72 research outputs found

    Global variations in diabetes mellitus based on fasting glucose and haemogloblin A1c

    Get PDF
    Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) are both used to diagnose diabetes, but may identify different people as having diabetes. We used data from 117 population-based studies and quantified, in different world regions, the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes, and whether those who were previously undiagnosed and detected as having diabetes in survey screening had elevated FPG, HbA1c, or both. We developed prediction equations for estimating the probability that a person without previously diagnosed diabetes, and at a specific level of FPG, had elevated HbA1c, and vice versa. The age-standardised proportion of diabetes that was previously undiagnosed, and detected in survey screening, ranged from 30% in the high-income western region to 66% in south Asia. Among those with screen-detected diabetes with either test, the agestandardised proportion who had elevated levels of both FPG and HbA1c was 29-39% across regions; the remainder had discordant elevation of FPG or HbA1c. In most low- and middle-income regions, isolated elevated HbA1c more common than isolated elevated FPG. In these regions, the use of FPG alone may delay diabetes diagnosis and underestimate diabetes prevalence. Our prediction equations help allocate finite resources for measuring HbA1c to reduce the global gap in diabetes diagnosis and surveillance.peer-reviewe

    Global variation in diabetes diagnosis and prevalence based on fasting glucose and hemoglobin A1c

    Get PDF
    : Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) are both used to diagnose diabetes, but these measurements can identify different people as having diabetes. We used data from 117 population-based studies and quantified, in different world regions, the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes, and whether those who were previously undiagnosed and detected as having diabetes in survey screening, had elevated FPG, HbA1c or both. We developed prediction equations for estimating the probability that a person without previously diagnosed diabetes, and at a specific level of FPG, had elevated HbA1c, and vice versa. The age-standardized proportion of diabetes that was previously undiagnosed and detected in survey screening ranged from 30% in the high-income western region to 66% in south Asia. Among those with screen-detected diabetes with either test, the age-standardized proportion who had elevated levels of both FPG and HbA1c was 29-39% across regions; the remainder had discordant elevation of FPG or HbA1c. In most low- and middle-income regions, isolated elevated HbA1c was more common than isolated elevated FPG. In these regions, the use of FPG alone may delay diabetes diagnosis and underestimate diabetes prevalence. Our prediction equations help allocate finite resources for measuring HbA1c to reduce the global shortfall in diabetes diagnosis and surveillance

    Effectiveness of a sepsis programme in a resource-limited setting: a retrospective analysis of data of a prospective observational study (Ubon-sepsis)

    No full text
    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of a Sepsis Fast Track (SFT) programme initiated at a regional referral hospital in Thailand in January 2015.Design A retrospective analysis using the data of a prospective observational study (Ubon-sepsis) from March 2013 to January 2017.Setting General medical wards and medical intensive care units (ICUs) of a study hospital.Participants Patients with community-acquired sepsis observed under the Ubon-sepsis cohort. Sepsis was defined as modified Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) Score ‚Č•2.Main exposure The SFT programme was a protocol to identify and initiate sepsis care on hospital admission, implemented at the study hospital in 2015. Patients in the SFT programme were admitted directly to the ICUs when available. The non-exposed group comprised of patients who received standard of care.Main outcome The primary outcome was 28-day mortality. The secondary outcomes were measured sepsis management interventions.Results Of 3806 sepsis patients, 903 (24%) were detected and enrolled in the SFT programme of the study hospital (SFT group) and 2903 received standard of care (non-exposed group). Patients in the SFT group had more organ dysfunction, were more likely to receive measured sepsis management and to be admitted directly to the ICU (19% vs 4%). Patients in the SFT group were more likely to survive (adjusted HR 0.72, 95% CI 0.58 to 0.88, p=0.001) adjusted for admission year, gender, age, comorbidities, modified SOFA Score and direct admission to the ICUs.Conclusions The SFT programme is associated with improved sepsis care and lower risk of death in sepsis patients in rural Thailand, where some critical care resources are limited. The survival benefit is observed even when all patients enrolled in the programme could not be admitted directly into the ICUs.Trial registration number NCT02217592

