8 research outputs found

    Movement gating of beta/gamma oscillations involved in the N30 somatosensory evoked potential.

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    Evoked potential modulation allows the study of dynamic brain processing. The mechanism of movement gating of the frontal N30 component of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) produced by the stimulation of the median nerve at wrist remains to be elucidated. At rest, a power enhancement and a significant phase-locking of the electroencephalographic (EEG) oscillation in the beta/gamma range (25-35 Hz) are related to the emergence of the N30. The latter was also perfectly identified in presence of pure phase-locking situation. Here, we investigated the contribution of these rhythmic activities to the specific gating of the N30 component during movement. We demonstrated that concomitant execution of finger movement of the stimulated hand impinges such temporal concentration of the ongoing beta/gamma EEG oscillations and abolishes the N30 component throughout their large topographical extent on the scalp. This also proves that the phase-locking phenomenon is one of the main actors for the N30 generation. These findings could be explained by the involvement of neuronal populations of the sensorimotor cortex and other related areas, which are unable to respond to the phasic sensory activation and to phase-lock their firing discharges to the external sensory input during the movement. This new insight into the contribution of phase-locked oscillation in the emergence of the N30 and in its gating behavior calls for a reappraisal of fundamental and clinical interpretation of the frontal N30 component.Journal ArticleResearch Support, Non-U.S. Gov'tFLWINinfo:eu-repo/semantics/publishe

    Bidirectional synaptic plasticity as a consequence of interdependent Ca2+-controlled phosphorylation and dephosphorylation pathways

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    Postsynaptic Ca2+ signals of different amplitudes and durations are able to induce either long-lasting potentiation (LPT) or depression (LTD). The bidirectional character of synaptic plasticity may result at least in part from an increased or decreased responsiveness of the glutamatergic alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid receptor (AMPA-R) due to the modification of conductance and/or channel number, and controlled by the balance between the activities of phosphorylation and dephosphorylation pathways. AMPA-R depression can be induced by a long-lived Ca2+ signal of moderate amplitude favouring the activation of the dephosphorylation pathway, whereas a shorter but higher Ca2+ signal would induce AMPA-R potentiation resulting from the preferential activation of the phosphorylation pathway. Within the framework of a model involving calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), calcineurin (PP2B) and type 1 protein phosphatase (PP1), we aimed at delineating the conditions allowing a biphasic U-shaped relationship between AMPA-R and Ca2+ signal amplitude, and thus bidirectional plasticity. Our theoretical analysis shows that such a property may be observed if the phosphorylation pathway: (i) displays higher cooperativity in its Ca2+-dependence than the dephosphorylation pathway; (ii) displays a basal Ca2+-independent activity; or (iii) is directly inhibited by the dephosphorylation pathway. Because the experimentally observed inactivation of CaMKII by PP1 accounts for this latter characteristic, we aimed at verifying whether a realistic model using reported parameters values can simulate the induction of either LTP or LTD, depending on the time and amplitude characteristics of the Ca2+ signal. Our simulations demonstrate that the experimentally observed bidirectional nature of Ca2+-dependent synaptic plasticity could be the consequence of the PP1-mediated inactivation of CaMKII.Comparative StudyJournal ArticleResearch Support, Non-U.S. Gov'tFLWINinfo:eu-repo/semantics/publishe

    A2A receptor and striatal cellular functions: regulation of gene expression, currents, and synaptic transmission.

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    A2A receptor is highly coexpressed with enkephalin and D2 receptor in striatopallidal neurons. A2A antagonists acutely enhance motor behavior in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD) and are therefore considered potential PD therapeutic agents. Analysis of gene expression regulation using pharmacologic tools or A2A receptor-deficient mice (A2A-/-) shows that the A2A receptor positively and tonically controls the expression of enkephalin and immediate early genes in striatopallidal neurons. Because this regulation strictly mirrors the effect of D2 receptor, these data strongly support the hypothesis that A2A antagonists reduce the activity of striatopallidal neurons in models of PD. However, analysis of A2A-/- mice suggests additional effects of A2A receptor in the control of striatal physiology. Unexpectedly, these animals exhibited a reduction in exploratory activity and a 50% reduction in substance P expression. This was associated with a 45% decrease in the striatal extracellular dopamine concentration, suggesting that chronic absence of A2A receptor results in a functional hypodopaminergic state in the striatum. The A2A receptor controls inhibitory synaptic transmission negatively in the striatum and positively in the globus pallidus; this further supports the efficacy of A2A antagonists in reducing the activity of striatopallidal neurons in PD. The A2A receptor does not modulate basal alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole proprionic acid (AMPA)-mediated excitatory corticoaccumbal synaptic transmission during normal physiologic conditions. However, genetic inactivation or pharmacologic blockade of the A2A receptor significantly reduced long-term potentiation (LTP) at this synapse. Therefore, this receptor is implicated in the induction of corticoaccumbal LTP, an effect that could be related to its involvement in long-term behavioral sensitization to repeated dopaminergic treatment.Journal ArticleResearch Support, Non-U.S. Gov'tReviewinfo:eu-repo/semantics/publishe

    The adenosine A1 receptor agonist adenosine amine congener exerts a neuroprotective effect against the development of striatal lesions and motor impairments in the 3-nitropropionic acid model of neurotoxicity.

