67 research outputs found

    Changes in renal function after nephroureterectomy for upper urinary tract carcinoma: analysis of a large multicenter cohort (Radical Nephroureterectomy Outcomes (RaNeO) Research Consortium)

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    Purpose To investigate prevalence and predictors of renal function variation in a multicenter cohort treated with radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) for upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). Methods Patients from 17 tertiary centers were included. Renal function variation was evaluated at postoperative day (POD)-1, 6 and 12 months. Timepoints differences were Delta 1 = POD-1 eGFR - baseline eGFR; Delta 2 = 6 months eGFR - POD-1 eGFR; Delta 3 = 12 months eGFR - 6 months eGFR. We defined POD-1 acute kidney injury (AKI) as an increase in serum creatinine by >= 0.3 mg/dl or a 1.5 1.9-fold from baseline. Additionally, a cutoff of 60 ml/min in eGFR was considered to define renal function decline at 6 and 12 months. Logistic regression (LR) and linear mixed (LM) models were used to evaluate the association between clinical factors and eGFR decline and their interaction with follow-up. Results A total of 576 were included, of these 409(71.0%) and 403(70.0%) had an eGFR < 60 ml/min at 6 and 12 months, respectively, and 239(41.5%) developed POD-1 AKI. In multivariable LR analysis, age (Odds Ratio, OR 1.05, p < 0.001), male gender (OR 0.44, p = 0.003), POD-1 AKI (OR 2.88, p < 0.001) and preoperative eGFR < 60 ml/min (OR 7.58, p < 0.001) were predictors of renal function decline at 6 months. Age (OR 1.06, p < 0.001), coronary artery disease (OR 2.68, p = 0.007), POD-1 AKI (OR 1.83, p = 0.02), and preoperative eGFR < 60 ml/min (OR 7.80, p < 0.001) were predictors of renal function decline at 12 months. In LM models, age (p = 0.019), hydronephrosis (p < 0.001), POD-1 AKI (p < 0.001) and pT-stage (p = 0.001) influenced renal function variation (ss 9.2 +/- 0.7, p < 0.001) during follow-up. Conclusion Age, preoperative eGFR and POD-1 AKI are independent predictors of 6 and 12 months renal function decline after RNU for UTUC

    Hacia el pron贸stico anticipado del rendimiento potencial de ma铆z en el centro-sudeste bonaerense: relaciones con la duraci贸n de los subper铆odos vegetativo y reproductivo

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    Cambios en los patrones clim谩ticos modifian la estaci贸n de crecimiento de loscultivos y as铆 las condiciones ambientales a las que quedan expuestos y, porende, el rendimiento resultante. La evaluaci贸n de pr谩cticas de manejo agr铆colamediante generaci贸n de escenarios de simulaci贸n permite formular estrategiasde adaptaci贸n para minimizar los riesgos y aprovechar los benefiios. Elobjetivo fue evaluar la relaci贸n entre el rendimiento potencial (Ymax) y laduraci贸n de la estaci贸n de crecimiento (EC) y de los subbper铆odos vegetativo (S-R1) y reproductivo (R1-R6) para ma铆z por efecto de la fecha de siembra ymadurez del cultivar en el centro-sudeste de Buenos Aires. Los escenariosagr铆colas seleccionados para la presente evaluaci贸n combinaron seis fechasde siembra y tres ciclos de madurez. Las estaciones de crecimiento (serie1971-2010) fueron simuladas mediante un modelo de desarrollo basado enla temperatura del aire. El m茅todo de simulaci贸n fue aplicado para cuatrolocalidades (Azul, Tandil, Balcarce y Mar del Plata). Los subper铆odos vegetativo y reproductivo de la estaci贸n de crecimiento (EC) fueron calculados conbase en la fecha de ocurrencia de flraci贸n (R1) y madurez fiiol贸gica (R6).El rendimiento potencial (Ymax) de cada escenario fue estimado mediante elproducto de evapotranspiraci贸n m谩xima (ETM) y la eficiencia de uso de agua(EUA). 脥ndices de productividad ambiental fueron propuestos para evaluar losefectos de la fecha de siembra sobre el rendimiento potencial para cada ciclode madurez y localidad mediante la variaci贸n de la duraci贸n de los subper铆odosde desarrollo. El atraso de la fecha de siembra expone al cultivo a condicionesdel ambiente m谩s productivas durante el subper铆odo vegetativo. Los beneficiosde la cuantificaci贸n de la productividad ambiental pueden ser extendidos a laevaluaci贸n de estrategias agron贸micas bajo un clima cambiante