    Effectiveness of a sepsis programme in a resource-limited setting: a retrospective analysis of data of a prospective observational study (Ubon-sepsis)

    No full text
    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of a Sepsis Fast Track (SFT) programme initiated at a regional referral hospital in Thailand in January 2015. Design A retrospective analysis using the data of a prospective observational study (Ubon-sepsis) from March 2013 to January 2017. Setting General medical wards and medical intensive care units (ICUs) of a study hospital. Participants Patients with community-acquired sepsis observed under the Ubon-sepsis cohort. Sepsis was defined as modified Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) Score ‚Č•2. Main exposure The SFT programme was a protocol to identify and initiate sepsis care on hospital admission, implemented at the study hospital in 2015. Patients in the SFT programme were admitted directly to the ICUs when available. The non-exposed group comprised of patients who received standard of care. Main outcome The primary outcome was 28-day mortality. The secondary outcomes were measured sepsis management interventions. Results Of 3806 sepsis patients, 903 (24%) were detected and enrolled in the SFT programme of the study hospital (SFT group) and 2903 received standard of care (non-exposed group). Patients in the SFT group had more organ dysfunction, were more likely to receive measured sepsis management and to be admitted directly to the ICU (19% vs 4%). Patients in the SFT group were more likely to survive (adjusted HR 0.72, 95% CI 0.58 to 0.88, p=0.001) adjusted for admission year, gender, age, comorbidities, modified SOFA Score and direct admission to the ICUs. Conclusions The SFT programme is associated with improved sepsis care and lower risk of death in sepsis patients in rural Thailand, where some critical care resources are limited. The survival benefit is observed even when all patients enrolled in the programme could not be admitted directly into the ICUs. Trial registration number NCT02217592

    Multi-micronutrient fortified rice improved serum zinc and folate concentrations of Cambodian school children : a double-blinded cluster-randomized controlled trial

    No full text
    Background: Within Cambodia, micronutrient deficiencies continue to be prevalent in vulnerable groups, such as women and children. Fortification of staple foods such as rice could be a promising strategy for Cambodia to improve micronutrient status. Objective: Our objective was to investigate the impact of multiple-micronutrient fortified rice (MMFR), distributed through a World Food Program school-meals program (WFP-SMP) on serum zinc concentrations and folate status in a double-blind, cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Methods: Sixteen schools were randomly assigned to receive one of three different types of extruded-fortified rice (UltraRice Original (URO), UltraRice New (URN), or NutriRice) or unfortified rice (placebo) six days a week for six months. A total of 1950 schoolchildren (6-16 years old) participated in the study. Serum zinc (all groups) and folate (only in NutriRice and placebo group) concentrations were assessed from morning non-fasting antecubital blood samples and were measured at three time points (baseline and after three and six months). Results: After six months of intervention, serum zinc concentrations were significantly increased in all fortified rice group compared to placebo and baseline (0.98, 0.85 and 1.40 mu mol/L for URO, URN and NutriRice, respectively) (interaction effect: p < 0.001 for all). Children in the intervention groups had a risk of zinc deficiencies of around one third (0.35, 039, and 0.28 for URO, URN, and NutriRice, respectively) compared to the placebo (p < 0.001 for all). The children receiving NutriRice had higher serum folate concentrations at endline compared to children receiving normal rice (+2.25 ng/mL, p = 0.007). Conclusions: This study showed that the high prevalence of zinc and folate deficiency in Cambodia can be improved through the provision of MMFR. As rice is the staple diet for Cambodia, MMFR should be considered to be included in the school meal program and possibilities should be explored to introduce MMFR to the general population

    Improving policies to combat micronutrient deficiencies in Southeast Asia : The SMILING experience

