Thyroid Gland in Albino Rats

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    Objective: To investigate the effect of smokeless tobacco on the histopathology of the thyroid gland in albino rats. Methodology: The experimental study was conducted at the Animal House of Sindh Agriculture University over a three-month duration from June to August 2018. Thirty healthy, non-pregnant female albino rats, aged 8-10 weeks and weighing 200-230 grams, were divided into three groups. The Control group received a standard diet, Experimental Group A was exposed to 5% smokeless tobacco, and Group B to 10%. Rats were housed under hygienic conditions. After the experiment, the rats were weighed, euthanized via cervical dislocation, and their thyroid glands were removed for detailed dissection. Tissues were preserved in 10% formaldehyde, processed for microscopic examination through paraffin embedding and sectioning (2-5 ”m thick), and finally stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) and trichrome stain. Results: Significantly reduced weight was observed in albino rats from Group 2 and 3 compared to controls (p-value < 0.0001). In the control group (Group I), histological examination revealed a normal structure of thyroid follicles. In Group 2, stroma exhibited mild infiltration of chronic inflammatory cells, whereas Group 3 showed benign lesions with mild fibrosis. Conclusion: In summary, smokeless tobacco has adverse effects on the weight of albino rats and may alter the normal histology of the thyroid gland. Further investigation into the effects on thyroid hormone levels and a study of the dose-dependent effects of various chemicals in smokeless tobacco on the thyroid gland are recommended

    Impact of Meningococcal ACWY Vaccination Program during 2017–18 Epidemic, Western Australia, Australia

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    The rising incidence of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) caused by Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W in Western Australia, Australia, presents challenges for prevention. We assessed the effects of a quadrivalent meningococcal vaccination program using 2012–2020 IMD notification data. Notification rates peaked at 1.8/100,000 population in 2017; rates among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations were 7 times higher than for other populations. Serogroup W disease exhibited atypical manifestations and increased severity. Of 216 cases, 20 IMD-related deaths occurred; most (19/20) were in unvaccinated persons. After the 2017–2018 targeted vaccination program, notification rates decreased from 1.6/100,000 population in 2018 to 0.9/100,000 population in 2019 and continued to decline in 2020. Vaccine effectiveness (in the 1–4 years age group) using the screening method was 93.6% (95% CI 50.1%–99.2%) in 2018 and 92.5% (95% CI 28.2%–99.2%) in 2019. Strategic planning and prompt implementation of targeted vaccination programs effectively reduce IMD

    Behavior of Fibers in Geopolymer Concrete: A Comprehensive Review

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    Over the last decades, cement has been observed to be the most adaptive material for global development in the construction industry. The use of ordinary concrete primarily requires the addition of cement. According to the record, there has been an increase in the direct carbon footprint during cement production. The International Energy Agency, IEA, is working toward net zero emissions by 2050. To achieve this target, there should be a decline in the clinker-to-cement ratio. Also, the deployment of innovative technologies is required in the production of cement. The use of alternative binding materials can be an easy solution. There are several options for a substitute to cement as a binding agent, which are available commercially. Non-crystalline alkali-aluminosilicate geopolymers have gained the attention of researchers over time. Geopolymer concrete uses byproduct waste to reduce direct carbon dioxide emissions during production. Despite being this advantageous, its utilization is still limited as it shows the quasi-brittle behavior. Using different fibers has been started to overcome this weakness. This article emphasizes and reviews various mechanical properties of fiber-reinforced geopolymer concrete, focusing on its development and implementation in a wide range of applications. This study concludes that the use of fiber-reinforced geopolymer concrete should be commercialized after the establishment of proper standards for manufacturing

    Omega-3 Blood Levels and Stroke Risk:A Pooled and Harmonized Analysis of 183 291 Participants from 29 Prospective Studies

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    BACKGROUND: The effect of marine omega-3 PUFAs on risk of stroke remains unclear. METHODS: We investigated the associations between circulating and tissue omega-3 PUFA levels and incident stroke (total, ischemic, and hemorrhagic) in 29 international prospective cohorts. Each site conducted a de novo individual-level analysis using a prespecified analytical protocol with defined exposures, covariates, analytical methods, and outcomes; the harmonized data from the studies were then centrally pooled. Multivariable-adjusted HRs and 95% CIs across omega-3 PUFA quintiles were computed for each stroke outcome. RESULTS: Among 183 291 study participants, there were 10 561 total strokes, 8220 ischemic strokes, and 1142 hemorrhagic strokes recorded over a median of 14.3 years follow-up. For eicosapentaenoic acid, comparing quintile 5 (Q5, highest) with quintile 1 (Q1, lowest), total stroke incidence was 17% lower (HR, 0.83 [CI, 0.76-0.91]; P&lt;0.0001), and ischemic stroke was 18% lower (HR, 0.82 [CI, 0.74-0.91]; P&lt;0.0001). For docosahexaenoic acid, comparing Q5 with Q1, there was a 12% lower incidence of total stroke (HR, 0.88 [CI, 0.81-0.96]; P=0.0001) and a 14% lower incidence of ischemic stroke (HR, 0.86 [CI, 0.78-0.95]; P=0.0001). Neither eicosapentaenoic acid nor docosahexaenoic acid was associated with a risk for hemorrhagic stroke. These associations were not modified by either baseline history of AF or prevalent CVD. CONCLUSIONS: Higher omega-3 PUFA levels are associated with lower risks of total and ischemic stroke but have no association with hemorrhagic stroke.</p

