795 research outputs found

    A new method for oral cancer biomarkers detection with a non-invasive cyto-salivary sampling and rapid-highly sensitive ELISA immunoassay: a pilot study in humans

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    Introduction: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) accounts for approximately 90% of oral malignancies and has a 5-year mortality rate close to 50%. A consistent part (70%) of all oral cancers is diagnosed at an advanced stage since available screening techniques are ineffective. Therefore, it would be urgent to improve them. The diagnostic gold standard is tissue biopsy with histological and immunohistochemical assessment. This method presents some limitations. Biopsy is invasive and the histopathological evaluation is semi-quantitative, and the absolute abundance of the target cannot be reliably determined. In addition, tissue is highly processed and may lead to loss of information of the natural state. The search for classical and new clinical biomarkers on fragments of tissue/cells collected with a cytobrush is a highly hopeful technique for early detection and diagnosis of OSCC, because of its non-invasive sampling and easy collection method. Methods: Here we analyzed cytobrush biopsies samples collected from the oral cavity of 15 patients with already diagnosed OSCC by applying an innovative high-sensitivity ELISA technique, in order to verify if this approach may provide useful information for detection, diagnosis, and prognosis of OSCC. To this end, we selected six biomarkers, already used in clinical practice for the diagnosis of OSCC (EGFR, Ki67, p53) or selected based on recent scientific and clinical data which indicate their presence or over-expression in cells undergoing transformation and their role as possible molecular targets in immunecheckpoints blockade therapies (PD-L1, HLA-E, B7-H6). Results: The selected tumor biomarkers were highly expressed in the tumor core, while were virtually negative in healthy tissue collected from the same patients. These differences were highly statistically significant and consistent with those obtained using the gold standard test clearly indicating that the proposed approach, i.e. analysis of biomarkers by a custom ELISA technique, is strongly reliable. Discussion: These preliminary data suggest that this non-invasive rapid phenotyping technique could be useful as a screening tool for phenotyping oral lesions and support clinical practice by precise indications on the characteristics of the lesion, also with a view to the application of new anti-tumor treatments, such as immunotherapy, aimed at OSCC patients

    Cosmic ray shower rate variations detected by the ARGO-YBJ experiment during thunderstorms

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    The ARGO-YBJ detector, located at the Yangbajing Cosmic Ray Laboratory (4300 m a. s. l., Tibet, China), was a full coverageair shower array. The high altitude location and the frequent occurrence of thunderstorms, made ARGO-YBJ suitable to study the effects of atmospheric electric fields (AEF) on secondary cosmic rays. By analyzing the data of the ARGO-YBJ detector recorded during thunderstorms, significant variations of the rate of detected showers have been observed. During 20 thunderstorm episodes in 2012, the variations of the shower rates (both increases and decreases of amplitudes up to a few percent) are found to be correlated to the intensity and polarity of the AEF, and strongly dependent on the primary zenith angle. To understand the observed behavior, Monte Carlo simulations have been performed with corsika and g4argo (a code based on geant4). We found that the data are well consistent with simulations, assuming the presence of a uniform electric field in a layer of thickness of 500 m in the atmosphere above the observation level. Due to the AEF accelerates/decelerates and deflects the secondary charged particles (mainly electrons and positrons) according to their charge, modifying the number and position of particles with energy exceeding the detector threshold. For the differences in electron and positron flux, spectrum, and lateral distribution, the AEF has an asymmetric effect on the shower particles, producing significant variations of the particle pattern on the ground, and, consequently, on the rate of detected showers, consistent with observations

    Breast Cancer Patients' Experience and Wishes Regarding Communication on Sexual Health: The BEROSE Study

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    : BEROSE is a single-center observational study, which aimed to determine the proportion of women with breast cancer who received information on sexual health from health professionals throughout their whole care pathway. A total of 318 women with all stages of breast cancer (30% metastatic) and at different time interval from diagnosis (up to 7 years) participated to the survey. Sixty-five percent of women reported that they had not received any information about sexual health over the whole care. Increased awareness among the healthcare professionals and particularly the oncology community is needed to discuss sexual health in women with breast cancer