    No full text
    Objectives Since the 1990s, programs for the control of micronutrient deficiencies became a public health priority for many governments, including the countries partnering the project "Sustainable Micronutrient Interventions to Control Deficiencies and Improve Nutritional Status and General Health in Asia" (SMILING): Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos-PDR, Thailand and Vietnam. The aim of this study was to map which micronutrient deficiencies have been addressed and which interventions were in place in the SMILING countries. Methods The mapping covered the period up to 2012. Updated information from relevant surveys after 2012 is included in this paper after the completion of the SMILING project. The mapping of micronutrient status was limited to either national or at least large-scale surveys. Information on nutrition interventions obtained through a systematic mapping of national programs combined with a snowball collection from various sources. Results Among the five SMILING countries, Thailand differed historically by an early implementation of a nationwide community-based nutrition program, contributing to reductions in undernutrition and micronutrient deficiencies. For Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos PDR, and Vietnam, somenational programs addressing micronutrients have been implemented following adjusted international recommendations. National surveys on micronutrient status were scattered and inconsistent across the countriesin design and frequency. Conclusion for practice In conclusion, somemicronutrient deficiencies were addressed in national interventions but the evidence of effects was generally lacking because of limited nationally representative data collected. Improvement of intervention programs to efficiently reduce or eliminate micronutrient deficiencies requires more systematic monitoring and evaluation of effects of interventions in order to identify best practices

    Improving policies to combat micronutrient deficiencies in Southeast Asia : the SMILING experience

    No full text
    Background Despite scientific evidence on the potential impact or importance of specific interventions to improve micronutrient status of vulnerable groups, political commitment and extensive support from national stakeholders is paramount to support introduction and implementation of these interventions at national level. In order to develop efficient nutritional strategies to improve the micronutrient status of children < 5 years of age and women of reproductive age that will be supported by a wide range of stakeholders, a better understanding of viewpoints on the nutrition politics and strategies is necessary. Multi-criteria mapping (MCM) was successfully used to assess the stakeholder's viewpoint in a wide variety of contexts since the late 1990s. Objective The objective of the present study was to assess the viewpoints of stakeholders on a wide range of potential nutritional interventions in the five Southeast Asian countries participating in the SMILING project. Method MCM methodology was used to appraise the stakeholder's viewpoints in five countries. Results The results show that the overall stakeholders' preference was for actions already implemented in their country rather than for new, innovative options, even for supplementation. Indirect interventions such like food fortification (except in Indonesia), delayed cord clamping or food-based approaches were generally less favored by the stakeholders. However, the majority of stakeholders agreed that new approaches should be considered and put in place in the future provided that evidence of their impact was demonstrated, that they received adequate technical support for their implementation and their monitoring, and that they will be accompanied by strong advocacy among decision-makers, civil society and beneficiaries. Conclusions for practice To conclude, for the introduction of new, innovative strategies to reduce micronutrient deficiencies in South-East Asia, convincing stakeholders appears to be the first hurdle to be taken

    Cambodian Higher Education Governance: The Politics of Global Summitry and Clientelism

    Get PDF
    This chapter uses the concepts of ‚Äúglobal summitry‚ÄĚ and ‚Äúclientelism‚ÄĚ to theorize higher education governance in Cambodia. After reviewing the history of higher education since the 1960s, the chapter analyzes the country‚Äôs experiences amid regional attempts to harmonize standards, degree structures, quality assurance systems, and credit systems in Southeast Asia. Rather than explicit intervention into Cambodia‚Äôs higher education sector as has been historically common, the contemporary order transmits policy and governance practices through various regional and international forums, creating a seemingly homogenous system of higher education. External influence through global summitry, however, must be paired with a recognition of the prevalence of clientelism. By exploring the case of the Accreditation Council of Cambodia, higher education governance is shown to reproduce the engrained system of clientelism, empowering elites and contributing further to systems of informal patronage. The chapter concludes with recent (up to April 2016) developments in higher education governance, offering some observations and obstacles for future development in the sector

