842 research outputs found

    Preface

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    This inaugural volume includes five manuscripts. Four original papers based clinical and nonclinical studies in small and large domesticated animals and an invited review article are presented to the readers of TRVS. In this issue, Szczepanek et al. have reviewed the role of microRNA in domestic animals. They summarized the existing knowledge about miRNAs synthesis, mechanisms for regulation of the genome their functions in animals physiology; microRNAs as potential biomarkers for veterinary research; the implications associated with dysfunction and dysregulation. Review concludes that microRNA molecules are great targets for understanding biology, physiology and pathology in veterinary science. In the near future, these molecules may become very attractive features for their immediate implementation as biomarkers for many diseases and may contribute to enhancing global agricultural production as well. Brüssow et al. original paper analyzed the impact of unilateral ovarian removal (uni-OXV) on ovarian function, steroid hormone level, fetal distribution and development in gilts. Study concludes that by comparing to intact gilts, only long term uni-OVX could compensate ovarian development. However, short term uni-OVX affects the total number of CL and fetuses, distribution and weight of fetuses in uterine horns and steroid hormone levels. Gehrke et al. original paper reported the relations between feto-pelvic proportion and fertility of black-and-white and red-and-white Polish Holstein-Friesian cows. Study concludes that process of “Holsteinization” of domestic headache of cattle requires selection of bull’s semen not only for heifers but also older cows. Wysocka et al. original paper predicted the hepatic and pituitary gland expression of potential candidate genes in context to maintenance of oxidative balance, negative nitrogen balance, and ketosis in Polish HF and Polish Red cattle. Study conclude that understanding the genetic factors that predispose metabolic disorders in cattle would benefit the dairy industry as a whole by providing producers, breeding services, and veterinarians a tool to forecast a cow’s susceptibility to metabolic disorders. Felsmann and Felsmann original paper examined the impact of changes in Polish law on the possibility of interrupting the spread toxoplasmosis and toxocarosis. Study updated the new changes in the Polish legal acts (acts and regulations) made in recent years in context to combat toxocarosis and toxoplasmosis by the legal authorities of Polish government administration. Study concluded that state public health services do not currently possess the legal means necessary to take effective action leading to the blocking of pathways along which these zoonosis spread

    The role of microRNAs in animal physiology and pathology

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    MicroRNAs are a class of small, evolutionarily conserved, endogenous RNAs, capable of controlling gene expression. MicroRNAs are transcribed by RNA polymerases II and III, generating precursors that undergo a series of cleavage events to form mature microRNA. They play an important regulatory role in animals at the posttranscriptional levels by targeting mRNAs for direct cleavage of mRNAs or repression of mRNA translation. The main biological function of miRNA is the post-translation regulation of cells, like: proliferation and differentiation, cell death, fat metabolism, neuronal patterning and angiogenesis.  These molecules are the main regulators of biological features of economic interest, including body growth, muscle development, signaling transduction, fat deposition, and immunology. In this review, we summarize the existing knowledge about miRNAs synthesis, mechanisms for regulation of the genome their functions in animals physiology and the implications associated with dysfunction and dysregulation

    Investigation of candidate genes for metabolic disorders expressed in liver and pituitary gland by comparing the RNA-seq data of Polish-HF and Polish-Red cattle

