8,715 research outputs found

    Improved overall survival in patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer is associated with CD16a+ immunologic neighborhoods containing NK cells, T cells and macrophages

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    BackgroundFor patients with high grade serous carcinoma of the ovary (HGSC), survival rates have remained static for the last half century. Despite the presence of tumor mutations and infiltration of immune cells, existing immunotherapies have achieved little success against HGSC. These observations highlight a gap in the understanding of how the immune system functions and interacts within HGSC tumors.MethodsWe analyzed duplicate core samples from 939 patients with HGSC to understand patterns of immune cell infiltration, localization, and associations with clinical features. We used high-parameter immunohistochemical/Opal multiplex, digital pathology, computational biology, and multivariate analysis to identify immune cell subsets and their associations with HGSC tumors.ResultsWe defined six patterns of cellular infiltration by spatially restricted unsupervised clustering of cell subsets. Each pattern was represented to some extent in most patient samples, but their specific distributions differed. Overall (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) corresponded with higher infiltration of CD16a+ cells, and their co-localization with macrophages, T cells, NK cells, in one of six cellular neighborhoods that we defined with our spatial assessment.ConclusionsImmune cell neighborhoods containing CD16a+ cells are associated with improved OS and PFS for patients with HGSC. Patterns of immunologic neighborhoods differentiate patient outcomes, and could inform future, more precise approaches to treatment

    Ecological importance of lepidopteran defoliators on eucalyptus plantations based in faunistic and natural enemy analyses

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    Abstract Areas planted with Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake variety platyphylla F. Muell. (Myrtaceae) expand annually in most regions of Brazil. Many lepidopteran species defoliate this plant, but with damage varying per species. The objective of this study was to identify the pest status of lepidopteran defoliators based in the faunistic analysis of these insects and of their natural enemies on E. urophylla variety platyphylla plantations in a representative producing region of Brazil. Adult moths of lepidopterans and of their natural enemies were captured using a light trap, installed every two weeks, from September 2016 to August 2018. A total of 183, 10, three and 139 lepidopteran species was captured and classified as primary, secondary, without defined importance to eucalypt plants and non-identified with 1,419, seven, 465 and 876 individuals, respectively. Two primary pest species were constants, two accessories and six accidentals and all secondary ones were accidentals. Six primary pest species were common and dominant and four non-dominants. Faunistic indices indicated the main lepidopteran species that should be monitored in pest management programs. Seven hymenopteran species (65 individuals), three dipterans (49 individuals) and two hemipterans (four individuals) were the natural enemies collected using light traps. The monitoring of lepidopteran pests with light traps can contribute to the management and to reduce damage and control costs for these species, besides identifying natural enemies for biological control programs in Eucalyptus plantations

    An interdisciplinary understanding of energy citizenship: Integrating psychological, legal, and economic perspectives on a citizen-centred sustainable energy transition

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    Energy citizenship is an emerging concept in policy and practice. Yet scientific theorising around energy citizenship is scarce, and rarely bundled in interdisciplinary discourse. In this article, we present an interdisciplinary definition of energy citizenship as people's rights to and responsibilities for a just and sustainable energy transition. Energy citizenship contains multiple aspects and allows for various approaches, of which we zoom into psychological, legal, and economic perspectives on the topic. From a psychological perspective, we construct an empirically testable sub-definition of energy citizenship based on previous psychological theorising. A legal perspective shows, exemplarily for the EU context, that energy citizenship qualifies as an EU citizenship because it consists of a bundle of rights and duties of the individual in the context of a committed, just and sustainable energy transition. An economic perspective reveals how energy citizenship already takes shape in current EU directives, and how this implies a new ‚Äď more collectivist ‚Äď economic model. Drawing on the three perspectives, we then sketch energy citizenship as an interdisciplinary research field. As a conclusion, we present a transdisciplinary definition of energy citizenship that is suitable for policy makers, energy communities and citizens, as it explicates a co-responsible process of people and governments

