19 research outputs found

    Oxygen Extraction and Mortality in Patients Undergoing Chronic Haemodialysis Treatment: A Multicentre Study

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    Patients on haemodialysis (HD) suffer a high mortality rate linked to developing subclinical hypoxic parenchymal stress during HD sessions. The oxygen extraction ratio (OER), an estimate of the oxygen claimed by peripheral tissues, might represent a new prognostic factor in HD patients. This study evaluated whether the intradialytic change in OER (ΔOER) identified patients with higher mortality risks. We enrolled chronic HD patients with permanent central venous catheters with available central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) measurements; the arterial oxygen saturation was measured with peripheral oximeters (SpO2). We measured OER before and after HD at enrolment; deaths were recorded during two-years of follow-up. In 101 patients (age: 72.9 ± 13.6 years, HD vintage: 9.6 ± 16.6 years), 44 deaths were recorded during 11.6 ± 7.5 months of follow-up. Patients were divided into two groups according to a 40% ΔOER threshold (ΔOER p = 0.005). The survival curve (log-rank-test: p = 0.0001) and multivariate analysis (p = 0.0002) confirmed a ΔOER ≥ 40% as a mortality risk factor. This study showed the intradialytic ΔOER ≥ 40% was a mortality risk factor able to highlight critical hypoxic damage. Using a ΔOER ≥ 40% could be clinically applicable to characterise the most fragile patients

    Construção e validação de um questionário para avaliar a relação médico-paciente e sua associação com os princípios bioéticos

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    Physician-patient relationship (PPR) is a professional-interpersonal relationship that serves as the basis for health management. We aimed to develop an instrument for patients to assess the medical attention received in the outpatient clinic. A 21 question instrument was administered to evaluate its reliability and consistency. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.81 (p < 0.05); to fulfill the bioethical principles, the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.740 (p < 0.05), allowing us to get familiar with the perception of patients who attended the Nephrology Service. The survey showed autonomy as the most reported principle (69 %), followed by dignity (67 %) and justice (60 %). Courtesy, punctuality, and respect make the disease and its treatment more bearable, in addition to promoting the ethics of third parties.La relación médico-paciente (RMP) es una relación profesional-interpersonal base para la gestión de la salud. Nuestro objetivo fue desarrollar un instrumento que permitiera evaluar la presencia de los principios bioéticos en la atención médica recibida en la consulta externa de una institución hospitalaria. El instrumento quedó constituido por 21 reactivos para evaluar su confiabilidad y consistencia. El coeficiente de correlación intraclase fue de 0,81 (p < 0,05); para el cumplimiento de los principios bioéticos, fue de 0,740 (p < 0,05). El cuestionario mostró que la autonomía fue el principio más reportado (69 %), después la dignidad (67 %) y justicia (60 %). La presencia de los principios de la bioética ampliados hace más llevadera la enfermedad.A relação médico-paciente é uma relação profissional interpessoal, base para a gestão da saúde. Nosso objetivo foi desenvolver um instrumento que permitisse avaliar a presença dos princípios bioéticos na atenção médica recebida na consulta de uma instituição hospitalar. O instrumento foi constituído de 21 reativos para avaliar sua confiabilidade e consistência. O coeficiente de correlação intraclasse foi de 0,81 (p < 0,05); para o cumprimento dos princípios bioéticos, foi de 0,740 (p < 0,05). O questionário mostrou que a autonomia foi o princípio mais relatado (69 %), depois da dignidade (67 %) e da justiça (60 %). A presença dos princípios da bioética ampliados torna a doença mais suportável

    Survey on advance care planning of Italia outpatients on chronic haemodialysis

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    OBJECTIVES: The clinical practice guidelines published by the Renal Physicians Association (USA) recommend instituting advance care planning (ACP) for patients with end-stage renal disease. Studies on this issue are lacking in Italy. Our aim was to determine the attitudes of patients on ACP in our dialysis centre. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional survey. We recruited patients on maintenance haemodialysis (HD) at Hemodialysis Center of Universit\ue0 Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, from 1 March 2014 to 31 March 2015. The only exclusion criterion was inability to give an informed consent. Patients completed a questionnaire concerning their treatment preferences in three hypothetical disease scenarios: persistent vegetative state, advanced dementia, severe terminal illness; for each patients, we also collected clinical, functional and socioeconomic data. RESULTS: Thirty-four HD outpatients completed the study questionnaire. The majority of respondents (85%) considered information about prognosis, health conditions and treatment options, including withdrawing dialysis, as very important and 94% of respondents considered treatment of uraemic/dialytic symptoms the most important issue. In the health scenarios provided, dialysis was the treatment least withheld. Dependence on instrumental activities of daily living (0.048) and higher Charlson Comorbidity Index scores (p=0.035) were associated with continuing dialysis in at least one scenario. CONCLUSIONS: ACP should be tailored to patients' value, culture and preferences. A significant proportion of patients, however, do not want to be involved in end of life decisions. Frail elderly patients, in particular, are not inclined to interrupt dialysis, despite poor quality of life or a poor prognosis

    Mortality in hospitalized chronic kidney disease patients starting unplanned urgent haemodialysis

