179 research outputs found

    Machine learning algorithms for predicting days of high incidence for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

    No full text
    Abstract Predicting out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) events might improve outcomes of OHCA patients. We hypothesized that machine learning algorithms using meteorological information would predict OHCA incidences. We used the Japanese population-based repository database of OHCA and weather information. The Tokyo data (2005–2012) was used as the training cohort and datasets of the top six populated prefectures (2013–2015) as the test. Eight various algorithms were evaluated to predict the high-incidence OHCA days, defined as the daily events exceeding 75% tile of our dataset, using meteorological and chronological values: temperature, humidity, air pressure, months, days, national holidays, the day before the holidays, the day after the holidays, and New Year’s holidays. Additionally, we evaluated the contribution of each feature by Shapley Additive exPlanations (SHAP) values. The training cohort included 96,597 OHCA patients. The eXtreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost) had the highest area under the receiver operating curve (AUROC) of 0.906 (95% confidence interval; 0.868–0.944). In the test cohorts, the XGBoost algorithms also had high AUROC (0.862–0.923). The SHAP values indicated that the “mean temperature on the previous day” impacted the most on the model. Algorithms using machine learning with meteorological and chronological information could predict OHCA events accurately

    Nutrient-regulated dynamics of chondroprogenitors in the postnatal murine growth plate

    No full text
    Abstract Longitudinal bone growth relies on endochondral ossification in the cartilaginous growth plate, where chondrocytes accumulate and synthesize the matrix scaffold that is replaced by bone. The chondroprogenitors in the resting zone maintain the continuous turnover of chondrocytes in the growth plate. Malnutrition is a leading cause of growth retardation in children; however, after recovery from nutrient deprivation, bone growth is accelerated beyond the normal rate, a phenomenon termed catch-up growth. Although nutritional status is a known regulator of long bone growth, it is largely unknown whether and how chondroprogenitor cells respond to deviations in nutrient availability. Here, using fate-mapping analysis in Axin2Cre ERT2 mice, we showed that dietary restriction increased the number of Axin2+ chondroprogenitors in the resting zone and simultaneously inhibited their differentiation. Once nutrient deficiency was resolved, the accumulated chondroprogenitor cells immediately restarted differentiation and formed chondrocyte columns, contributing to accelerated growth. Furthermore, we showed that nutrient deprivation reduced the level of phosphorylated Akt in the resting zone and that exogenous IGF-1 restored the phosphorylated Akt level and stimulated differentiation of the pooled chondroprogenitors, decreasing their numbers. Our study of Axin2Cre ERT2 revealed that nutrient availability regulates the balance between accumulation and differentiation of chondroprogenitors in the growth plate and further demonstrated that IGF-1 partially mediates this regulation by promoting the committed differentiation of chondroprogenitor cells

    Oral Iron Absorption of Ferric Citrate Hydrate and Hepcidin-25 in Hemodialysis Patients: A Prospective, Multicenter, Observational Riona-Oral Iron Absorption Trial

    No full text
    Oral ferric citrate hydrate (FCH) is effective for iron deficiencies in hemodialysis patients; however, how iron balance in the body affects iron absorption in the intestinal tract remains unclear. This prospective observational study (Riona-Oral Iron Absorption Trial, R-OIAT, UMIN 000031406) was conducted at 42 hemodialysis centers in Japan, wherein 268 hemodialysis patients without inflammation were enrolled and treated with a fixed amount of FCH for 6 months. We assessed the predictive value of hepcidin-25 for iron absorption and iron shift between ferritin (FTN) and red blood cells (RBCs) following FCH therapy. Serum iron changes at 2 h (ΔFe2h) after FCH ingestion were evaluated as iron absorption. The primary outcome was the quantitative delineation of iron variables with respect to ΔFe2h, and the secondary outcome was the description of the predictors of the body’s iron balance. Generalized estimating equations (GEEs) were used to identify the determinants of iron absorption during each phase of FCH treatment. ΔFe2h increased when hepcidin-25 and TSAT decreased (−0.459, −0.643 to −0.276, p = 0.000; −0.648, −1.099 to −0.197, p = 0.005, respectively) in GEEs. FTN increased when RBCs decreased (−1.392, −1.749 to −1.035, p = 0.000) and hepcidin-25 increased (0.297, 0.239 to 0.355, p = 0.000). Limiting erythropoiesis to maintain hemoglobin levels induces RBC reduction in hemodialysis patients, resulting in increased hepcidin-25 and FTN levels. Hepcidin-25 production may prompt an iron shift from RBC iron to FTN iron, inhibiting iron absorption even with continued FCH intake

    Prevalence and Risk Factor Analysis of Post-Intensive Care Syndrome in Patients with COVID-19 Requiring Mechanical Ventilation: A Multicenter Prospective Observational Study

    No full text
    Introduction: Post-intensive care syndrome (PICS) is an emerging problem in critically ill patients and the prevalence and risk factors are unclear in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This multicenter prospective observational study aimed to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of PICS in ventilated patients with COVID-19 after ICU discharge. Methods: Questionnaires were administered twice in surviving patients with COVID-19 who had required mechanical ventilation, concerning Barthel Index, Short-Memory Questionnaire, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale scores. The risk factors for PICS were examined using a multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: The first and second PICS surveys were obtained at 5.5 and 13.5 months (mean) after ICU discharge, with 251 and 209 patients completing the questionnaires and with a prevalence of PICS of 58.6% and 60.8%, respectively, along with the highest percentages of cognitive impairment. Delirium (with an odds ratio of (OR) 2.34, 95% CI 1.1–4.9, and p = 0.03) and the duration of mechanical ventilation (with an OR of 1.29, 95% CI 1.05–1.58, and p = 0.02) were independently identified as the risk factors for PICS in the first PICS survey. Conclusion: Approximately 60% of the ventilated patients with COVID-19 experienced persistent PICS, especially delirium, and required longer mechanical ventilation