    Para-infectious brain injury in COVID-19 persists at follow-up despite attenuated cytokine and autoantibody responses

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    To understand neurological complications of COVID-19 better both acutely and for recovery, we measured markers of brain injury, inflammatory mediators, and autoantibodies in 203 hospitalised participants; 111 with acute sera (1‚Äď11 days post-admission) and 92 convalescent sera (56 with COVID-19-associated neurological diagnoses). Here we show that compared to 60 uninfected controls, tTau, GFAP, NfL, and UCH-L1 are increased with COVID-19 infection at acute timepoints and NfL and GFAP are significantly higher in participants with neurological complications. Inflammatory mediators (IL-6, IL-12p40, HGF, M-CSF, CCL2, and IL-1RA) are associated with both altered consciousness and markers of brain injury. Autoantibodies are more common in COVID-19 than controls and some (including against MYL7, UCH-L1, and GRIN3B) are more frequent with altered consciousness. Additionally, convalescent participants with neurological complications show elevated GFAP and NfL, unrelated to attenuated systemic inflammatory mediators and to autoantibody responses. Overall, neurological complications of COVID-19 are associated with evidence of neuroglial injury in both acute and late disease and these correlate with dysregulated innate and adaptive immune responses acutely

    Search for events in XENON1T associated with Gravitational Waves

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    We perform a blind search for particle signals in the XENON1T dark matter detector that occur close in time to gravitational wave signals in the LIGO and Virgo observatories. No particle signal is observed in the nuclear recoil, electronic recoil, CEőĹ\nuNS, and S2-only channels within ¬Ī\pm 500 seconds of observations of the gravitational wave signals GW170104, GW170729, GW170817, GW170818, and GW170823. We use this null result to constrain mono-energetic neutrinos and Beyond Standard Model particles emitted in the closest coalescence GW170817, a binary neutron star merger. We set new upper limits on the fluence (time-integrated flux) of coincident neutrinos down to 17 keV at 90% confidence level. Furthermore, we constrain the product of coincident fluence and cross section of Beyond Standard Model particles to be less than 10‚ąí2910^{-29} cm2^2/cm2^2 in the [5.5-210] keV energy range at 90% confidence level

    What caused Earth's temperature variations during the last 800,000 years? Data-based evidences on radiative forcing and constraints on climate sensitivity

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    International audienceThe temperature on Earth varied largely in the Pleistocene from cold glacials to warmer than present interglacials. To contribute to an understanding of the underlying causes of these changes we compile various environmental records (and model-based interpretations of some of them) in order to calculate the direct effect of various processes on Earth's radiative budget and, thus, on global annual mean surface temperature over the last 800,000 years. The importance of orbital variations, of the greenhouse gases cO2, CH4 and N2O, of the albedo of land ice sheets, sea ice area and vegetation, and of the radiative perturbation of mineral dust in the atmosphere are investigated. Furthermore, changes in annual mean snow cover on surface albedo and of ice sheet elevation and sea level change on orography are considered as additional contributors to glacial cooling. Increased Antarctic temperatures in Marine Isotope Stages 5.5, 7.5, 9.3 and 11.3 are difficult to explain. The unaccounted feedbacks would, if taken at present day feedback strengths, ask for another cooling at the LGM of 2 to 10 K. If compared with other studies, such as PMIP2, this gives supporting evidence that the feedback strength themselves are not constant, but depend on the mean climate state. The best estimate and uncertainty for the reconstructed radiative forcing and LGM cooling support a present day climate sensitivity (excluding the ice sheet and vegetation components) between 1.3 and 5.2 K, with a most likely value near 2.3 K, somewhat smaller than other methods but consistent with the consensus range of 2 - 4.5 K derived from other lines of evidence. Climate sensitivities above 6 K are difficult to reconcile with LGM econstructions
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