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    Data on the outcome of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients who are hospitalized and start unplanned urgent haemodialysis (HD) are lacking. This prospective, longitudinal, observational study aimed to define the hospital mortality rate and associated factors in CKD patients who start unplanned urgent HD

    Decision-making in the implementation or withdrawal of dialysis in the old complex patient

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    In the last years the population of patients with end-stage renal disease has been growing and the number of patients over 74 years old on renal replacement therapy is rising. However, an increasing number of studies have shown that dialysis is not always associated with a longer life expectancy and a better quality of life for elderly patients with severe chronic comorbidity. Moreover, in selected patients conservative therapy provides a survival and quality of life comparable or even superior to that offered by dialysis. These situations pose new ethical and clinical issues. Nephrologists are increasingly faced with difficult decisions about the optimal therapeutic strategies and what is in the best interest of each patient. The new edition of the Renal Physician Association's guideline on Shared Decision-Making in the Appropriate Initiation of and Withdrawal from Dialysis takes into account these changes. For this reason the guideline advocates the use of specific parameters and tools for the prognosis assessment in order to identify the classes of patients with very poor prognosis. The importance of discussing the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment options with the patient is emphasized. Shared decision-making is the model for the physician-patient relationship. Treatment options include renal replacement therapy, not starting or stopping dialysis, and continuing medical management or palliative care. Palliative care should be offered to all patients with end-stage renal disease, whether they start or refuse dialysis and whether they continue or withdraw from dialysis. Furthermore, palliative care should be provided throughout the course of the disease, not only at the end of life

    Ethical evaluation of risks related to living donor transplantation programs

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    The shortage of available cadaveric organs for transplantation and the growing demand has incresed live donation. To increase the number of transplantations from living donors, programs have been implemented to coordinate donations in direct or indirect form (cross-over, paired, and domino chain). Living donors with complex medical conditions are accepted by several transplantation programs. In this way, the number of transplants from living has exceeded that from cadaver donors in several European countries. No mortality has been reported in the case of lung, pancreas, or intestinal Living donations, but the perioperative complications range from 15% to 30% for pancreas and lung donors. In living kidney donors, the perioperative mortality is 3 per 10,000. Their frequency of end-stage renal disease does not exceed the United States rate for the general population. However, long-term follow-up studies of living donors for kidney transplantations have several limitations. The frequency of complications in live donor liver transplantation is 40%, of these, 48% are possibly life-threatening according to the Clavien classification. Residual disability, liver failure, or death has occurred in 1% of cases. The changes in live donor acceptance criteria raise ethical issues, in particular, the physician's role in evaluating and accepting the risks taken by the living donor. Some workers argue to set aside medical paternalism on behalf of the principle of donor autonomy. In this way the medical rule "primum non nocere" is overcome. Transplantation centers should reason beyond the shortage of organs and think in terms of the care for both donor and recipient

    The Legislation on Living Organ Donation in Western Europe: Legal and Ethical Analysis and Impact on Clinical Practice

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    In Europe there are various directives on living organ donation (LOD) that are applied differently in member countries. The objectives of this study were as follows: (1) to identify the most relevant normative differences among the countries of Western Europe, and (2) to evaluate the evolution of LOD data in these countries. We performed omparative analysis of national legislations to identify the most significant common and different regulatory elements that were evaluated subsequently from an ethical-legal point of view. For data analysis on LOD, we used the EULOD database of donations in Europe. Relevant legislative differences emerged among European countries. Through legal and ethical analysis, it has possible to delineate two legal guidelines: on the one hand, based primarily on informed consent applying the principle of individual autonomy, and on the other hand, informed consent associated with legal and medical criteria. From 1992 to 2009, countries with standards based primarily on individual informed consent showed an increase in LOD from 5.5% to 25.3%, which was greater than those in countries that had additional legal requirements, namely, from 1.6% to 16.0.%. The distinct transpositions of the European Directives among singles countries related to LOD are based essentially only on the request for informed consent or for additional medical and legal requirements. The former practices which increases LOD, can facilitate \u201corgan tourism

    Ethical evaluation of risks related to living donor transplantation programs

    No full text
    The shortage of available cadaveric organs for transplantation and the growing demand has incresed live donation. To increase the number of transplantations from living donors, programs have been implemented to coordinate donations in direct or indirect form (cross-over, paired, and domino chain). Living donors with complex medical conditions are accepted by several transplantation programs. In this way, the number of transplants from living has exceeded that from cadaver donors in several European countries. No mortality has been reported in the case of lung, pancreas, or intestinal Living donations, but the perioperative complications range from 15% to 30% for pancreas and lung donors. In living kidney donors, the perioperative mortality is 3 per 10,000. Their frequency of end-stage renal disease does not exceed the United States rate for the general population. However, long-term follow-up studies of living donors for kidney transplantations have several limitations. The frequency of complications in live donor liver transplantation is 40%, of these, 48% are possibly life-threatening according to the Clavien classification. Residual disability, liver failure, or death has occurred in 1% of cases. The changes in live donor acceptance criteria raise ethical issues, in particular, the physician's role in evaluating and accepting the risks taken by the living donor. Some workers argue to set aside medical paternalism on behalf of the principle of donor autonomy. In this way the medical rule "primum non nocere" is overcome. Transplantation centers should reason beyond the shortage of organs and think in terms of the care for both donor and recipient
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