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    Background: Metabolic disorder is a major health problem in dairy cattle, particularly to high milk producing dairy cattle. It is worthily emphasized that metabolic diseases have a very complex etiology and pathogenesis, and the impact of these diseases on hepatic and pituitary gland gene expression and organism oxidative balance is not fully described. The presented study was aimed to determine and predict the hepatic and pituitary gland expression of potential candidate genes in context to maintenance of oxidative balance, negative nitrogen balance, as well as ketosis in Polish HF and Polish Red cattle.Methods: Based on the RNA-seq experimental data, we investigated the candidate genes (SOD1, SOD2, SOD3, GPx2, GPx3, GPx5, GPx6, GPx7, GPx8, BDH1, FN1, ACSL3, HMGCL, HMGCS2, BDH2, ACSL6, ACAT2, IDH3B, ACAT1, HMGCS1, ACSL4, ACSL1, PC, CPT1A, OXCT1 and ACSL5 respectively) expressions in liver and pituitary gland tissues of Polish HF and Polish Red cattle. The RNA-seq experimental design comprised of young bulls aged between 6 to 12 months were investigated. For each breed, six liver and six pituitary gland tissues were sequenced using Next-seq 500 illumina platform. The RNA-seq expression data were normalized by the reads per kilobase of exon per million reads mapped (RPKM) method.Results: By comparing the RNA-seq data of liver and pituitary gland tissues, the investigated candidate genes were highly expressed in the hepatic tissues than to pituitary gland in investigated cattle breeds. However, by comparing the Polish HF and Polish Red cattle breeds, results revealed a similar trend of gene expression profiling of all investigated candidate genes for both metabolic tissues. In case of hepatic gene expression profiling, the SOD1, FN1, HMGCL, HMGCS2, ACAT2, ACAT1, HMGCS1, ACSL1 and ACSL5 were highly expressed (FPKM values of >40), followed by SOD2, GPX3, IDH3B, PC and BDH2 as moderately expressed (FPKM values: >10 to <40), and averagely expressed SOD3, GPX5, GPX6, GPX7, GPX2, GPX8, BDH1, ACSL3, ACSL6, ACSL4, CPT1A and OXCT1 respectively, in Polish HF and Polish Red breeds. In case of pituitary gland gene expression profiling, the SOD1 and GPx3 were highly expressed (FPKM values of >40), followed by SOD2, GPX8, IDH3B, ACAT1, ACSL4 and PC as moderately expressed (FPKM values: >10 to <40), and averagely expressed SOD3, GPX3,GPX5, GPX6, GPX7, GPX2, BDH1, BDH2, ACSL3, ACSL6, CPT1A, OXCT1, FN1, HMGCL, HMGCS2, ACAT2, ACAT1, HMGCS1, ACSL1 and ACSL5 respectively, in Polish HF and Polish Red breeds.Conclusions: Based on this presented results on hepatic and pituitary gland gene expression, a further research plan is an essential pre-requisite to validate the identified candidate genes. Study indicated the understanding the genetic factors that predispose metabolic disorders in cattle would benefit the dairy industry as a whole by providing producers, breeding services, and veterinarians a tool to forecast a cow’s susceptibility to metabolic disorders

    Investigation of implantation-induced damage in indium phosphide for layer transfer applications

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    100 keV H+ and He+ ion implantation was performed in 300 µm thick (100) InP substrates at liquid nitrogen temperature with a constant fluence of 1 × 1017 cm–2. The surface morphology of the as-implanted InP samples was studied by optical microscopy. The implantation-induced damage was investigated by cross-sectional TEM, which revealed the formation of damage band in both cases near to the projected range of implanted ions. The formation of hydrogen-induced nanocracks and helium filled nanobubbles was observed in as-implanted InP samples. When you are citing the document, use the following link http://essuir.sumdu.edu.ua/handle/123456789/2792

    Identifikacija monomorfnih i polimorfnih gena povezanih s recesivno uvjetovanim poremećajima plodnosti holštajnskih krava u Kazahstanu

