134 research outputs found

    Supergrassmannian and large N limit of quantum field theory with bosons and fermions

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    We study a large N_{c} limit of a two-dimensional Yang-Mills theory coupled to bosons and fermions in the fundamental representation. Extending an approach due to Rajeev we show that the limiting theory can be described as a classical Hamiltonian system whose phase space is an infinite-dimensional supergrassmannian. The linear approximation to the equations of motion and the constraint yields the 't Hooft equations for the mesonic spectrum. Two other approximation schemes to the exact equations are discussed.Comment: 24 pages, Latex; v.3 appendix added, typos corrected, to appear in JM

    1+1 dimensional QCD with fundamental bosons and fermions

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    We analyze the properties of mesons in 1+1 dimensional QCD with bosonic and fermionic ``quarks'' in the large \nc limit. We study the spectrum in detail and show that it is impossible to obtain massless mesons including boson constituents in this model. We quantitatively show how the QCD mass inequality is realized in two dimensional QCD. We find that the mass inequality is close to being an equality even when the quarks are light. Methods for obtaining the properties of ``mesons'' formed from boson and/or fermion constituents are formulated in an explicit manner convenient for further study. We also analyze how the physical properties of the mesons such as confinement and asymptotic freedom are realized.Comment: 20 pages, harvmac, 5 figure

    Development of a PROMIS item bank to measure pain interference

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    This paper describes the psychometric properties of the PROMIS Pain Interference (PROMIS-PI) bank. An initial candidate item pool (n=644) was developed and evaluated based on review of existing instruments, interviews with patients, and consultation with pain experts. From this pool, a candidate item bank of 56 items was selected and responses to the items were collected from large community and clinical samples. A total of 14,848 participants responded to all or a subset of candidate items. The responses were calibrated using an item response theory (IRT) model. A final 41-item bank was evaluated with respect to IRT assumptions, model fit, differential item function (DIF), precision, and construct and concurrent validity. Items of the revised bank had good fit to the IRT model (CFI and NNFI/TLI ranged from 0.974 to 0.997), and the data were strongly unidimensional (e.g., ratio of first and second eigenvalue = 35). Nine items exhibited statistically significant DIF. However, adjusting for DIF had little practical impact on score estimates and the items were retained without modifying scoring. Scores provided substantial information across levels of pain; for scores in the T-score range 50-80, the reliability was equivalent to 0.96 to 0.99. Patterns of correlations with other health outcomes supported the construct validity of the item bank. The scores discriminated among persons with different numbers of chronic conditions, disabling conditions, levels of self-reported health, and pain intensity (p< 0.0001). The results indicated that the PROMIS-PI items constitute a psychometrically sound bank. Computerized adaptive testing and short forms are available

    Advancing PROMIS’s methodology: results of the Third Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS ® ) Psychometric Summit

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    In 2002, the NIH launched the ‘Roadmap for Medical Research’. The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) is one of the Roadmap’s key aspects. To create the next generation of patient-reported outcome measures, PROMIS utilizes item response theory (IRT) and computerized adaptive testing. In 2009, the NIH funded the second wave of PROMIS studies (PROMIS II). PROMIS II studies continue PROMIS’s agenda, but also include new features, including longitudinal analyses and more sociodemographically diverse samples. PROMIS II also includes increased emphasis on pediatric populations and evaluation of PROMIS item banks for clinical research and population science. These aspects bring new psychometric challenges. To address this, investigators associated with PROMIS gathered at the Third Psychometric Summit in September 2010 to identify, describe and discuss pressing psychometric issues and new developments in the field, as well as make analytic recommendations for PROMIS. The summit addressed five general themes: linking, differential item functioning, dimensionality, IRT models for longitudinal applications and new IRT software. In this article, we review the discussions and presentations that occurred at the Third PROMIS Psychometric Summit

    A Single Heterochromatin Boundary Element Imposes Position-Independent Antisilencing Activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Minichromosomes

