24,588 research outputs found

    Data link relay design

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    The data link for the Ames baseline probe as applied to the MJU spacecraft specifically with an entry at Uranus is analyzed. A frequency analysis, a trajectory analysis, and a discussion of the effects on the spacecraft design by the data link are presented. The possibilities of a two-way link are considered

    ATP-Sensitive Potassium Channel-Mediated Lactate Effect on Orexin Neurons: Implications for Brain Energetics during Arousal

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    Active neurons have a high demand for energy substrate, which is thought to be mainly supplied as lactate by astrocytes. Heavy lactate dependence of neuronal activity suggests that there may be a mechanism that detects and controls lactate levels and/or gates brain activation accordingly. Here, we demonstrate that orexin neurons can behave as such lactate sensors. Using acute brain slice preparations and patch-clamp techniques, we show that the monocarboxylate transporter blocker α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate (4-CIN) inhibits the spontaneous activity of orexin neurons despite the presence of extracellular glucose. Furthermore, fluoroacetate, a glial toxin, inhibits orexin neurons in the presence of glucose but not lactate. Thus, orexin neurons specifically use astrocyte-derived lactate. The effect of lactate on firing activity is concentration dependent, an essential characteristic of lactate sensors. Furthermore, lactate disinhibits and sensitizes these neurons for subsequent excitation. 4-CIN has no effect on the activity of some arcuate neurons, indicating that lactate dependency is not universal. Orexin neurons show an indirect concentration-dependent sensitivity to glucose below 1mM, responding by hyperpolarization, which is mediated by ATP-sensitive potassium channels composed of Kir6.1 and SUR1 subunits. In conclusion, our study suggests that lactate is a critical energy substrate and a regulator of the orexin system. Together with the known effects of orexins in inducing arousal, food intake, and hepatic glucose production, as well as lactate release from astrocytes in response to neuronal activity, our study suggests that orexin neurons play an integral part in balancing brain activity and energy supply

    WaND Briefing Note 28 Revised Options for UK Domestic Water Reduction - A Review

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    Demand pressure on UK water supplies is expected to increase in the next 20 years driven by increasing population, new housing development and reducing household size. Regionally and at town level migration will also affect demand particularly in the South-East which is forecast to have a larger than average growth in population and house building. The water demand moderating trends that are considered to have the greatest effect on UK consumption, in approximate order, are: 1. Metering 2. Low flush toilets 3. Normal showers 4. Efficient washing machines 5. Dishwashers 6. Cistern displacement devices (in existing homes with large cisterns) 7. Water efficient gardening measures can play an important role in reducing demand during critical drought period

    The Options for UK Domestic Water Reduction: A Review

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    Demand pressure on UK water supplies is expected to increase in the next 20 years driven by increasing population, new housing development and reducing household size. Regionally and locally migration will also afect demand particularly in the South-East. The water reduction trends that will have the greatest reduction effect on UK consumption are: 1. For new homes; metering and new efficiencies in design and construction (e.g. low flush toilets, heating and plumbing efficiences) 2. For established housing; metering and modern washing machines

    MACROWater: a Top-down, Policy-driven Model for Forecasting Domestic Water Demand

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    MACROWater is a top-down domestic water demand model developed for the WaND project (Water Cycle Management for New Developments). Forecasts have been produced for all local authorities in England and Wales. They can be aggregrated for different reporting areas (such as Government Office Regions, Sustainable Communities and water companies). Sustainable community is the official term for key strategic areas, earmarked for rapid expansion of housing supply (such as the M11 corridor, Ashford, Milton Keynes). This model description uses the UK's biggest Sustainable Community, Thames Gateway, as the example case study. Utilising Domestic Consumption Monitors from the water companies supplying this area, combined with housing, household and population projections, the authors have modelled domestic demand in detail. Alternative futures are considered using a set of urban water management scenarios, which represent different levels of adoption of water-saving technologies and different consumption patterns. For example, under the greener scenarios, new homes are fitted out with water-efficient equipment, allied with incentives to replace/refurbish as much old housing stock as possible. The modelling work demonstrates that increased demand from new developments can be accommodated but only through strict demand management and some new water supply measures

    A simple screening method for determining knowledge of the appropriate levels of activity and risk behaviour in young people with congenital cardiac conditions