    Relationship between Androgen Deprivation Therapy and Abdominal Adipose Tissue

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    The role of androgens in body composition is well known. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has shown beneficial effects in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer (PCa). Given that androgens are important for the homeostasis of different organs, the effects of ADT can affect body composition and therefore adipose tissue. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are non-invasive methods that allow for quantification of the different fat compartments. In this review we describe the effects of ADT on abdominal adipose tissue in PCa patients

    Micronized Palmitoylethanolamide, Hempseed Oil, and Maritime Pine Bark Dry Extract (Pelvipea<sup>庐</sup>) for Pelvic Pain: An In Vitro Study for Urothelial Inflammation Treatment

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    Urothelial inflammation plays a key role in the pathogenesis of chronic pelvic pain due to its origin in the bladder. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a patent-pending formulation (Pelvipea庐) composed of micronized palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), hempseed oil, and maritime pine bark dry extract in reducing urothelial inflammation, as well as the effect of each ingredient individually, in order to define the synergistic effect of the three ingredients. An in vitro bladder urothelium model composed of the T24 cell line was exposed to a conditioned media obtained by treating macrophage-differentiated THP-1 cells with different concentrations of the functional ingredients and a mixture of them in the presence of the pro-inflammatory stimulus of Escherichia coli. Cells exposed only to the inflammatory stimulus in the absence of pre-treatment were considered as a positive control for inflammation. The impact of each functional ingredient and their mixture on inflammation was evaluated by the determination of transcription factor NF-kB and of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. Statistical analysis was performed using the t-test, comparing the mixture and the single ingredients for every condition tested. All results were reported as fold change (mean 卤 standard deviation), the ratio between the values obtained from the respective treatments for inflammation control. The three functional ingredients did not induce negative effects on THP-1 cell vitality. The levels of NF-kB were reduced following treatment with hempseed oil, maritime pine bark dry extract, and the mixture at all tested concentrations, and with micronized PEA from 25 to 200 渭g/mL. Treatment with the mixture resulted in the lowest expression levels of interleukins (IL)-1尾, IL-6, and IL-8 compared to the single functional ingredients at a concentration of 230 渭g/mL, with values of 0.08 (卤0.00), 0.01 (卤0.00), and 0.32 (卤0.01), respectively. The mixture of micronized PEA, hempseed oil, and maritime pine bark dry extract (Pelvipea庐) at 230 渭g/mL showed the best efficacy in urothelial IL-1尾, IL-6, and IL-8 reduction compared with the singular components. This formulation may represent a promising therapeutic option to relieve painful symptoms originating in the bladder. However, in vivo studies are needed to confirm these results

    Botulinum Toxin-A Injection in Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome Treatment: A Systematic Review and Pooled Meta-Analysis

