1,127 research outputs found

    Language transfer as a communication strategy and a language learning strategy in a Malaysian ESL classroom.

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    This paper reports on the use of language transfer as a type of communication strategy and language learning strategy drawing on a variety of oral interaction activities from a Malaysian classroom for English as a second language. The study provides insights into not only how the learners’ first language functions as a strategy for communication but also how it can enhance second language learning by way of helping learners expand their second language repertoire and increase their automatization of second language items

    Detection and characterization of antibiotic resistance plasmids in Cheney biosolids

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    Biosolids are organic matter produced at the end of sewage treatment process. It has been shown that during sewage treatment, resistant bacteria are selected because of the presence of antibiotics and their byproducts. These resistant bacteria are more likely to transfer resistance genes to other bacteria. In the current study, we examined Cheney biosolids for the presence of drug resistant bacteria and the role of these bacteria in transfer of resistance genes to others. We screened 100 bacteria for drug resistance and found that 68% of the isolates were resistant to two or more drugs tested. Plasmids were separated from the resistant bacteria and 13.2% of them showed the presence of plasmids. These resistance plasmids were introduced into E. coli MM294 to screen for the presence of antibiotic resistance genes. Plasmids were isolated from the transformants and 77.7% of the transformants showed the presence of plasmids with similar size and mobility on an agarose gel. The plasmids extracted from the transformants were digested with a restriction enzyme, EcoRI to verify the presence of multiple plasmids in the samples. The resistant bacteria (13.2%) that showed the presence of plasmid were tested whether they were conjugative or mobilizable type. Unfortunately, none of the isolates were onjugative or mobilizable plasmid. In short, Cheney biosolids do contain drug resistant bacteria, so there is a chance that these resistant bacteria will transfer their resistance genes to other bacteria present in biosolids --Document

    Conceptual framework of a novel hybrid methodology between computational fluid dynamics and data mining techniques for medical dataset application

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    This thesis proposes a novel hybrid methodology that couples computational fluid dynamic (CFD) and data mining (DM) techniques that is applied to a multi-dimensional medical dataset in order to study potential disease development statistically. This approach allows an alternate solution for the present tedious and rigorous CFD methodology being currently adopted to study the influence of geometric parameters on hemodynamics in the human abdominal aortic aneurysm. This approach is seen as a “marriage” between medicine and computer domains

    Hydrogen-bonded multilayer thin films and capsules based on poly(2-n-propyl-2-oxazoline) and tannic acid : investigation on intermolecular forces, stability, and permeability

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    In recent years, hydrogen-bonded multilayer thin films and capsules based on neutral and nontoxic building blocks have been receiving interest for the design of stimuli-responsive drug delivery systems and for the preparation of thin-film coatings. Capsule systems made of tannic acid (TA), a natural polyphenol, as a hydrogen bonding donor and poly(2-n-propyl-2-oxazoline) (PnPropOx), a polymer with lower critical solution temperature around 25 degrees C, as a hydrogen bonding acceptor are advantageous over other conventional hydrogen-bonded systems because of their high stability in physiological pH range, biocomparibility, good renal clearance, stealth behavior, and stimuli responsiveness for temperature and pH. In this work, investigations on the interactive forces in TA/PnPropOx capsule formation, film thickness, stability, and permeability are reported. The multilayer thin films were assembled on quartz substrates, and the layer-by-layer film growth was investigated by UV-vis spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and profilometry. Hollow capsules were fabricated by sequential coating of TA and PnPropOx onto CaCO3 colloidal particles, followed by template dissolution with a 0.2 M ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid solution. The obtained capsules and multilayer thin films were found to be stable over a wide pH range of 2-9. It is found that both hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions are responsible for the enhanced stability of the capsules at higher pH range. Swelling followed by dissolution of the capsules was observed at a pH value lower than 2, while the capsules undergo shrinking at a pH value higher than 8 and finally transform into a particle-like morphology before dissolution. The TA/PnPropOx capsules reported here could be used as a temperature-responsive drug delivery system in controlled drug delivery applications

    A descriptive analysis of disagreement strategies: the case of Iranian EFL learners

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    The purpose of this research was to describe the L2 pragmatic knowledge of Iranian EFL learners by producing the speech act of disagreement in English in different situations. One hundred and twenty Iranian EFL learners took part in this study. The required data were accumulated through a Written Discourse Completion Task (WDCT). The results showed that most participants tended to make use of more indirect strategies (44.85%) to disagree with another speaker’s statement either with higher or lower power or within different social distance. The respondents’ most frequent strategy use refers to counterclaims with 44.8%. On the other hand, challenges with 8.8% and Irrelevancy of claims with 3.2% were respectively among the least frequent strategies used in all situations. The results showed that learners almost utilized the same strategies in different disagreement situations with the same frequency. Therefore, it indicates that they did not notice the situational variables of social power, distance and imposition to vary their choice of strategy. In other words, they did not have the contextual understanding of the mentioned factors. Therefore, the results can suggest that the learners lack sufficient pragmatic knowledge in performing the studied speech act. The implication of this study is for Iranian language instructors, materials writers and curriculum developers