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    Objective: To assess a novel method for assessing risk and providing advice about activity to children and young people with congenital cardiac disease and their parents. Design and setting: Questionnaire survey in outpatient clinics at a tertiary centre dealing with congenital cardiac disease, and 6 peripheral clinics. Interventions: Children or their parents completed a brief questionnaire. If this indicated a desire for help, or a serious mismatch between advised and real level of activity, they were telephoned by a physiotherapist. Main measures of outcome: Knowledge about appropriate levels of activity, and identification of the number exercising at an unsafe level, the number seeking help, and the type of help required. Results: 253/258 (98.0%) questionnaires were returned, with 119/253 (47.0%) showing incorrect responses in their belief about their advised level of exercise; 17/253 (6.7%) had potentially dangerous overestimation of exercise. Asked if they wanted advice 93/253 (36.8%) said “yes”, 43/253 (17.0%) “maybe”, and 117/253 (46.2%) “no”. Of those contacted by phone to give advice, 72.7% (56/77) required a single contact and 14.3% (11/77) required an intervention that required more intensive contact lasting from 2 up to 12 weeks. Of the cohort, 3.9% (3/77) were taking part in activities that put them at significant risk. Conclusions: There is a significant lack of knowledge about appropriate levels of activity, and a desire for further advice, in children and young people with congenital cardiac disease. A few children may be at very significant risk. These needs can be identified, and clinical risk reduced, using a brief self-completed questionnaire combined with telephone follow-up from a suitably knowledgeable physiotherapist

    The views of young people with congenital cardiac disease on designing the services for their treatment

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    Background and purpose: There is little documented evidence of young people with congenital cardiac disease being consulted as to what help, if any, they really need in relation to their condition. Most research concentrates on the medical aspects of the condition. There are studies of psychological and social functioning, but few have directly sought the opinions of the young people. More recent research has indicated a need for health professionals to develop services to meet both psychosocial and physical needs of young people with congenital cardiac disease. The findings of the recent Kennedy Report support this need. The purpose of this study was to explore the views of young people with a range of congenital cardiac conditions, on what would help them better deal with their condition, and when and how help might be provided. Methods: This was a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews. We interviewed 16 young people in their own home. Interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed. Analysis was conducted using the "Framework" method. Results: Whilst most of the young people interviewed actively manage their condition, they think more support from others would be beneficial. Issues of activity and communication were cited most often as areas requiring more understanding from people they interact with, for example teachers and peers. The discussion focuses on how health professionals might change or develop their practice to help young people better cope with their condition. Conclusions: Most of the young people interviewed in this study had developed their own strategies for coping with their condition. Although this is a small study, the young people provided important suggestions as to how health professionals could better develop current services

    The views of parents concerning the planning of services for rehabilitation of families of children with congenital cardiac disease

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    Background and purpose: Although much previous research has focused on the medical aspects of congenital cardiac disease, there is a growing body of research which suggests that families may need help and support with the wider issues associated with the medical condition. We have previously ascertained from young people with congenital cardiac disease their views on this subject. The purpose of this study was to obtain the views of their parents about the need for, and shape of, services for rehabilitation. Methods: This was a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews. We interviewed 17 parents in their own home. Interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed. Results: Parents would welcome more help and support from health professionals to enable them to manage more effectively the condition with their children. Particular areas of concern relate to the information they receive about the condition; communication between themselves and health professionals; establishing safe levels of activity; and managing the condition at school. Conclusions: This is a small study of the experiences and views of parents, which provides some important information on ways in which health professionals. could address the current lack of services for rehabilitation

    Potential for measuring the longitudinal and lateral profile of muons in TeV air showers with IACTs

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    Muons are copiously produced within hadronic extensive air showers (EAS) occurring in the Earth's atmosphere, and are used by particle air shower detectors as a means of identifying the primary cosmic ray which initiated the EAS. Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs), designed for the detection of gamma-ray initiated EAS for the purposes of Very High Energy (VHE) gamma-ray astronomy, are subject to a considerable background signal due to hadronic EAS. Although hadronic EAS are typically rejected for gamma-ray analysis purposes, single muons produced within such showers generate clearly identifiable signals in IACTs and muon images are routinely retained and used for calibration purposes. For IACT arrays operating with a stereoscopic trigger, when a muon triggers one telescope, other telescopes in IACT arrays usually detect the associated hadronic EAS. We demonstrate for the first time the potential of IACT arrays for competitive measurements of the muon content of air showers, their lateral distribution and longitudinal profile of production slant heights in the TeV energy range. Such information can provide useful input to hadronic interaction models.Comment: 15 pages, 11 figures, 2 tables, accepted for publication in Astroparticle Physic

    Self-reported pain severity is associated with a history of coronary heart disease

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    This study was funded by Arthritis Research UK (grant number: 17292).Peer reviewedPublisher PD
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