    Investigating Polypharmacology through Targeting Known Human Neutrophil Elastase Inhibitors to Proteinase 3

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    Using a combination of multisite λ−dynamics (MSλD) together with in vitro IC50 assays, we evaluated the polypharmacological potential of a scaffold currently in clinical trials for inhibition of human neutrophil elastase (HNE), targeting cardiopulmonary disease, for efficacious inhibition of Proteinase 3 (PR3), a related neutrophil serine proteinase. The affinities we observe suggest that the dihydropyrimidinone scaffold can serve as a suitable starting point for the establishment of polypharmacologically targeting both enzymes and enhancing the potential for treatments addressing diseases like chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    The DUNE Far Detector Vertical Drift Technology, Technical Design Report

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    International audienceDUNE is an international experiment dedicated to addressing some of the questions at the forefront of particle physics and astrophysics, including the mystifying preponderance of matter over antimatter in the early universe. The dual-site experiment will employ an intense neutrino beam focused on a near and a far detector as it aims to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and to make high-precision measurements of the PMNS matrix parameters, including the CP-violating phase. It will also stand ready to observe supernova neutrino bursts, and seeks to observe nucleon decay as a signature of a grand unified theory underlying the standard model. The DUNE far detector implements liquid argon time-projection chamber (LArTPC) technology, and combines the many tens-of-kiloton fiducial mass necessary for rare event searches with the sub-centimeter spatial resolution required to image those events with high precision. The addition of a photon detection system enhances physics capabilities for all DUNE physics drivers and opens prospects for further physics explorations. Given its size, the far detector will be implemented as a set of modules, with LArTPC designs that differ from one another as newer technologies arise. In the vertical drift LArTPC design, a horizontal cathode bisects the detector, creating two stacked drift volumes in which ionization charges drift towards anodes at either the top or bottom. The anodes are composed of perforated PCB layers with conductive strips, enabling reconstruction in 3D. Light-trap-style photon detection modules are placed both on the cryostat's side walls and on the central cathode where they are optically powered. This Technical Design Report describes in detail the technical implementations of each subsystem of this LArTPC that, together with the other far detector modules and the near detector, will enable DUNE to achieve its physics goals

    Perceptions and experiences of South Asian families living with frailty in England: a hermeneutic phenomenological study

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    ABSTRACTBackground and objective Older adults of a South Asian heritage are predisposed to frailty, yet they remain less likely to access targeted frailty services for support with their health and wellbeing. Little is known about how older South Asian adults and family members perceive and experience frailty. The aim of this study was to examine South Asian families’ perspectives and experiences of frailty to inform health services and increase access for families living with frailty.Research design Hermeneutic phenomenological design.Methods Eight people living with frailty and eight family carers were purposefully selected from community settings in West Yorkshire, England. Data were collected in July 2021. Semi-structured interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, and thematically analysed.Results Four themes were identified; a naturally degenerating mind and body, beliefs about frailty causality, impact of frailty, and adapting to living with frailty. Frailty is perceived as degeneration of the mind and body which occurs as a natural part of the ageing process. It is also associated with lifestyle, previous employment, and viewed as God ordained. Frailty profoundly impacts the lives of South Asian families by causing stigma, isolation and loneliness, and negative emotions. However, South Asian people believe it is possible to adapt to living with frailty through making adjustments and using religion as a coping strategy.Discussion and implications This study identifies a need for educational interventions for South Asian families which raise awareness around frailty to reduce stigma and enable access to appropriate frailty support and services. It is also imperative for health, social care and third sector providers to consider the individual meaning of frailty for this population in relation to their cultural and religious context and beliefs, to understand how this may impede decisions to seek frailty care and support, and their needs in relation to service provision

    DataSheet_1_Energy transfer from phycobilisomes to photosystem I at room temperature.pdf

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    The phycobilisomes function as the primary light-harvesting antennae in cyanobacteria and red algae, effectively harvesting and transferring excitation energy to both photosystems. Here we investigate the direct energy transfer route from the phycobilisomes to photosystem I at room temperature in a mutant of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 that lacks photosystem II. The excitation dynamics are studied by picosecond time-resolved fluorescence measurements in combination with global and target analysis. Global analysis revealed several fast equilibration time scales and a decay of the equilibrated system with a time constant of ≈220 ps. From simultaneous target analysis of measurements with two different excitations of 400 nm (chlorophyll a) and 580 nm (phycobilisomes) a transfer rate of 42 ns-1 from the terminal emitter of the phycobilisome to photosystem I was estimated.</p