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    Introduction: Pain management of patients with chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) is challenging, because pain is often refractory to conventional treatments. Botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) may represent a promising therapeutic strategy for these patients. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the role of BTX-A in CPPS treatment. Methods: We reviewed the literature for prospective studies evaluating the use of BTX-A in the treatment of CPPS. A comprehensive search in the PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases was performed from English language articles published between January 2000 and October 2021. The primary outcome was to evaluate pain improvement in CPPS after BTX-A treatment. Pooled meta-analysis of the included studies, considering the effect of BTX-A on pain evaluated at last available follow-up compared to baseline values, was performed together with meta-regression analysis. Results: After screening 1001 records, 18 full-text manuscripts were selected, comprising 13 randomized clinical trials and five comparative studies. They covered overall 896 patients of both sexes and several subtype of CPPS (interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome, chronic prostatitis/prostate pain syndrome, chronic scrotal pain, gynecological pelvic pain, myofascial pelvic pain). The clinical and methodological heterogeneity of studies included makes it difficult to do an overall estimation of the real effect of BTX-A on pain and other functional outcomes of various CPPS subtypes. However, considering pooled meta-analysis results, a benefit in pain relief was showed for BTX-A-treated patients both in the overall studies populations and in the overall cohorts of patients with CPP due to bladder, prostate, and gynecological origin. Conclusions: BTX-A could be an efficacious treatment for some specific CPPS subtypes. Higher level studies are needed to assess the efficacy and safety of BTX-A and provide objective indications for its use in CPPS management

    Prostatic Inflammation in Prostate Cancer: Protective Effect or Risk Factor?

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    The relationship between prostatic chronic inflammation (PCI) and prostate cancer (PCa) is unclear and controversial. Some authors reported that a history of chronic prostatitis may be correlated with PCa induction, while others associate chronic inflammation with less aggressive disease or consider inflammation as a possible protective factor against PCa. Four different types of prostatitis are known: bacterial acute prostatic inflammation, bacterial chronic prostatic inflammation, abacterial prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome, and asymptomatic prostatic chronic inflammation. Prostatic inflammation is underestimated during daily clinical practice, and its presence and degree often go unmentioned in the pathology report of prostate biopsies. The goal of this report is to further our understanding of how PCI influences the biology of PCa. We investigated the main pathogenetic mechanisms responsible for prostatic inflammation, including the cellular response and inflammatory mediators to describe how inflammation modifies the prostatic environment and can lead to benign or malignant prostatic diseases. We found that prostatic inflammation might have a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of prostatic diseases. Details about PCI in all prostate biopsy reports should be mandatory. This will help us better understand the prostatic microenvironment pathways involved in PCa biology, and it will allow the development of specific risk stratification and a patient-tailored therapeutic approach to prostatic diseases

    Omics in urology: An overview on concepts, current status and future perspectives

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    Recent technological advances in molecular biology have led to great progress in the knowledge of structure and function of cells and their main constituents. In this setting, 'omics' is standing out in order to significantly improve the understanding of etiopathogenetic mechanisms of disease and contribute to the development of new biochemical diagnostics and therapeutic tools. 'Omics' indicates the scientific branches investigating every aspect of cell's biology, including structures, functions and dynamics pathways. The main 'omics' are genomics, epigenomics, proteomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics and radiomics. Their diffusion, success and proliferation, addressed to many research fields, has led to many important acquisitions, even in Urology. Aim of this narrative review is to define the state of art of 'omics' application in Urology, describing the most recent and relevant findings, in both oncological and non-oncological diseases, focusing the attention on urinary tract infectious, interstitial cystitis, urolithiasis, prostate cancer, bladder cancer and renal cell carcinoma. In Urology the majority of 'omics' applications regard the pathogenesis and diagnosis of the investigated diseases. In future, its role should be implemented in order to develop specific predictors and tailored treatments

    Radiogenomic Features of GIMAP Family Genes in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma: An Observational Study on CT Images

