249 research outputs found

    Modèles de politique économique multirégionale basés sur l’analyse d’attraction

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    Classical regional and multiregional models were limited in scope and usefulness as they failed to integrate explicitly locational factors, especially on the supply side.

    Some Issues on the Concept of Causality in Spatial Econometric Models

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    A specific feature of spatial econometric models is the simultaneity of the relations, which complicates the distinction between causes and effects. However, the notion of cause is of paramount importance in any specification. In fact, a model is a statement pointing that a variable, called endogenous, reacts to the variables that appear in the right hand side, the regressors. Our impression is that this problem has been scarcely treated in the Spatial Econometrics literature. The content of the paper focuses on questions related to the specification procedure for spatial models. We examine what may be called the ''current traditional practice'' and discuss the role that the concepts of identification and causality should play. Our purpose is to claim for the development of clear econometric guidelines to help the users to improve the theoretical foundations of their specifications. An application to the relation between per capita income and weight of the agricultural sector in the Spanish provinces illustrates our discussion

    Test d’une hypothèse d’investissement à écarts multiples

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    According to the multiple-gap hypothesis, investment decisions, determined by the joint action of multiple determinants, result from the dominance at the time of the decision of the most constraining of these factors. This hypothesis is tested on Dutch investment data for the period 1951-1974 by means of three types of models: a "rigid" model in which a single regime is selected at any time, and two "flexible" models allowing for a joint action of the various determinants, the last model incorporating a switching mechanism with respect to the dominant factor. Estimation problems are discussed and the results obtained with the different models are compared

    Late gadolinium enhancement CMR in primary mitral regurgitation.

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    AIMS: The appropriate timing for surgery in severe asymptomatic primary mitral regurgitation (MR) remains controversial. It has been shown that late gadolinium enhancement on cardiovascular magnetic resonance (LGE CMR), which may identify myocardial fibrosis, is associated with a worse outcome in various cardiomyopathies. We sought to investigate the prevalence and significance of delayed enhancement in primary MR. METHODS: We prospectively included 41 patients with at least moderate primary MR and without overt signs of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. Patients with evidence of coronary artery disease, arrhythmias or significant concomitant valvular disease were excluded. All patients were scheduled for transthoracic echocardiography and LGE CMR. RESULTS: A total of 39 patients had interpretable LGE CMR images. Among them, 12 (31%) had late contrast uptake of the LV wall. LGE CMR showed an infarct pattern in three patients, a pattern of mid-wall fibrosis in seven patients and two patients had a combined pattern. Patients with delayed enhancement on CMR had significant higher LV diameters (LV end-systolic diameter 39 +/- 4 vs. 34 +/- 5 mm, P = 0.002; LV end-diastolic diameter 57 +/- 5 vs. 50 +/- 5 mm, P = 0.001). There was a trend towards a higher indexed left atrial volume (55 +/- 21 vs. 44 +/- 13 mL/m(2), P = 0.06). By contrast, there was no significant association between myocardial contrast uptake and age, LV ejection fraction and MR severity. CONCLUSION: Left ventricular remodelling seems to be associated with the presence of delayed enhancement on CMR in primary MR. Further data are needed to determine whether LGE CMR can predict a less favourable outcome or could improve risk stratification in asymptomatic primary MR

    Automated left ventricular diastolic function evaluation from phase-contrast cardiovascular magnetic resonance and comparison with Doppler echocardiography

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    International audienceBACKGROUND: Early detection of diastolic dysfunction is crucial for patients with incipient heart failure. Although this evaluation could be performed from phase-contrast (PC) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) data, its usefulness in clinical routine is not yet established, mainly because the interpretation of such data remains mostly based on manual post-processing. Accordingly, our goal was to develop a robust process to automatically estimate velocity and flow rate-related diastolic parameters from PC-CMR data and to test the consistency of these parameters against echocardiography as well as their ability to characterize left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction. RESULTS: We studied 35 controls and 18 patients with severe aortic valve stenosis and preserved LV ejection fraction who had PC-CMR and Doppler echocardiography exams on the same day. PC-CMR mitral flow and myocardial velocity data were analyzed using custom software for semi-automated extraction of diastolic parameters. Inter-operator reproducibility of flow pattern segmentation and functional parameters was assessed on a sub-group of 30 subjects. The mean percentage of overlap between the transmitral flow segmentations performed by two independent operators was 99.7 ± 1.6%, resulting in a small variability ( 0.71) and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis revealed their ability to separate patients from controls, with sensitivity > 0.80, specificity > 0.80 and accuracy > 0.85. Slight superiority in terms of correlation with echocardiography (r = 0.81) and accuracy to detect LV abnormalities (sensitivity > 0.83, specificity > 0.91 and accuracy > 0.89) was found for the PC-CMR flow-rate related parameters. CONCLUSIONS: A fast and reproducible technique for flow and myocardial PC-CMR data analysis was successfully used on controls and patients to extract consistent velocity-related diastolic parameters, as well as flow rate-related parameters. This technique provides a valuable addition to established CMR tools in the evaluation and the management of patients with diastolic dysfunction

