782 research outputs found

    Effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on surgery for indeterminate thyroid nodules (THYCOVID): a retrospective, international, multicentre, cross-sectional study

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    Background Since its outbreak in early 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic has diverted resources from non-urgent and elective procedures, leading to diagnosis and treatment delays, with an increased number of neoplasms at advanced stages worldwide. The aims of this study were to quantify the reduction in surgical activity for indeterminate thyroid nodules during the COVID-19 pandemic; and to evaluate whether delays in surgery led to an increased occurrence of aggressive tumours.Methods In this retrospective, international, cross-sectional study, centres were invited to participate in June 22, 2022; each centre joining the study was asked to provide data from medical records on all surgical thyroidectomies consecutively performed from Jan 1, 2019, to Dec 31, 2021. Patients with indeterminate thyroid nodules were divided into three groups according to when they underwent surgery: from Jan 1, 2019, to Feb 29, 2020 (global prepandemic phase), from March 1, 2020, to May 31, 2021 (pandemic escalation phase), and from June 1 to Dec 31, 2021 (pandemic decrease phase). The main outcomes were, for each phase, the number of surgeries for indeterminate thyroid nodules, and in patients with a postoperative diagnosis of thyroid cancers, the occurrence of tumours larger than 10 mm, extrathyroidal extension, lymph node metastases, vascular invasion, distant metastases, and tumours at high risk of structural disease recurrence. Univariate analysis was used to compare the probability of aggressive thyroid features between the first and third study phases. The study was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT05178186.Findings Data from 157 centres (n=49 countries) on 87 467 patients who underwent surgery for benign and malignant thyroid disease were collected, of whom 22 974 patients (18 052 [78 center dot 6%] female patients and 4922 [21 center dot 4%] male patients) received surgery for indeterminate thyroid nodules. We observed a significant reduction in surgery for indeterminate thyroid nodules during the pandemic escalation phase (median monthly surgeries per centre, 1 center dot 4 [IQR 0 center dot 6-3 center dot 4]) compared with the prepandemic phase (2 center dot 0 [0 center dot 9-3 center dot 7]; p<0 center dot 0001) and pandemic decrease phase (2 center dot 3 [1 center dot 0-5 center dot 0]; p<0 center dot 0001). Compared with the prepandemic phase, in the pandemic decrease phase we observed an increased occurrence of thyroid tumours larger than 10 mm (2554 [69 center dot 0%] of 3704 vs 1515 [71 center dot 5%] of 2119; OR 1 center dot 1 [95% CI 1 center dot 0-1 center dot 3]; p=0 center dot 042), lymph node metastases (343 [9 center dot 3%] vs 264 [12 center dot 5%]; OR 1 center dot 4 [1 center dot 2-1 center dot 7]; p=0 center dot 0001), and tumours at high risk of structural disease recurrence (203 [5 center dot 7%] of 3584 vs 155 [7 center dot 7%] of 2006; OR 1 center dot 4 [1 center dot 1-1 center dot 7]; p=0 center dot 0039).Interpretation Our study suggests that the reduction in surgical activity for indeterminate thyroid nodules during the COVID-19 pandemic period could have led to an increased occurrence of aggressive thyroid tumours. However, other compelling hypotheses, including increased selection of patients with aggressive malignancies during this period, should be considered. We suggest that surgery for indeterminate thyroid nodules should no longer be postponed even in future instances of pandemic escalation.Funding None.Copyright (c) 2023 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved

    Updated constraints on sterile neutrino mixing in the OPERA experiment using a new 谓 e identification method

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    Nancy Grace Roman Space Telescope Coronagraph Instrument Overview and Status

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    The Nancy Grace Roman Space Telescope Coronagraph Instrument is a critical technology demonstrator for NASA's Habitable Worlds Observatory. With a predicted visible-light flux ratio detection limit of 1E-8 or better, it will be capable of reaching new areas of parameter space for both gas giant exoplanets and circumstellar disks. It is in the final stages of integration and test at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, with an anticipated delivery to payload integration in the coming year. This paper will review the instrument systems, observing modes, potential observing applications, and overall progress toward instrument integration and test.Comment: Proceedings of SPIE: Techniques and Instrumentation for Detection of Exoplanets XI, vol. 12680 (2023

    Effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on surgery for indeterminate thyroid nodules (THYCOVID): a retrospective, international, multicentre, cross-sectional study

