79 research outputs found

    Light stop cornered

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    Electro-weak scale supersymmetry (SUSY) is the most promising extension of the Standard Model, allowing the solution of the naturalness problem and offering a dark matter candidate. Within this scenario the search for the top quark supersymmetric partner, the stop, plays a key role. Despite the fact that ATLAS analyses have excluded large portions of the stop phase space, there are uncovered corners at low mass that may hide a light stop. Several ATLAS searches are actually addressing these regions. These new results, obtained using the complete 2012 statistics from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) operating at ‚ąös = 8TeV, will be presented

    Geant4 simulations of soft proton scattering in X-ray optics. A tentative validation using laboratory measurements

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    Low energy protons (< 300 keV) can enter the field of view of X-ray space telescopes, scatter at small incident angles, and deposit energy on the detector, causing intense background flares at the focal plane or in the most extreme cases, damaging the X-ray detector. A correct modelization of the physics process responsible for the grazing angle scattering processes is mandatory to evaluate the impact of such events on the performance of future X-ray telescopes as the ESA ATHENA mission. For the first time the Remizovich model, in the approximation of no energy losses, is implemented top of the Geant4 release 10.2. Both the new scattering physics and the built-in Coulomb scattering are used to reproduce the latest experimental results on grazing angle proton scattering. At 250 keV multiple scattering delivers large proton angles and it is not consistent with the observation. Among the tested models, the single scattering seems to better reproduce the scattering efficiency at the three energies but energy loss obtained at small scattering angles is significantly lower than the experimental values. In general, the energy losses obtained in the experiment are higher than what obtained by the simulation. The experimental data are not completely representative of the soft proton scattering experienced by current X-ray telescopes because of the lack of measurements at low energies (< 200 keV) and small reflection angles, so we are not able to address any of the tested models as the one that can certainly reproduce the scattering behavior of low energy protons expected for the ATHENA mission. We can, however, discard multiple scattering as the model able to reproduce soft proton funneling, and affirm that Coulomb single scattering can represent, until further measurements, the best approximation of the proton scattered angular distribution at the exit of X-ray optics.Comment: submitted to Experimental Astronom

    Evidence for light-by-light scattering in heavy-ion collisions with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

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    Light-by-light scattering (gamma gamma -> gamma gamma) is a quantum-mechanical process that is forbidden in the classical theory of electrodynamics. This reaction is accessible at the Large Hadron Collider thanks to the large electromagnetic field strengths generated by ultra-relativistic colliding lead ions. Using 480 mu b(-1) of lead-lead collision data recorded at a centre-of-mass energy per nucleon pair of 5.02 TeV by the ATLAS detector, here we report evidence for light-by-light scattering. A total of 13 candidate events were observed with an expected background of 2.6 +/- 0.7 events. After background subtraction and analysis corrections, the fiducial cross-section of the process Pb + Pb (gamma gamma) -> Pb-(center dot) + Pb-(center dot) gamma gamma, for photon transverse energy E-T > 3 GeV, photon absolute pseudorapidity vertical bar eta vertical bar < 2.4, diphoton invariant mass greater than 6 GeV, diphoton transverse momentum lower than 2 GeV and diphoton acoplanarity below 0.01, is measured to be 70 +/- 24 (stat.) +/- 17 (syst.) nb, which is in agreement with the standard model predictions

    Estimates for the background of the ATHENA X-IFU instrument: the cosmic rays contribution

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    The background of the ATHENA X-IFU instrument is evaluated by Geant4 simulations. A new, highly detailed, mass model of the X-IFU and of its cryostat has been produced, a new model for the Galactic Cosmic Ray protons in L2 has been developed from satellite data, and a set of physics models tuned to ATHENA needs has been refined through extensive validations against experimental results. We are going to report the latest results in the estimate of the background of the X-IFU instrument, obtained after the update of all the elements of the Geant4 simulations and of the post processing software

    Molecular Mechanisms Directing Migration and Retention of Natural Killer Cells in Human Tissues

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    A large body of data shows that Natural Killer (NK) cells are immune effectors exerting a potent cytolytic activity against tumors and virus infected cells. The discovery and characterization of several inhibitory and activating receptors unveiled most of the mechanisms allowing NK cells to spare healthy cells while selectively attacking abnormal tissues. Nevertheless, the mechanisms ruling NK cell subset recirculation among the different compartments of human body have only lately started to be investigated. This is particularly true for pathological settings such as tumors or infected tissues but also for para-physiological condition like pregnant human uterine mucosa. It is becoming evident that the microenvironment associated to a particular clinical condition can deeply influence the migratory capabilities of NK cells. In this review we describe the main mechanisms and stimuli known to regulate the expression of chemokine receptors and other molecules involved in NK cell homing to either normal or pathological/inflamed tissues, including tumors or organs such as lung and liver. We will also discuss the role played by the chemokine/chemokine receptor axes in the orchestration of physiological events such as NK cell differentiation, lymphoid organ retention/egress and recruitment to decidua during pregnancy

    Search for dark matter produced in association with bottom or top quarks in ‚ąös = 13 TeV pp collisions with the ATLAS detector

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    A search for weakly interacting massive particle dark matter produced in association with bottom or top quarks is presented. Final states containing third-generation quarks and miss- ing transverse momentum are considered. The analysis uses 36.1 fb‚ąí1 of proton‚Äďproton collision data recorded by the ATLAS experiment at ‚ąös = 13 TeV in 2015 and 2016. No significant excess of events above the estimated backgrounds is observed. The results are in- terpreted in the framework of simplified models of spin-0 dark-matter mediators. For colour- neutral spin-0 mediators produced in association with top quarks and decaying into a pair of dark-matter particles, mediator masses below 50 GeV are excluded assuming a dark-matter candidate mass of 1 GeV and unitary couplings. For scalar and pseudoscalar mediators produced in association with bottom quarks, the search sets limits on the production cross- section of 300 times the predicted rate for mediators with masses between 10 and 50 GeV and assuming a dark-matter mass of 1 GeV and unitary coupling. Constraints on colour- charged scalar simplified models are also presented. Assuming a dark-matter particle mass of 35 GeV, mediator particles with mass below 1.1 TeV are excluded for couplings yielding a dark-matter relic density consistent with measurements

    Measurement of the correlation between the polar angles of leptons from top quark decays in the helicity basis at ‚ąös = 7 TeV using the ATLAS detector