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    Chromatin boundary elements serve as cis-acting regulatory DNA signals required to protect genes from the effects of the neighboring heterochromatin. In the yeast genome, boundary elements act by establishing barriers for heterochromatin spreading and are sufficient to protect a reporter gene from transcriptional silencing when inserted between the silencer and the reporter gene. Here we dissected functional topography of silencers and boundary elements within circular minichromosomes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found that both HML-E and HML-I silencers can efficiently repress the URA3 reporter on a multi-copy yeast minichromosome and we further showed that two distinct heterochromatin boundary elements STAR and TEF2-UASrpg are able to limit the heterochromatin spreading in circular minichromosomes. In surprising contrast to what had been observed in the yeast genome, we found that in minichromosomes the heterochromatin boundary elements inhibit silencing of the reporter gene even when just one boundary element is positioned at the distal end of the URA3 reporter or upstream of the silencer elements. Thus the STAR and TEF2-UASrpg boundary elements inhibit chromatin silencing through an antisilencing activity independently of their position or orientation in S. cerevisiae minichromosomes rather than by creating a position-specific barrier as seen in the genome. We propose that the circular DNA topology facilitates interactions between the boundary and silencing elements in the minichromosomes

    Demand-side financing for maternal and newborn health: what do we know about factors that affect implementation of cash transfers and voucher programmes?

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    BackgroundDemand-side financing (DSF) interventions, including cash transfers and vouchers, have been introduced to promote maternal and newborn health in a range of low- and middle-income countries. These interventions vary in design but have typically been used to increase health service utilisation by offsetting some financial costs for users, or increasing household income and incentivising 'healthy behaviours'. This article documents experiences and implementation factors associated with use of DSF in maternal and newborn health.MethodsA secondary analysis (using an adapted Supporting the Use of Research Evidence framework - SURE) was performed on studies that had previously been identified in a systematic review of evidence on DSF interventions in maternal and newborn health.ResultsThe article draws on findings from 49 quantitative and 49 qualitative studies. The studies give insights on difficulties with exclusion of migrants, young and multiparous women, with demands for informal fees at facilities, and with challenges maintaining quality of care under increasing demand. Schemes experienced difficulties if communities faced long distances to reach participating facilities and poor access to transport, and where there was inadequate health infrastructure and human resources, shortages of medicines and problems with corruption. Studies that documented improved care-seeking indicated the importance of adequate programme scope (in terms of programme eligibility, size and timing of payments and voucher entitlements) to address the issue of concern, concurrent investments in supply-side capacity to sustain and/or improve quality of care, and awareness generation using community-based workers, leaders and women's groups. ConclusionsEvaluations spanning more than 15 years of implementation of DSF programmes reveal a complex picture of experiences that reflect the importance of financial and other social, geographical and health systems factors as barriers to accessing care. Careful design of DSF programmes as part of broader maternal and newborn health initiatives would need to take into account these barriers, the behaviours of staff and the quality of care in health facilities. Research is still needed on the policy context for DSF schemes in order to understand how they become sustainable and where they fit, or do not fit, with plans to achieve equitable universal health coverage

    Bolsa Família: um survey sobre os efeitos do programa de transferência de renda condicionada do Brasil

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    Revisam-se pesquisas sobre efeitos do Programa Bolsa Família. Há quatro evidências frequentes. A primeira é que o programa tem focalização relativamente boa, mas que pode ainda ser melhorada. A segunda é o efeito positivo sobre a aquisição (consumo) de alimentos – sem conclusões sobre a qualidade da dieta. A terceira diz respeito ao estimulo às crianças a participarem da escola (matrícula, frequência e progressão), embora pouco se saiba sobre os efeitos na aprendizagem. A ausência de efeitos sobre a fecundidade das mulheres caracteriza a quarta conclusão robusta que se pode tirar da literatura, ainda que mais estudos devam ser realizados. Em outras dimensões, as evidências não formam consenso sobre direção dos efeitos.This paper surveys the literature about the effects of Bolsa Familia Program. We found four main results. The first is that the program is relatively well targeted, but it can still be improved.The second is the positive effect on the acquisition (consumption) of food, but there is no conclusions about the quality of the diet. The third is that the program encourages children to attend school (enrollment, attendance and progression). However, little is known about the effects on learning. The absence of effects on the fecundity of the women characterizes the fourth conclusion that can be drawn from the literature, although more studies must be&nbsp;carried out on this topic. In other dimensions, the evidence does not form consensus on the direction of effects
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