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    Background: Since its outbreak in early 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic has diverted resources from non-urgent and elective procedures, leading to diagnosis and treatment delays, with an increased number of neoplasms at advanced stages worldwide. The aims of this study were to quantify the reduction in surgical activity for indeterminate thyroid nodules during the COVID-19 pandemic; and to evaluate whether delays in surgery led to an increased occurrence of aggressive tumours. Methods: In this retrospective, international, cross-sectional study, centres were invited to participate in June 22, 2022; each centre joining the study was asked to provide data from medical records on all surgical thyroidectomies consecutively performed from Jan 1, 2019, to Dec 31, 2021. Patients with indeterminate thyroid nodules were divided into three groups according to when they underwent surgery: from Jan 1, 2019, to Feb 29, 2020 (global prepandemic phase), from March 1, 2020, to May 31, 2021 (pandemic escalation phase), and from June 1 to Dec 31, 2021 (pandemic decrease phase). The main outcomes were, for each phase, the number of surgeries for indeterminate thyroid nodules, and in patients with a postoperative diagnosis of thyroid cancers, the occurrence of tumours larger than 10 mm, extrathyroidal extension, lymph node metastases, vascular invasion, distant metastases, and tumours at high risk of structural disease recurrence. Univariate analysis was used to compare the probability of aggressive thyroid features between the first and third study phases. The study was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT05178186. Findings: Data from 157 centres (n=49 countries) on 87 467 patients who underwent surgery for benign and malignant thyroid disease were collected, of whom 22 974 patients (18 052 [78路6%] female patients and 4922 [21路4%] male patients) received surgery for indeterminate thyroid nodules. We observed a significant reduction in surgery for indeterminate thyroid nodules during the pandemic escalation phase (median monthly surgeries per centre, 1路4 [IQR 0路6-3路4]) compared with the prepandemic phase (2路0 [0路9-3路7]; p<0路0001) and pandemic decrease phase (2路3 [1路0-5路0]; p<0路0001). Compared with the prepandemic phase, in the pandemic decrease phase we observed an increased occurrence of thyroid tumours larger than 10 mm (2554 [69路0%] of 3704 vs 1515 [71路5%] of 2119; OR 1路1 [95% CI 1路0-1路3]; p=0路042), lymph node metastases (343 [9路3%] vs 264 [12路5%]; OR 1路4 [1路2-1路7]; p=0路0001), and tumours at high risk of structural disease recurrence (203 [5路7%] of 3584 vs 155 [7路7%] of 2006; OR 1路4 [1路1-1路7]; p=0路0039). Interpretation: Our study suggests that the reduction in surgical activity for indeterminate thyroid nodules during the COVID-19 pandemic period could have led to an increased occurrence of aggressive thyroid tumours. However, other compelling hypotheses, including increased selection of patients with aggressive malignancies during this period, should be considered. We suggest that surgery for indeterminate thyroid nodules should no longer be postponed even in future instances of pandemic escalation. Funding: None

    Effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on surgery for indeterminate thyroid nodules (THYCOVID): a retrospective, international, multicentre, cross-sectional study.