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    Huntington's disease is a genetic neurodegenerative disorder characterized clinically by both motor and cognitive impairments and striatal lesions. At present, there are no pharmacological treatments able to prevent or slow its development. In the present study, we report the neuroprotective effect of adenosine amine congener (ADAC), a specific A1 receptor agonist known to be devoid of any of the side effects that usually impair the clinical use of such compounds. Remarkably, in a rat model of Huntington's disease generated by subcutaneous infusion of the mitochondrial inhibitor 3-nitropropionic acid (3NP), we have observed that an acute treatment with ADAC (100 microg x kg(-1) x d(-1)) not only strongly reduces the size of the striatal lesion (-40%) and the remaining ongoing striatal degeneration (-30%), but also prevents the development of severe dystonia of hindlimbs. Electrophysiological recording on corticostriatal brain slices demonstrated that ADAC strongly decreases the field EPSP amplitude by 70%, whereas it has no protective effect up to 1 microm against the 3NP-induced neuronal death in primary striatal cultures. This suggests that ADAC protective effects may be mediated presynaptically by the modulation of the energetic impairment-induced striatal excitotoxicity. Altogether, our results indicate that A1 receptor agonists deserve further experimental evaluation in animal models of Huntington's disease.In VitroJournal ArticleResearch Support, Non-U.S. Gov'tinfo:eu-repo/semantics/publishe

    Reduced transition between open and inactivated channel states underlies 5HT increased I(Na+) in rat nociceptors.

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    We previously demonstrated that activation of a 5HT(4) receptor coupled cAMP-dependent signaling pathway increases tetrodotoxin-resistant Na(+) current (I(Na)) in a nociceptor-like subpopulation of rat dorsal root ganglion cells (type 2). In the present study we used electrophysiology experiments and computer modeling studies to explore the mechanism(s) underlying the increase of I(Na) by 5HT. In electrophysiological experiments with type 2 dorsal root ganglion cells, 5HT increased peak I(Na) and the activation and inactivation rate, without significantly affecting the voltage dependency of activation or availability. Studies on the voltage dependency of channel availability, time course of removal of inactivation, and inactivation of evoked Na(+) currents suggested that there are at least two inactivation states of the Na(+) channel, one (I(fast)) that is induced and retrieved faster than the other (I(slow)). Long (1 s), but not short (60 or 100 ms), inactivating conditioning pulses (CPs) suppressed the 5HT-induced increase in I(Na). Computer modeling studies suggest that 5HT increased I(Na) mainly by decreasing the transition rate (k(OI1)) from an open state to I(fast). Furthermore, 5HT increased I(Na) activation and inactivation rates mainly by increasing the transition rate from closed to open (k(C3O)) and from I(fast) to I(slow) (k(I1I2)), respectively. The antagonism of the 5HT-induced increase in I(Na) by 1-s inactivation CPs may be due an enhancement of transitions from I(fast) to I(slow), via the increase in k(I1I2). This may deplete the pool of channels residing in I(fast), reducing the frequency of reopenings from I(fast), which offsets the increase in I(Na) produced by the reduction in k(OI1). The above findings fit well with previous studies showing that activation of the cAMP/PKA cascade simultaneously increases voltage sensitive tetrodotoxin-resistant Na(+) conductance and inactivation rate in nociceptors. The antagonism of the effects of 5HT by long inactivation CPs suggests that drugs designed to induce and/or stabilize the I(slow) state might be useful for reducing hyperalgesia produced by inflammatory mediators

    Inactivation of adenosine A2A receptor impairs long term potentiation in the accumbens nucleus without altering basal synaptic transmission.

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    The nucleus accumbens is considered to be critically involved in the control of complex motivated behaviors. By modulating its glutamatergic excitatory input, mesolimbic dopaminergic afferents have been implicated in the reinforcing properties of drugs of abuse. However, they might not represent the only path for influencing the accumbens output. The aim of this study was to investigate possible modulation of synaptic transmission at this glutamatergic synapse by adenosine receptors. The standard field potential recording technique was used on brain slices from wild-type and A2A receptor-deficient mice. Neither the stimulus-response relationship nor paired-pulse facilitation was altered in the mutant mice. In both genotypes, the activation of A1 receptors by 2-chloro-N6-cyclopentyladenosine reduced the field excitatory postsynaptic potential (fEPSP) slope to a similar extent. In wild-type slices, activation or blockade of A2A receptors by 2-[4-(carboxyethyl)phenylethylamino]-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine and 4-(2-[7-amino-2-(2-furyl)[1,2,4]-triazolo-[2,3-a][1,3,5]triazin-5-ylamino]ethyl)phenol, respectively, did not modify the synaptic transmission. Moreover, a long lasting pre-activation of these A2A receptors did not influence the A1 receptor-mediated reduction in fEPSP slope. Long term potentiation (LTP) of the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole proprionate (AMPA) receptor-mediated synaptic transmission could be elicited in both wild-type and A2A receptor-deficient mice. However, LTP appeared to be quantitatively modulated by the A2A receptor pathway since the level of potentiation was reduced in A2A receptor-deficient mice as well as in slices of wild-type mice in which the A2A receptor pathway was blocked. The involvement of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase was supported by the reduction in potentiation level in slices of wild-type mice treated with adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothiotate, 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-Rp isomer, an inhibitor of this enzyme. These data provide evidence that the adenosine acting at the A2A receptor is implicated in events directly or indirectly related to LTP induction in the accumbens whereas it is not involved in the regulation of the basal AMPA receptor-mediated excitatory synaptic transmission.Journal ArticleResearch Support, Non-U.S. Gov'tinfo:eu-repo/semantics/publishe