866 research outputs found

    The Service of T.O. Sandy in the Uplift of Virginia Rural Life

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    Inheritance of Black Hair Patterns in Cattle Lacking the Extension Factor for Black (E.). III, A Multiple Allelic Hypothesis to Explain the Inheritance of Blackish and Blackish Pattern

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    Author Institution: Department of Dairy Science and the Institute of Genetics, The Ohio State University, Columbus and Department of Dairy Science, The Ohio Agricultural Experiment Station, Wooste

    Stakeholder Conceptions of Later-Life Consumer Vulnerability in the Financial Services Industry: Beyond Financial Capability?

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    When the newly re-constituted UK financial services regulator–the Financial Conduct Authority–was launched in 2013, it promised to adopt a new approach to its “consumer protection” objectives. This shift included articulating a new conception of consumer vulnerability, beyond narrow, individualistic, conceptions of vulnerability based on (limited) financial capability, towards a broader conception which takes account of the connection between individual circumstances, situations, and market factors in causing or exacerbating manifestations of consumer vulnerability. Drawing on new empirical research with later-life financial services stakeholders and consumers, this article examines the extent to which equity release stakeholder perceptions of consumer vulnerability align to this new regulatory philosophy, and to the realities of consumer experiences. Our findings indicate that, in contrast to the FCA’s new, broader understanding of consumer vulnerability, the stakeholders in our study tended to understand vulnerability through a narrower lens, focusing predominantly on “information vulnerability,” or on whether or not the consumer “knows what they are doing.” This conception supports the assumption that providing financial advice is sufficient intervention to ensure good consumer outcomes. This assumption is also at odds with our earlier consumer study findings, which revealed a much wider set of vulnerabilities amongst equity release consumers. We reflect on the implications of these findings for the development of the later-life financial services industry, in ways that can more appropriately serve the needs of this consumer population

    Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Individuals with HIV: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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    Introduction Abnormal diurnal blood pressure (BP) rhythms may contribute to the high cardiovascular disease risk in HIV-positive (HIV+) individuals. To synthesize the current literature on ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) in HIV+ individuals, a systematic literature review and meta-analysis were performed. Methods Medical databases were searched through November 11, 2015 for studies that reported ABPM results in HIV+ individuals. Data were extracted by 2 reviewers and pooled differences between HIV+ and HIV-negative (HIV-) individuals in clinic BP and ABPM measures were calculated using random-effects inverse variance weighted models. Results Of 597 abstracts reviewed, 8 studies with HIV+ cohorts met the inclusion criteria. The 420 HIV+ and 714 HIV- individuals in 7 studies with HIV- comparison groups were pooled for analyses. The pooled absolute nocturnal systolic and diastolic BP declines were 3.16% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.13%, 5.20%) and 2.92% (95% CI: 1.64%, 4.19%) less, respectively, in HIV+ versus HIV- individuals. The pooled odds ratio for non-dipping systolic BP (nocturnal systolic BP decline <10%) in HIV+ versus HIV- individuals was 2.72 (95% CI: 1.92, 3.85). Differences in mean clinic, 24-hour, daytime, or nighttime BP were not statistically significant. I2 and heterogeneity chi-squared statistics indicated the presence of high heterogeneity for all outcomes except percent DBP dipping and non-dipping SBP pattern. Conclusions An abnormal diurnal BP pattern may be more common among HIV+ versus HIV- individuals. However, results were heterogeneous for most BP measures, suggesting more research in this area is needed

    Finishing the euchromatic sequence of the human genome

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    The sequence of the human genome encodes the genetic instructions for human physiology, as well as rich information about human evolution. In 2001, the International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium reported a draft sequence of the euchromatic portion of the human genome. Since then, the international collaboration has worked to convert this draft into a genome sequence with high accuracy and nearly complete coverage. Here, we report the result of this finishing process. The current genome sequence (Build 35) contains 2.85 billion nucleotides interrupted by only 341 gaps. It covers ∌99% of the euchromatic genome and is accurate to an error rate of ∌1 event per 100,000 bases. Many of the remaining euchromatic gaps are associated with segmental duplications and will require focused work with new methods. The near-complete sequence, the first for a vertebrate, greatly improves the precision of biological analyses of the human genome including studies of gene number, birth and death. Notably, the human enome seems to encode only 20,000-25,000 protein-coding genes. The genome sequence reported here should serve as a firm foundation for biomedical research in the decades ahead

    A novel formulation of inhaled sodium cromoglicate (PA101) in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and chronic cough: a randomised, double-blind, proof-of-concept, phase 2 trial

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    Background Cough can be a debilitating symptom of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and is difficult to treat. PA101 is a novel formulation of sodium cromoglicate delivered via a high-efficiency eFlow nebuliser that achieves significantly higher drug deposition in the lung compared with the existing formulations. We aimed to test the efficacy and safety of inhaled PA101 in patients with IPF and chronic cough and, to explore the antitussive mechanism of PA101, patients with chronic idiopathic cough (CIC) were also studied. Methods This pilot, proof-of-concept study consisted of a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in patients with IPF and chronic cough and a parallel study of similar design in patients with CIC. Participants with IPF and chronic cough recruited from seven centres in the UK and the Netherlands were randomly assigned (1:1, using a computer-generated randomisation schedule) by site staff to receive PA101 (40 mg) or matching placebo three times a day via oral inhalation for 2 weeks, followed by a 2 week washout, and then crossed over to the other arm. Study participants, investigators, study staff, and the sponsor were masked to group assignment until all participants had completed the study. The primary efficacy endpoint was change from baseline in objective daytime cough frequency (from 24 h acoustic recording, Leicester Cough Monitor). The primary efficacy analysis included all participants who received at least one dose of study drug and had at least one post-baseline efficacy measurement. Safety analysis included all those who took at least one dose of study drug. In the second cohort, participants with CIC were randomly assigned in a study across four centres with similar design and endpoints. The study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02412020) and the EU Clinical Trials Register (EudraCT Number 2014-004025-40) and both cohorts are closed to new participants. Findings Between Feb 13, 2015, and Feb 2, 2016, 24 participants with IPF were randomly assigned to treatment groups. 28 participants with CIC were enrolled during the same period and 27 received study treatment. In patients with IPF, PA101 reduced daytime cough frequency by 31·1% at day 14 compared with placebo; daytime cough frequency decreased from a mean 55 (SD 55) coughs per h at baseline to 39 (29) coughs per h at day 14 following treatment with PA101, versus 51 (37) coughs per h at baseline to 52 (40) cough per h following placebo treatment (ratio of least-squares [LS] means 0·67, 95% CI 0·48–0·94, p=0·0241). By contrast, no treatment benefit for PA101 was observed in the CIC cohort; mean reduction of daytime cough frequency at day 14 for PA101 adjusted for placebo was 6·2% (ratio of LS means 1·27, 0·78–2·06, p=0·31). PA101 was well tolerated in both cohorts. The incidence of adverse events was similar between PA101 and placebo treatments, most adverse events were mild in severity, and no severe adverse events or serious adverse events were reported. Interpretation This study suggests that the mechanism of cough in IPF might be disease specific. Inhaled PA101 could be a treatment option for chronic cough in patients with IPF and warrants further investigation

    Measurement of the top quark forward-backward production asymmetry and the anomalous chromoelectric and chromomagnetic moments in pp collisions at √s = 13 TeV