185 research outputs found

    Measurement of the <math><mrow><mmultiscripts><mi>Se</mi><mprescripts/><none/><mn>77</mn></mmultiscripts><mo>(</mo><mi>n</mi><mo>,</mo><mi>ő≥</mi><mo>)</mo></mrow></math> cross section¬†up to 200 keV at the n_TOF facility at CERN

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    International audienceThe Se77(n,ő≥) reaction is of importance for Se77 abundance during the slow neutron capture process in massive stars. We have performed a new measurement of the Se77 radiative neutron capture cross section¬†at the Neutron Time-of-Flight facility at CERN. Resonance capture kernels were derived up to 51 keV and cross sections¬†up to 200 keV. Maxwellian-averaged cross sections¬†were calculated for stellar temperatures between kT=5keV and kT=100keV, with uncertainties between 4.2% and 5.7%. Our results lead to substantial decreases of 14% and 19% in Se77 abundances produced through the slow neutron capture process in selected stellar models of 15M‚äô and 2M‚äô, respectively, compared to using previous recommendation of the cross section

    Overview of the dissemination of n_TOF experimental data and resonance parameters

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    The n_TOF neutron time-of-flight facility at CERN is used for nuclear data measurements. The n_TOF Collaboration works closely with the Nuclear Reaction Data Centres (NRDC) network to disseminate the experimental data through the international EXFOR library. In addition, the Collaboration helps integrate the results in the evaluated library projects. The present contribution describes the dissemination status of n_TOF results, their impact on evaluated libraries and ongoing efforts to provide n_TOF resonance parameters in ENDF-6 format for further use by evaluation projects

    Measurement of the neutron-induced fission cross section of <math><mmultiscripts><mi>Th</mi><mprescripts/><none/><mn>230</mn></mmultiscripts></math> at the CERN n_TOF facility

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    International audienceThe neutron-induced fission cross section of Th230 has been measured at the neutron time-of-flight facility n_TOF located at CERN. The experiment was performed at the experimental area EAR-1 with a neutron flight path of 185 m, using Micromegas detectors for the detection of the fission fragments. The Th230(n,f) cross section was determined relative to the U235(n,f) one, covering the energy range from the fission threshold up to 400 MeV. The results from the present work are compared with existing cross-section datasets and the observed discrepancies are discussed and analyzed. Finally, using the code empire 3.2.3 a theoretical study, based on the statistical model, was performed leading to a satisfactory reproduction of the experimental results with the proper tuning of the respective parameters, while for incident neutron energy beyond 200 MeV the fission of Th230 was described by Monte Carlo simulations

    Neutron-induced fission cross sections of <math><mmultiscripts><mi>Th</mi><mprescripts/><none/><mn>232</mn></mmultiscripts></math> and <math><mmultiscripts><mi mathvariant="normal">U</mi><mprescripts/><none/><mn>233</mn></mmultiscripts></math> up to 1 GeV using parallel plate avalanche counters at the CERN n_TOF facility

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    International audienceThe neutron-induced fission cross sections¬†of Th232 and U233 were measured relative to U235 in a wide neutron energy range up to 1 GeV (and from fission threshold in the case of Th232, and from 0.7¬†eV in case of U233), using the white-spectrum neutron source at the CERN Neutron Time-of-Flight (n_TOF) facility. Parallel plate avalanche counters (PPACs) were used, installed at the Experimental Area 1 (EAR1), which is located at 185¬†m from the neutron spallation target. The anisotropic emission of fission fragments were taken into account in the detection efficiency by using, in the case of U233, previous results available in EXFOR, whereas in the case of Th232 these data were obtained from our measurement, using PPACs and targets tilted 45‚ąė with respect to the neutron beam direction. Finally, the obtained results are compared with past measurements and major evaluated nuclear data libraries. Calculations using the high-energy reaction models INCL++ and ABLA07 were performed and some of their parameters were modified to reproduce the experimental results. At high energies, where no other neutron data exist, our results are compared with experimental data on proton-induced fission. Moreover, the dependence of the fission cross section¬†at 1 GeV with the fissility parameter of the target nucleus is studied by combining those (p,f) data with our (n,f) data on Th232 and U233 and on other isotopes studied earlier at n_TOF using the same experimental setup

    First measurement of the 94Nb(n,ő≥) cross section at the CERN n_TOF facility

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    One of the crucial ingredients for the improvement of stellar models is the accurate knowledge of neutron capture cross-sections for the different isotopes involved in the s-,r- and i- processes. These measurements can shed light on existing discrepancies between observed and predicted isotopic abundances and help to constrain the physical conditions where these reactions take place along different stages of stellar evolution. In the particular case of the radioactive 94Nb, the 94Nb(n,ő≥) cross-section could play a role in the determination of the s-process production of 94Mo in AGB stars, which presently cannot be reproduced by state-of-the-art stellar models. There are no previous 94Nb(n,ő≥) experimental data for the resolved and unresolved resonance regions mainly due to the difficulties in producing highquality samples and also due to limitations in conventional detection systems commonly used in time-of-flight experiments. Motivated by this situation, a first measurement of the 94Nb(n,ő≥) reaction was carried out at CERN n_TOF, thereby exploiting the high luminosity of the EAR2 area in combination with a new detection system of small-volume C6D6-detectors and a high quality 94Nb-sample. The latter was based on hyper-pure 93Nb material activated at the high-flux reactor of ILL-Grenoble. An innovative ring-configuration detection system in close geometry around the capture sample allowed us to significantly enhance the signal-to-background ratio. This set-up was supplemented with two conventional C6D6-detectors and a highresolution LaCl3(Ce)-detector, which will be employed for addressing reliably systematic effects and uncertainties. At the current status of the data analysis, 18 resonance in 94Nb+n have been observed for the first time in the neutron energy range from thermal up to 10 keV.Title in Web of Science: First measurement of the Nb-94(n,gamma) cross section at the CERN n_TOF facility</p