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    Haplotypes of candidate genes namely: apoptotic protease activating factor 1 (APAF1 p.Q579X or HH1), glycinamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase (GART or HH4), structural maintenance of chromosomes 2 (SMC2 or HH3), and haplotype cholesterol deficiency (HCD) genes associated with recessive fertility defects (loss of fertility) were investigated in imported Canadian Holstein cows reared at “Medeu Commerce” LLP breeding farm in Kazakhstan. The genotypic profiling of the APAF1/HH1, GART/HH4 fertility haplotype carriers was carried out by PCR-RFLP methods using BstC8I and Tru9I and MseI, while the genotypic profiling of the SMC2/HH3, and HCD fertility haplotype carriers was carried out using our own primer designed by internal primer marker methods. The study revealed that the PCR-RFLP diagnostic markers APAF1/HH1 and GART/HH4 for recessive fertility defects were monomorphic in the Canadian Holstein cows investigated. However, the diagnostic markers SMC2/HH3 and HCD fertility haplotype carriers (our own design diagnostic markers) were polymorphic, with frequencies of 3% and 11%, respectively, in the investigated Canadian Holstein cows. The study concluded that genetic monitoring of recessive fertility defects enables the timely identification of carriers of harmful lethal mutations, and control of the fertility haplotype elimination process.U krava holštajnske pasmine, uvezenih iz Kanade i uzgojenih na poljoprivrednom gospodarstvu Medeu Commerce LLP u Kazahstanu, istraživani su haplotipovi slijedećih kandidatnih gena za koje se smatra da su povezani s poremećajima (gubitkom) plodnosti: faktor koji aktivira apoptotsku proteazu 1 (APAF1 p.Q579X ili HH1), glicinamidribonukleotidna formiltransferaza (GART ili HH4), strukturno održavanje kromosoma 2 (SMC2 ili HH3) i haplotip za manjak kolesterola (HCD). Genotipsko profiliranje nositelja haplotipova APAF1/HH1, GART/HH4 provedeno je metodom PCR-RFLP uz upotrebu BstC8I i Tru9I te MseI, dok je genotipsko profiliranje nositelja haplotipova SMC2/ HH3, i HCD provedeno vlastitim primerima, oblikovanim internim metodama. Rezultati su pokazali da su metodom PCR-RFLP dijagnostički markeri APAF1/HH1 i GART/HH4 za recesivne poremećaje plodnosti u istraživanih krava bili monomorfni. Istovremeno, dijagnostički markeri nositelja haplotipova SMC2/HH3 i HCD (oblikovani prema vlastitim metodama) bili su polimorfni, s učestalošću od 3 % i 11 %. Zaključeno je da genetski nadzor recesivnih poremećaja plodnosti omogućuje pravodobno identificiranje nositelja štetnih letalnih mutacija i kontrolu eliminacije haplotipova koji štetno utječu na plodnost

    Long- and short-range correlations and their event-scale dependence in high-multiplicity pp collisions at 1as = 13 TeV

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    Two-particle angular correlations are measured in high-multiplicity proton-proton collisions at s = 13 TeV by the ALICE Collaboration. The yields of particle pairs at short-( 06\u3b7 3c 0) and long-range (1.6 < | 06\u3b7| < 1.8) in pseudorapidity are extracted on the near-side ( 06\u3c6 3c 0). They are reported as a function of transverse momentum (pT) in the range 1 < pT< 4 GeV/c. Furthermore, the event-scale dependence is studied for the first time by requiring the presence of high-pT leading particles or jets for varying pT thresholds. The results demonstrate that the long-range \u201cridge\u201d yield, possibly related to the collective behavior of the system, is present in events with high-pT processes as well. The magnitudes of the short- and long-range yields are found to grow with the event scale. The results are compared to EPOS LHC and PYTHIA 8 calculations, with and without string-shoving interactions. It is found that while both models describe the qualitative trends in the data, calculations from EPOS LHC show a better quantitative agreement for the pT dependency, while overestimating the event-scale dependency. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

    Search for a common baryon source in high-multiplicity pp collisions at the LHC

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    We report on the measurement of the size of the particle-emitting source from two-baryon correlations with ALICE in high-multiplicity pp collisions at s=13 TeV. The source radius is studied with low relative momentum p–p, p‾–p‾, p–Λ, and p‾–Λ‾ pairs as a function of the pair transverse mass mT considering for the first time in a quantitative way the effect of strong resonance decays. After correcting for this effect, the radii extracted for pairs of different particle species agree. This indicates that protons, antiprotons, Λ s, and Λ‾ s originate from the same source. Within the measured mT range (1.1–2.2) GeV/c2the invariant radius of this common source varies between 1.3 and 0.85 fm. These results provide a precise reference for studies of the strong hadron–hadron interactions and for the investigation of collective properties in small colliding systems. © 2020 CERN for the benefit of the ALICE CollaborationPeer reviewe

    First measurement of the |t|-dependence of coherent J/ψ photonuclear production

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    Global baryon number conservation encoded in net-proton fluctuations measured in Pb–Pb collisions at √sNN = 2.76 TeV