538 research outputs found

    Mode-locking and mode-competition in a non-equilibrium solid-state condensate

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    A trapped polariton condensate with continuous pumping and decay is analyzed using a generalized Gross-Pitaevskii model. Whereas an equilibrium condensate is characterized by a macroscopic occupation of a ground state, here the steady-states take more general forms. Some are characterized by a large population in an excited state, and others by large populations in several states. In the latter case, the highly-populated states synchronize to a common frequency above a critical density. Estimates for the critical density of this synchronization transition are consistent with experiments.Comment: 5 pages, 2 figure

    Amplitude-mode dynamics of polariton condensates

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    We study the stability of collective amplitude excitations in non-equilibrium polariton condensates. These excitations correspond to renormalized upper polaritons and to the collective amplitude modes of atomic gases and superconductors. They would be present following a quantum quench or could be created directly by resonant excitation. We show that uniform amplitude excitations are unstable to the production of excitations at finite wavevectors, leading to the formation of density-modulated phases. The physical processes causing the instabilities can be understood by analogy to optical parametric oscillators and the atomic Bose supernova.Comment: 4 pages, 2 figure

    Breakdown of counterflow superfluidity in a disordered quantum Hall bilayer

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    We present a theory for the regime of coherent interlayer tunneling in a disordered quantum Hall bilayer at total filling factor one, allowing for the effect of static vortices. We find that the system consists of domains of polarized superfluid phase. Injected currents introduce phase slips between the polarized domains which are pinned by disorder. We present a model of saturated tunneling domains that predicts a critical current for the breakdown of coherent tunneling that is extensive in the system size. This theory is supported by numerical results from a disordered phase model in two dimensions. We also discuss how our picture might be used to interpret experiments in the counterflow geometry and in two-terminal measurements.Comment: 7 pages, 3 figure

    Conical diffraction and the dispersion surface of hyperbolic metamaterials

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    Hyperbolic metamaterials are materials in which at least one principal dielectric constant is negative. We describe the refractive index surface, and the resulting refraction effects, for a biaxial hyperbolic metamaterial, with principal dielectric constants ϵ1<0\epsilon_1<0, 0<ϵ2ϵ30<\epsilon_2\neq\epsilon_3. In this general case the two sheets of the index surface intersect forming conical singularities. We derive the ray description of conical refraction in these materials, and show that it is topologically and quantitatively distinct from conical refraction in a conventional biaxial material. We also develop a wave optics description, which allows us to obtain the diffraction patterns formed from arbitrary beams incident close to the optic axis. The resulting patterns lack circular symmetry, and hence are qualitatively different from those obtained in conventional, positive index materials.Comment: 10 pages, 7 figure

    The new physics of non-equilibrium condensates: insights from classical dynamics

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    We discuss the dynamics of classical Dicke-type models, aiming to clarify the mechanisms by which coherent states could develop in potentially non-equilibrium systems such as semiconductor microcavities. We present simulations of an undamped model which show spontaneous coherent states with persistent oscillations in the magnitude of the order parameter. These states are generalisations of superradiant ringing to the case of inhomogeneous broadening. They correspond to the persistent gap oscillations proposed in fermionic atomic condensates, and arise from a variety of initial conditions. We show that introducing randomness into the couplings can suppress the oscillations, leading to a limiting dynamics with a time-independent order parameter. This demonstrates that non-equilibrium generalisations of polariton condensates can be created even without dissipation. We explain the dynamical origins of the coherence in terms of instabilities of the normal state, and consider how it can additionally develop through scattering and dissipation.Comment: 10 pages, 4 figures, submitted for a special issue of J. Phys.: Condensed Matter on "Optical coherence and collective phenomena in nanostructures". v2: added discussion of links to exact solution

    Creation of entangled states in coupled quantum dots via adiabatic rapid passage

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    Quantum state preparation through external control is fundamental to established methods in quantum information processing and in studies of dynamics. In this respect, excitons in semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are of particular interest since their coupling to light allows them to be driven into a specified state using the coherent interaction with a tuned optical field such as an external laser pulse. We propose a protocol, based on adiabatic rapid passage, for the creation of entangled states in an ensemble of pairwise coupled two-level systems, such as an ensemble of QD molecules. We show by quantitative analysis using realistic parameters for semiconductor QDs that this method is feasible where other approaches are unavailable. Furthermore, this scheme can be generically transferred to some other physical systems including circuit QED, nuclear and electron spins in solid-state environments, and photonic coupled cavities.Comment: 10 pages, 2 figures. Added reference, minor changes. Discussion, results and conclusions unchange

    Quantum condensation from a tailored exciton population in a microcavity

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    An experiment is proposed, on the coherent quantum dynamics of a semiconductor microcavity containing quantum dots. Modeling the experiment using a generalized Dicke model, we show that a tailored excitation pulse can create an energy-dependent population of excitons, which subsequently evolves to a quantum condensate of excitons and photons. The population is created by a generalization of adiabatic rapid passage, and then condenses due to a dynamical analog of the BCS instability.Comment: 5 pages, 3 figures. Version 2 is extensively rewritten, and incorporates some new results in further support of our claim