    No full text
    Since its outbreak in early 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic has diverted resources from non-urgent and elective procedures, leading to diagnosis and treatment delays, with an increased number of neoplasms at advanced stages worldwide. The aims of this study were to quantify the reduction in surgical activity for indeterminate thyroid nodules during the COVID-19 pandemic; and to evaluate whether delays in surgery led to an increased occurrence of aggressive tumours. In this retrospective, international, cross-sectional study, centres were invited to participate in June 22, 2022; each centre joining the study was asked to provide data from medical records on all surgical thyroidectomies consecutively performed from Jan 1, 2019, to Dec 31, 2021. Patients with indeterminate thyroid nodules were divided into three groups according to when they underwent surgery: from Jan 1, 2019, to Feb 29, 2020 (global prepandemic phase), from March 1, 2020, to May 31, 2021 (pandemic escalation phase), and from June 1 to Dec 31, 2021 (pandemic decrease phase). The main outcomes were, for each phase, the number of surgeries for indeterminate thyroid nodules, and in patients with a postoperative diagnosis of thyroid cancers, the occurrence of tumours larger than 10 mm, extrathyroidal extension, lymph node metastases, vascular invasion, distant metastases, and tumours at high risk of structural disease recurrence. Univariate analysis was used to compare the probability of aggressive thyroid features between the first and third study phases. The study was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT05178186. Data from 157 centres (n=49 countries) on 87 467 patients who underwent surgery for benign and malignant thyroid disease were collected, of whom 22 974 patients (18 052 [78路6%] female patients and 4922 [21路4%] male patients) received surgery for indeterminate thyroid nodules. We observed a significant reduction in surgery for indeterminate thyroid nodules during the pandemic escalation phase (median monthly surgeries per centre, 1路4 [IQR 0路6-3路4]) compared with the prepandemic phase (2路0 [0路9-3路7]; p<0路0001) and pandemic decrease phase (2路3 [1路0-5路0]; p<0路0001). Compared with the prepandemic phase, in the pandemic decrease phase we observed an increased occurrence of thyroid tumours larger than 10 mm (2554 [69路0%] of 3704 vs 1515 [71路5%] of 2119; OR 1路1 [95% CI 1路0-1路3]; p=0路042), lymph node metastases (343 [9路3%] vs 264 [12路5%]; OR 1路4 [1路2-1路7]; p=0路0001), and tumours at high risk of structural disease recurrence (203 [5路7%] of 3584 vs 155 [7路7%] of 2006; OR 1路4 [1路1-1路7]; p=0路0039). Our study suggests that the reduction in surgical activity for indeterminate thyroid nodules during the COVID-19 pandemic period could have led to an increased occurrence of aggressive thyroid tumours. However, other compelling hypotheses, including increased selection of patients with aggressive malignancies during this period, should be considered. We suggest that surgery for indeterminate thyroid nodules should no longer be postponed even in future instances of pandemic escalation. None

    The association between low skeletal muscle mass and delirium: results from the nationwide multi-centre Italian Delirium Day 2017.

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    Introduction: Delirium and sarcopenia are common, although underdiagnosed, geriatric syndromes. Several pathological mechanisms can link delirium and low skeletal muscle mass, but few studies have investigated their association. We aimed to investigate (1) the association between delirium and low skeletal muscle mass and (2) the possible role of calf circumference mass in finding cases with delirium. Methods: The analyses were conducted employing the cross-sectional "Delirium Day" initiative, on patient 65 years and older admitted to acute hospital medical wards, emergency departments, rehabilitation wards, nursing homes and hospices in Italy in 2017. Delirium was diagnosed as a 4 + score at the 4-AT scale. Low skeletal muscle mass was operationally defined as calf circumference 鈮 34 cm in males and 鈮 33 cm in females. Logistic regression models were used to investigate the association between low skeletal muscle mass and delirium. The discriminative ability of calf circumference was evaluated using non-parametric ROC analyses. Results: A sample of 1675 patients was analyzed. In total, 73.6% of participants had low skeletal muscle mass and 24.1% exhibited delirium. Low skeletal muscle mass and delirium showed an independent association (OR: 1.50; 95% CI 1.09-2.08). In the subsample of patients without a diagnosis of dementia, the inclusion of calf circumference in a model based on age and sex significantly improved its discriminative accuracy [area under the curve (AUC) 0.69 vs 0.57, p < 0.001]. Discussion and conclusion: Low muscle mass is independently associated with delirium. In patients without a previous diagnosis of dementia, calf circumference may help to better identify those who develop delirium

    Prevalence and features of delirium in older patients admitted to rehabilitation facilities: a multicenter study

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    Background: Delirium is thought to be common across various settings of care; however, still little research has been conducted in rehabilitation. Aim: We investigated the prevalence of delirium, its features and motor subtypes in older patients admitted to rehabilitation facilities during the three editions of the "Delirium Day project". Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in which 1237 older patients (age 鈮 65 years old) admitted to 50 Italian rehabilitation wards during the three editions of the "Delirium Day project" (2015 to 2017) were included. Delirium was evaluated through the 4AT and its motor subtype with the Delirium Motor Subtype Scale. Results: Delirium was detected in 226 patients (18%), and the most recurrent motor subtype was mixed (37%), followed by hypoactive (26%), hyperactive (21%) and non-motor one (16%). In a multivariate Poisson regression model with robust variance, factors associated with delirium were: disability in basic (PR 1.48, 95%CI: 1.17-1.9, p value 0.001) and instrumental activities of daily living (PR 1.58, 95%CI: 1.08-2.32, p value 0.018), dementia (PR 2.10, 95%CI: 1.62-2.73, p value < 0.0001), typical antipsychotics (PR 1.47, 95%CI: 1.10-1.95, p value 0.008), antidepressants other than selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (PR 1.3, 95%CI: 1.02-1.66, p value 0.035), and physical restraints (PR 2.37, 95%CI: 1.68-3.36, p value < 0.0001). Conclusion: This multicenter study reports that 2 out 10 patients admitted to rehabilitations had delirium on the index day. Mixed delirium was the most prevalent subtype. Delirium was associated with unmodifiable (dementia, disability) and modifiable (physical restraints, medications) factors. Identification of these factors should prompt specific interventions aimed to prevent or mitigate delirium

    Identification of new FK866 analogues with potent anticancer activity against pancreatic cancer.