    The CERN n TOF NEAR station for astrophysics- and application-related neutron activation measurements

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    A new experimental area, the NEAR station, has recently been built at the CERN n TOF facility, at a short distance from the spallation target (1.5 m). The new area, characterized by a neutron beam of very high flux, has been designed with the purpose of performing activation measurements of interest for astrophysics and various applications. The beam is transported from the spallation target to the NEAR station through a hole in the shielding wall of the target, inside which a collimator is inserted. The new area is complemented with a ő≥-ray spectroscopy laboratory, the GEAR station, equipped with a high efficiency HPGe detector, for the measurement of the activity resulting from irradiation of a sample in the NEAR station. The use of a moderator/filter assembly is envisaged, in order to produce a neutron beam of Maxwellian shape at different thermal energies, necessary for the measurement of Maxwellian Averaged Cross Sections of astrophysical interest. A new fast-cycling activation technique is also being investigated, for measurements of reactions leading to isotopes of very short half life

    Advances and new ideas for neutron-capture astrophysics experiments at CERN n_TOF

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    This article presents a few selected developments and future ideas related to the measurement of (n,ő≥)(n,\gamma) data of astrophysical interest at CERN n_TOF. The MC-aided analysis methodology for the use of low-efficiency radiation detectors in time-of-flight neutron-capture measurements is discussed, with particular emphasis on the systematic accuracy. Several recent instrumental advances are also presented, such as the development of total-energy detectors with ő≥\gamma-ray imaging capability for background suppression, and the development of an array of small-volume organic scintillators aimed at exploiting the high instantaneous neutron-flux of EAR2. Finally, astrophysics prospects related to the intermediate ii neutron-capture process of nucleosynthesis are discussed in the context of the new NEAR activation area

    Recoil Proton Telescopes and Parallel Plate Avalanche Counters for the 235^{235}U(n,f) cross section measurement relative to H(n,n)H between 10 and 450 MeV neutron energy

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    With the aim of measuring the 235^{235}U(n,f) cross section at the n_TOF facility at CERN over a wide neutron energy range, a detection system consisting of two fission detectors and three detectors for neutron flux determination was realized. The neutron flux detectors are Recoil Proton Telescopes (RPT), based on scintillators and solid state detectors, conceived to detect recoil protons from the neutron-proton elastic scattering reaction. This system, along with a fission chamber and an array of parallel plate avalanche counters for fission event detection, was installed for the measurement at the n_TOF facility in 2018, at CERN. An overview of the performances of two RPTs - especially developed for this measurement - and of the parallel plate avalanche counters are described in this article. In particular, the characterization in terms of detection efficiency by Monte Carlo simulations and response to neutron beam, the study of the background, dead time correction and characterization of the samples, are reported. The results of the present investigation show that the performances of these detectors are suitable for accurate measurements of fission reaction cross sections in the range from 10 to 450~MeV

    The CERN n TOF NEAR station for astrophysics- and application-related neutron activation measurements

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    A new experimental area, the NEAR station, has recently been built at the CERN n TOF facility, at a short distance from the spallation target (1.5 m). The new area, characterized by a neutron beam of very high flux, has been designed with the purpose of performing activation measurements of interest for astrophysics and various applications. The beam is transported from the spallation target to the NEAR station through a hole in the shielding wall of the target, inside which a collimator is inserted. The new area is complemented with a ő≥-ray spectroscopy laboratory, the GEAR station, equipped with a high efficiency HPGe detector, for the measurement of the activity resulting from irradiation of a sample in the NEAR station. The use of a moderator/filter assembly is envisaged, in order to produce a neutron beam of Maxwellian shape at different thermal energies, necessary for the measurement of Maxwellian Averaged Cross Sections of astrophysical interest. A new fast-cycling activation technique is also being investigated, for measurements of reactions leading to isotopes of very short half life

    The neutron time-of-flight facility n_TOF at CERN Recent facility upgrades and detector developments

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    International audienceBased on an idea by Carlo Rubbia, the n_TOF facility at CERN has been operating for over 20 years. It is a neutron spallation source, driven by the 20 GeV/c proton beam from the CERN PS accelerator. Neutrons in a very wide energy range (from GeV, down to sub-eV kinetic energy) are generated by a massive Lead spallation target feeding two experimental areas. EAR1, horizonal with respect to the proton beam direction is set at 185 meters from the spallation target. EAR2, on the vertical line from the spallation source, is placed at 20 m. Neutron energies for experiments are selected by the time-of-flight technique (hence the name n_TOF), while the long flight paths ensure a very good energy resolution. Over one hundred experiments have been performed by the n_TOF Collaboration at CERN, with applications ranging from nuclear astrophysics (synthesis of the heavy elements in stars, big bang nucleosynthesis, nuclear cosmo-chronology), to advanced nuclear technologies (nuclear data for applications, nuclear safety), as well as for basic nuclear science (reaction mechanisms, structure and decay of highly excited compound states). During the planned shutdown of the CERN accelerator complex between 2019 and 2021, the facility went through a substantial upgrade with a new target-moderator assembly, refurbishing of the neutron beam lines and experimental areas. An additional measuring and irradiation station (the NEAR Station) has been envisaged and its capabilities for performing material test studies and new physics opportunities are presently explored. An overview of the facility and of the activities performed at CERN is presented in this contribution, with a particular emphasis on the most relevant experiments for nuclear astrophysics
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