    Safety and Efficacy of Bevacizumab in Cancer Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

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    The safety of bevacizumab in combination with chemotherapy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and digestive and nondigestive cancers is poorly documented. We retrospectively evaluated patient records of all adult cancer patients with IBD at our institution from April 2007 to May 2016 with an update in November 2019. Twenty-seven patients with a history of IBD (Crohn's disease, n = 22; ulcerative colitis, n = 5) who were treated with bevacizumab and chemotherapy for metastatic solid tumors were identified. At the time of advanced cancer diagnosis, 18 patients had quiescent IBD, whereas 9 patients had moderately active IBD. Among those with moderately active IBD, five had received corticosteroids less than six months prior to cancer diagnosis and one had received infliximab. The treated cancers were colorectal cancer (n = 13), small bowel cancer (n = 4), non-small cell lung cancer (n = 3), breast cancer (n = 3), and other cancers (n = 4). Patients received bevacizumab in combination with chemotherapy and/or as maintenance for a median of 6.7 months. Grade 2 or higher bevacizumab-related complications were proteinuria in two patients and hypertension, diarrhea, rectal bleeding, and intestinal perforation in one patient each. No clinical IBD flares were observed during bevacizumab treatment. Bevacizumab combined with chemotherapy is safe in cancer patients with moderately active or quiescent IBD

    Reverse Guided Bone Regeneration (R-GBR) Digital Workflow for Atrophic Jaws Rehabilitation

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    Featured Application: The proposed protocol, starting from a careful prediction of the final result with the ideal relationship between the prosthesis and soft tissues, aims to improve the GBR approach, particularly for critical atrophies. Background: Treating extended alveolar defects is challenging for their irregular shape and lack of hard and soft tissues. Virtual planned guided bone regeneration (GBR) with customized meshes aims to optimize the treatment by reducing the risk of dehiscence. The mucosa characteristics are crucial in preserving the bone graft covering and vitality. Methods: Two three-dimensional and extended defects, a mandibular posterior and anterior maxillary atrophy were reconstructed with a particulate graft and a digitally customized scaffold. The workflow entailed merging the pre-operatory clinical related data from intra-oral scanning with the radiologic ones from cone beam-CT. A final ideal prediction of the soft tissue relationship with the implant-borne prosthesis was virtually elaborated, conditioning the design of the titanium membrane fitting the bone defects. Results: A good matching between the scaffold and the bone surface was intra-operatory noted; no complications were registered in the first months of healing with complete integrity of the soft tissues above the graft. Conclusions: A careful evaluation of the soft tissues and a forecast of their final relationship with the implant and prosthesis can improve digital mesh/membrane manufacturing with a suitable healing process up to implant placement and loading, favoring peri-implant tissue stability over time

    Cosmic ray shower rate variations detected by the ARGO-YBJ experiment during thunderstorms

    No full text
    The ARGO-YBJ detector, located at the Yangbajing Cosmic Ray Laboratory (4300 m a. s. l., Tibet, China), was a "full coverage" air shower array. The high altitude location and the frequent occurrence of thunderstorms, made ARGO-YBJ suitable to study the effects of atmospheric electric fields (AEF) on secondary cosmic rays. By analyzing the data of the ARGO-YBJ detector recorded during thunderstorms, significant variations of the rate of detected showers have been observed. During 20 thunderstorm episodes in 2012, the variations of the shower rates (both increases and decreases of amplitudes up to a few percent) are found to be correlated to the intensity and polarity of the AEF, and strongly dependent on the primary zenith angle. To understand the observed behavior, Monte Carlo simulations have been performed with CORSIKA and G4argo (a code based on GEANT4). We found that the data are well consistent with simulations, assuming the presence of a uniform electric field in a layer of thickness of 500 m in the atmosphere above the observation level. Due to the AEF accelerates/decelerates and deflects the secondary charged particles (mainly electrons and positrons) according to their charge, modifying the number and position of particles with energy exceeding the detector threshold. For the differences in electron and positron flux, spectrum, and lateral distribution, the AEF has an asymmetric effect on the shower particles, producing significant variations of the particle pattern on the ground, and, consequently, on the rate of detected showers, consistent with observations
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