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    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal diseases for which chemotherapy has not been very successful yet. FK866 ((E)-N-(4-(1-benzoylpiperidin-4-yl)butyl)-3-(pyridin-3-yl)acrylamide) is a well-known NAMPT (nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase) inhibitor with anti-cancer activities, but it failed in phase II clinical trials. We found that FK866 shows anti-proliferative activity in three PDAC cell lines, as well as in Jurkat T-cell leukemia cells. More than 50 FK866 analogues were synthesized that introduce substituents on the phenyl ring of the piperidine benzamide group of FK866 and exchange its buta-1,4-diyl tether for 1-oxyprop-3-yl, (E)-but-2-en-1,4-diyl and 2- and 3-carbon tethers. The pyridin-3-yl moiety of FK866 was exchanged for chlorinated and fluorinated analogues and for pyrazin-2-yl and pyridazin-4-yl groups. Several compounds showed low nanomolar or sub-nanomolar cell growth inhibitory activity. Our best cell anti-proliferative compounds were the 2,4,6-trimethoxybenzamide analogue of FK866 ((E)-N-(4-(1-(2,4,6-trimethoxybenzoyl)piperidin-4-yl)butyl)-3-(pyridin-3-yl)acrylamide) (9), the 2,6-dimethoxybenzamide (8) and 2-methoxybenzamide (4), which exhibited an IC <sub>50</sub> of 0.16 nM, 0.004 nM and 0.08 nM toward PDAC cells, respectively

    Delirium and Clusters of Older Patients Affected by Multimorbidity in Acute Hospitals.

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    Objectives: Delirium is commonly seen in older adults with multimorbidity, during a hospitalization, resulting from the interplay between predisposing factors such as advanced age, frailty, and dementia, and a series of precipitating factors. The association between delirium and specific multimorbidity is largely unexplored so far although of potential key relevance for targeted interventions. The aim of the study was to check for a potential association of multimorbidity with delirium in a large cohort of older patients hospitalized for an acute medical or surgical condition. Design: This is a cross-sectional study nested in the 2017 Delirium Day project. Setting and participants: The study includes 1829 hospitalized patients (age: 81.8, SD: 5.5). Of them, 419 (22.9%) had delirium. Methods: Sociodemographic and medical history were collected. The 4AT was used to assess the presence of delirium. The Charlson Comorbidity index was used to assess multimorbidity. Results: The results identified neurosensorial multimorbidity as the most prevalent, including patients with dementia, cerebrovascular diseases, and sensory impairments. In light of the highest co-occurrence of 3 neurosensorial chronic conditions, we could hypothesize that a baseline altered brain functional and neural connectivity might determine the vulnerability signature for incipient overall system disruption in presence of acute insults. Conclusions and implications: Eventually, our findings moved a step forward in supporting the key importance of routine screening for sensory impairments and cognitive status of older patients for the highest risk of in-hospital delirium. In fact, preventive interventions could be particularly relevant and effective in preventing delirium in such vulnerable populations and might help refining this early diagnosis

    Updated constraints on sterile neutrino mixing in the OPERA experiment using a new e\nu_e identification method

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    This paper describes a new e\nu_e identification method specifically designed to improve the low-energy (<30GeV< 30\,\mathrm{GeV}) e\nu_e identification efficiency attained by enlarging the emulsion film scanning volume with the next generation emulsion readout system. A relative increase of 25-70% in the e\nu_e low-energy region is expected, leading to improvements in the OPERA sensitivity to neutrino oscillations in the framework of the 3 + 1 model. The method is applied to a subset of data where the detection efficiency increase is expected to be more relevant, and one additional e\nu_e candidate is found. The analysis combined with the \nu_\tau appearance results improves the upper limit on sin22e\sin^2 2\theta_{\mu e} to 0.016 at 90% C.L. in the MiniBooNE allowed region m4120.3eV2\Delta m^2_{41} \sim 0.3\,\mathrm{eV}^2
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