    Micronutrient status of populations and preventive nutrition interventions in South East Asia

    No full text
    Objectives Since the 1990s, programs for the control of micronutrient deficiencies became a public health priority for many governments, including the countries partnering the project ‚ÄúSustainable Micronutrient Interventions to Control Deficiencies and Improve Nutritional Status and General Health in Asia‚ÄĚ (SMILING): Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos-PDR, Thailand and Vietnam. The aim of this study was to map which micronutrient deficiencies have been addressed and which interventions were in place in the SMILING countries. Methods The mapping covered the period up to 2012. Updated information from relevant surveys after 2012 is included in this paper after the completion of the SMILING project. The mapping of micronutrient status was limited to either national or at least large-scale surveys. Information on nutrition interventions obtained through a systematic mapping of national programs combined with a snowball collection from various sources. Results Among the five SMILING countries, Thailand differed historically by an early implementation of a nationwide community-based nutrition program, contributing to reductions in undernutrition and micronutrient deficiencies. For Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos PDR, and Vietnam, some national programs addressing micronutrients have been implemented following adjusted international recommendations. National surveys on micronutrient status were scattered and inconsistent across the countries in design and frequency. Conclusion for practice In conclusion, some micronutrient deficiencies were addressed in national interventions but the evidence of effects was generally lacking because of limited nationally representative data collected. Improvement of intervention programs to efficiently reduce or eliminate micronutrient deficiencies requires more systematic monitoring and evaluation of effects of interventions in order to identify best practices.</p

    Trajectories of glycaemia, insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in South Asian and white individuals before diagnosis of type 2 diabetes: a longitudinal analysis from the Whitehall II cohort study

    Get PDF
    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: South Asian individuals have reduced insulin sensitivity and increased risk of type 2 diabetes compared with white individuals. Temporal changes in glycaemic traits during middle age suggest that impaired insulin secretion is a particular feature of diabetes development among South Asians. We therefore aimed to examine ethnic differences in early changes in glucose metabolism prior to incident type 2 diabetes. METHODS: In a prospective British occupational cohort, subject to 5 yearly clinical examinations, we examined ethnic differences in trajectories of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2 h post-load plasma glucose (2hPG), fasting serum insulin (FSI), 2 h post-load serum insulin (2hSI), HOMA of insulin sensitivity (HOMA2-S) and secretion (HOMA2-B), and the Gutt insulin sensitivity index (ISI0,120) among 120 South Asian and 867 white participants who developed diabetes during follow-up (1991-2013). We fitted cubic mixed-effects models to longitudinal data with adjustment for a wide range of covariates. RESULTS: Compared with white individuals, South Asians had a faster increase in FPG before diagnosis (slope difference 0.22 mmol/l per decade; 95% CI 0.02, 0.42; p = 0.03) and a higher FPG level at diagnosis (0.27 mmol/l; 95% CI 0.06, 0.48; p = 0.01). They also had higher FSI and 2hSI levels before and at diabetes diagnosis. South Asians had a faster decline and lower HOMA2-S (log e -transformed) at diagnosis compared with white individuals (0.33; 95% CI 0.21, 0.46; p < 0.001). HOMA2-B increased in both ethnic groups until 7 years before diagnosis and then declined; the initial increase was faster in white individuals. ISI0,120 declined steeply in both groups before diagnosis; levels were lower among South Asians before and at diagnosis. There were no ethnic differences in 2hPG trajectories. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: We observed different trajectories of plasma glucose, insulin sensitivity and secretion prior to diabetes diagnosis in South Asian and white individuals. This might be due to ethnic differences in the natural history of diabetes. South Asian individuals experienced a more rapid decrease in insulin sensitivity and faster increases in FPG compared with white individuals. These findings suggest more marked disturbance in beta cell compensation prior to diabetes diagnosis in South Asian individuals
    • ‚Ķ
    corecore