    Effects of deep inspiration breath hold on prone photon or proton irradiation of breast and regional lymph nodes

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    We report on a comparative dosimetrical study between deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) and shallow breathing (SB) in prone crawl position for photon and proton radiotherapy of whole breast (WB) and locoregional lymph node regions, including the internal mammary chain (LN_MI). We investigate the dosimetrical effects of DIBH in prone crawl position on organs-at-risk for both photon and proton plans. For each modality, we further estimate the effects of lung and heart doses on the mortality risks of different risk profiles of patients. Thirty-one patients with invasive carcinoma of the left breast and pathologically confirmed positive lymph node status were included in this study. DIBH significantly decreased dose to heart for photon and proton radiotherapy. DIBH also decreased lung doses for photons, while increased lung doses were observed using protons because the retracting heart is displaced by low-density lung tissue. For other organs-at-risk, DIBH resulted in significant dose reductions using photons while minor differences in dose deposition between DIBH and SB were observed using protons. In patients with high risks for cardiac and lung cancer mortality, average thirty-year mortality rates from radiotherapy-related cardiac injury and lung cancer were estimated at 3.12% (photon DIBH), 4.03% (photon SB), 1.80% (proton DIBH) and 1.66% (proton SB). The radiationrelated mortality risk could not outweigh the similar to 8% disease-specific survival benefit of WB + LN_MI radiotherapy in any of the assessed treatments

    Whole breast and regional nodal irradiation in prone versus supine position in left sided breast cancer

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    Background: Prone whole breast irradiation (WBI) leads to reduced heart and lung doses in breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant radiotherapy. In this feasibility trial, we investigated the prone position for whole breast + lymph node irradiation (WB + LNI). Methods: A new support device was developed for optimal target coverage, on which patients are positioned in a position resembling a phase from the crawl swimming technique (prone crawl position). Five left sided breast cancer patients were included and simulated in supine and prone position. For each patient, a treatment plan was made in prone and supine position for WB + LNI to the whole axilla and the unoperated part of the axilla. Patients served as their own controls for comparing dosimetry of target volumes and organs at risk (OAR) in prone versus in supine position. Results: Target volume coverage differed only slightly between prone and supine position. Doses were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) in prone position for ipsilateral lung (Dmean, D2, V5, V10, V20, V30), contralateral lung (Dmean, D2), contralateral breast (Dmean, D2 and for total axillary WB + LNI also V5), thyroid (Dmean, D2, V5, V10, V20, V30), oesophagus (Dmean and for partial axillary WB + LNI also D2 and V5), skin (D2 and for partial axillary WB + LNI V105 and V107). There were no significant differences for heart and humeral head doses. Conclusions: Prone crawl position in WB + LNI allows for good breast and nodal target coverage with better sparing of ipsilateral lung, thyroid, contralateral breast, contralateral lung and oesophagus when compared to supine position. There is no difference in heart and humeral head doses

    CMR for Assessment of Diastolic Function

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    Prevalence of heart failure with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction amounts to 50% of all cases with heart failure. Diagnosis assessment requires evidence of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. Currently, echocardiography is the method of choice for diastolic function testing in clinical practice. Various applications are in use and recommended criteria are followed for classifying the severity of dysfunction. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) offers a variety of alternative applications for evaluation of diastolic function, some superior to echocardiography in accuracy and reproducibility, some being complementary. In this article, the role of the available CMR applications for diastolic function testing in clinical practice and research is reviewed and compared to echocardiography
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