    The whole blood transcriptional regulation landscape in 465 COVID-19 infected samples from Japan COVID-19 Task Force

    Get PDF
    「コロナ制圧タスクフォース」COVID-19患者由来の血液細胞における遺伝子発現の網羅的解析 --重症度に応じた遺伝子発現の変化には、ヒトゲノム配列の個人差が影響する--. 京都大学プレスリリース. 2022-08-23.Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a recently-emerged infectious disease that has caused millions of deaths, where comprehensive understanding of disease mechanisms is still unestablished. In particular, studies of gene expression dynamics and regulation landscape in COVID-19 infected individuals are limited. Here, we report on a thorough analysis of whole blood RNA-seq data from 465 genotyped samples from the Japan COVID-19 Task Force, including 359 severe and 106 non-severe COVID-19 cases. We discover 1169 putative causal expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) including 34 possible colocalizations with biobank fine-mapping results of hematopoietic traits in a Japanese population, 1549 putative causal splice QTLs (sQTLs; e.g. two independent sQTLs at TOR1AIP1), as well as biologically interpretable trans-eQTL examples (e.g., REST and STING1), all fine-mapped at single variant resolution. We perform differential gene expression analysis to elucidate 198 genes with increased expression in severe COVID-19 cases and enriched for innate immune-related functions. Finally, we evaluate the limited but non-zero effect of COVID-19 phenotype on eQTL discovery, and highlight the presence of COVID-19 severity-interaction eQTLs (ieQTLs; e.g., CLEC4C and MYBL2). Our study provides a comprehensive catalog of whole blood regulatory variants in Japanese, as well as a reference for transcriptional landscapes in response to COVID-19 infection

    Bioenergetic Balance of Continuous Venovenous Hemofiltration, a Retrospective Analysis

    No full text
    (1) Background: Nutrition therapy guided by indirect calorimetry (IC) is the gold standard and is associated with lower morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. When performing IC during continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH), the measured VCO2 should be corrected for the exchanged CO2 to calculate the ‘true’ Resting Energy Expenditure (REE). After the determination of the true REE, the caloric prescription should be adapted to the removal and addition of non-intentional calories due to citrate, glucose, and lactate in dialysis fluids to avoid over- and underfeeding. We aimed to evaluate this bioenergetic balance during CVVH and how nutrition therapy should be adapted. (2) Methods: This post hoc analysis evaluated citrate, glucose, and lactate exchange. Bioenergetic balances were calculated based on these values during three different CVVH settings: low dose with citrate, high dose with citrate, and low dose without citrate. The caloric load of these non-intentional calories during a CVVH-run was compared to the true REE. (3) Results: We included 19 CVVH-runs. The bioenergetic balance during the low dose with citrate was 498 ± 110 kcal/day (range 339 to 681 kcal/day) or 26 ± 9% (range 14 to 42%) of the true REE. During the high dose with citrate, it was 262 ± 222 kcal/day (range 56 to 262 kcal/day) or 17 ± 11% (range 7 to 32%) of the true REE. During the low dose without citrate, the bioenergetic balance was −189 ± 77 kcal/day (range −298 to −92 kcal/day) or −13 ± 8% (range −28 to −5%) of the true REE. (4) Conclusions: Different CVVH settings resulted in different bioenergetic balances ranging from −28% up to +42% of the true REE depending on the CVVH fluids chosen. When formulating a caloric prescription during CVVH, an individual approach considering the impact of these non-intentional calories is warranted

    DOCK2 is involved in the host genetics and biology of severe COVID-19

    Get PDF
    「コロナ制圧タスクフォース」COVID-19疾患感受性遺伝子DOCK2の重症化機序を解明 --アジア最大のバイオレポジトリーでCOVID-19の治療標的を発見--. 京都大学プレスリリース. 2022-08-10.Identifying the host genetic factors underlying severe COVID-19 is an emerging challenge. Here we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) involving 2, 393 cases of COVID-19 in a cohort of Japanese individuals collected during the initial waves of the pandemic, with 3, 289 unaffected controls. We identified a variant on chromosome 5 at 5q35 (rs60200309-A), close to the dedicator of cytokinesis 2 gene (DOCK2), which was associated with severe COVID-19 in patients less than 65 years of age. This risk allele was prevalent in East Asian individuals but rare in Europeans, highlighting the value of genome-wide association studies in non-European populations. RNA-sequencing analysis of 473 bulk peripheral blood samples identified decreased expression of DOCK2 associated with the risk allele in these younger patients. DOCK2 expression was suppressed in patients with severe cases of COVID-19. Single-cell RNA-sequencing analysis (n = 61 individuals) identified cell-type-specific downregulation of DOCK2 and a COVID-19-specific decreasing effect of the risk allele on DOCK2 expression in non-classical monocytes. Immunohistochemistry of lung specimens from patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia showed suppressed DOCK2 expression. Moreover, inhibition of DOCK2 function with CPYPP increased the severity of pneumonia in a Syrian hamster model of SARS-CoV-2 infection, characterized by weight loss, lung oedema, enhanced viral loads, impaired macrophage recruitment and dysregulated type I interferon responses. We conclude that DOCK2 has an important role in the host immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection and the development of severe COVID-19, and could be further explored as a potential biomarker and/or therapeutic target
    corecore