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    GTPases of immunity-associated proteins (GIMAP) genes include seven functional genes and a pseudogene. Most of the GIMAPs have a role in the maintenance and development of lymphocytes. GIMAPs could inhibit the development of tumors by increasing the amount and antitumor activity of infiltrating immunocytes. Knowledge of key factors that affect the tumor immune microenvironment for predicting the efficacy of immunotherapy and establishing new targets in ccRCC is of great importance. A computed tomography (CT)-based radiogenomic approach was used to detect the imaging phenotypic features of GIMAP family gene expression in ccRCC. In this retrospective study we enrolled 193 ccRCC patients divided into two groups: ccRCC patients with GIMAP expression (n = 52) and ccRCC patients without GIMAP expression (n = 141). Several imaging features were evaluated on preoperative CT scan. A statistically significant correlation was found with absence of endophytic growth pattern (p = 0.049), tumor infiltration (p = 0.005), advanced age (p = 0.018), and high Fuhrman grade (p = 0.024). This study demonstrates CT imaging features of GIMAP expression in ccRCC. These results could allow the collection of data on GIMAP expression through a CT-approach and could be used for the development of a targeted therapy

    Surgical and functional outcomes after robot-assisted radical cystectomy in female patients: a systematic review of the literature

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    Aim: We aimed to review and summarize recent data on surgical and functional outcomes in women undergoing robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC) and urinary diversion (UD) for bladder cancer, compared with male and open counterparts.Methods: A systematic review of English-language articles published in the last 15 years was performed on PubMed/Medline database according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. Outcomes of interest included peri- and post-operative surgical outcomes [operative time (OT), estimated blood loss (EBL), hospital stay (LOS), complications, and readmission], pathological outcomes [pT stage, lymph node (LN) yield, positive surgical margins (PSMs), and positive LN (pN+)], and functional outcomes [daytime and nighttime continence, sexual activity, need for clean intermittent catheterization (CIC), and quality of life (QoL) evaluation].Results: Overall, eight studies were selected collecting data from 229 female patients undergoing RARC. The median OT was 418 min (range 311-562 min) and the median EBL was 380 mL (range 100-1160 mL). OT and EBL were not significantly different comparing males and females, whereas the robotic approach was found to be significantly related with longer OT and lower EBL compared to the open procedure. The median LOS was 9.8 days (range 6.5-21 days); no significant differences in LOS were found between open RC (ORC) and RARC in female patients, as well as between RARC in women and men. The mean incidence of 30-day complications after RARC in women was 32.9%, with 12% of high-grade complications, while the 30- and 90-day readmission rates were 20.8%, and 28%, respectively. Complications and readmission comparing RARC and ORC in female patients appear to be overlapping. The mean rate of PSMs was 2.5% and the mean rate of pN+ was 12.7%; both these outcomes were similar in RARC compared with ORC. The mean number of retrieved LN was 20.6 (range 11.3-35.5). The LN yield resulted significantly influenced by the robotic approach [median 27 (range 19-41)] compared to the open one [20.5 (range 13-28)]. After 12 months, the rate of women with daytime and nighttime continence was 66.7%-90.9% and 66.7%-86.4%, respectively, while that of sexually active women ranged 66.7%-72.7%. The need for CIC ranged 12.5%-27.2%. Administering the EORTC-QLQ-C30 questionnaire after RARC and intracorporeal neobladder, the global health status/QoL and physical and emotional functioning items improved significantly over time.Conclusion: RARC and UD in female patients is a feasible procedure with surgical outcomes overlapping with those in the male patient population. Postoperative functional outcomes on continence, sexual function, and QoL are still poorly investigated, although results inherent in the nerve-sparing approach appear promising

    Current Knowledge on Radiation-Therapy-Induced Erectile Dysfunction in Prostate-Cancer Patients: A Narrative Review

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    Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in men in the United States. Among the different available treatment options, radiation therapy is recommended for localized or even advanced disease. Erectile dysfunction (ED) often occurs after radiation therapy due to neurological, vascular, and endocrine mechanisms resulting in arterial tone alteration, pudendal-nerve neuropraxia, and lastly fibrosis. Considering the influence of quality of life on patients鈥 treatment choice, radiation-therapy-induced ED prevention and treatment are major issues. In this narrative review, we briefly summarize and discuss the current state of the art on radiation-therapy-induced ED in PCa patients in terms of pathophysiology and available treatment options
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