15 research outputs found

    The Effects of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention on the Flow in Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients—Geometry in Focus

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    Evaluation of the effect of three dimensional (3D) coronary plaque characteristics derived from two dimensional (2D) invasive angiography images (ICA) on coronary flow determined by TIMI frame count (TFC) in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) has not been thoroughly investigated. A total of 71 patients with STEMI, and 73 with NSTEMI were enrolled after primary angioplasty. Pre- and post-PCI TFCs were obtained. From 2D images, 3D reconstruction was performed of the culprit vessel, and multiple plaque parameters were measured. In STEMI, the average post-PCI frame count decreased significantly, resulting in better flow. With regards to 2/3D parameters, no differences were found between the STEMI and NSTEMI groups. The 3D parameters in the subgroup with an increase with at least three frames resulting in worsening post-PCI flow were compared to parameters of the patients with improved or significantly not change flow (delta frame count < 3), and greater minimal luminal diameter and area was found in the worsening (increased) frame group. In STEMI 2/3D, parameters showed no correlation with worsening flow, whereas in NSTEMI, greater minimal luminal diameter and area correlated with decreased flow. We can conclude that certain 2/3D parameters can predict slower flow in ACS, resulting in the use of GP IIb/IIIa receptor blocker

    Rapid changes in brain activity during learning of grapheme-phoneme associations in adults

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    Learning to associate written letters with speech sounds is crucial for the initial phase of acquiring reading skills. However, little is known about the cortical reorganization for supporting letter-speech sound learning, particularly the brain dynamics during the learning of grapheme-phoneme associations. In the present study, we trained 30 Finnish participants (mean age: 24.33 years, SD: 3.50 years) to associate novel foreign letters with familiar Finnish speech sounds on two consecutive days (first day ∼ 50 minutes; second day ∼ 25 minutes), while neural activity was measured using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Two sets of audiovisual stimuli were used for the training in which the grapheme-phoneme association in one set (Learnable) could be learned based on the different learning cues provided, but not in the other set (Control). The learning progress was tracked at a trial-by-trial basis and used to segment different learning stages for the MEG source analysis. The learning-related changes were examined by comparing the brain responses to Learnable and Control uni/multi-sensory stimuli, as well as the brain responses to learning cues at different learning stages over the two days. We found dynamic changes in brain responses related to multi-sensory processing when grapheme-phoneme associations were learned. Further, changes were observed in the brain responses to the novel letters during the learning process. We also found that some of these learning effects were observed only after memory consolidation the following day. Overall, the learning process modulated the activity in a large network of brain regions, including the superior temporal cortex and the dorsal (parietal) pathway. Most interestingly, middle- and inferior- temporal regions were engaged during multi-sensory memory encoding after the cross-modal relationship was extracted from the learning cues. Our findings highlight the brain dynamics and plasticity related to the learning of letter-speech sound associations and provide a more refined model of grapheme-phoneme learning in reading acquisition.peerReviewe

    Empathy in Danger: Book Review of Reclaiming Conversation by Sherry Turkle

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    No abstract, as it is a book review

    Audiovisual Processing of Chinese Characters Elicits Suppression and Congruency Effects in MEG

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    Learning to associate written letters/characters with speech sounds is crucial for reading acquisition. Most previous studies have focused on audiovisual integration in alphabetic languages. Less is known about logographic languages such as Chinese characters, which map onto mostly syllable-based morphemes in the spoken language. Here we investigated how long-term exposure to native language affects the underlying neural mechanisms of audiovisual integration in a logographic language using magnetoencephalography (MEG). MEG sensor and source data from 12 adult native Chinese speakers and a control group of 13 adult Finnish speakers were analyzed for audiovisual suppression (bimodal responses vs. sum of unimodal responses) and congruency (bimodal incongruent responses vs. bimodal congruent responses) effects. The suppressive integration effect was found in the left angular and supramarginal gyri (205–365 ms), left inferior frontal and left temporal cortices (575–800 ms) in the Chinese group. The Finnish group showed a distinct suppression effect only in the right parietal and occipital cortices at a relatively early time window (285–460 ms). The congruency effect was only observed in the Chinese group in left inferior frontal and superior temporal cortex in a late time window (about 500–800 ms) probably related to modulatory feedback from multi-sensory regions and semantic processing. The audiovisual integration in a logographic language showed a clear resemblance to that in alphabetic languages in the left superior temporal cortex, but with activation specific to the logographic stimuli observed in the left inferior frontal cortex. The current MEG study indicated that learning of logographic languages has a large impact on the audiovisual integration of written characters with some distinct features compared to previous results on alphabetic languages.peerReviewe

    Table_1_Brain Responses to Letters and Speech Sounds and Their Correlations With Cognitive Skills Related to Reading in Children.DOCX

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    <p>Letter-speech sound (LSS) integration is crucial for initial stages of reading acquisition. However, the relationship between cortical organization for supporting LSS integration, including unimodal and multimodal processes, and reading skills in early readers remains unclear. In the present study, we measured brain responses to Finnish letters and speech sounds from 29 typically developing Finnish children in a child-friendly audiovisual integration experiment using magnetoencephalography. Brain source activations in response to auditory, visual and audiovisual stimuli as well as audiovisual integration response were correlated with reading skills and cognitive skills predictive of reading development after controlling for the effect of age. Regression analysis showed that from the brain measures, the auditory late response around 400 ms showed the largest association with phonological processing and rapid automatized naming abilities. In addition, audiovisual integration effect was most pronounced in the left and right temporoparietal regions and the activities in several of these temporoparietal regions correlated with reading and writing skills. Our findings indicated the important role of temporoparietal regions in the early phase of learning to read and their unique contribution to reading skills.</p

    Brain Responses to Letters and Speech Sounds and Their Correlations with Cognitive Skills Related to Reading in Children

    No full text
    Letter-speech sound (LSS) integration is crucial for initial stages of reading acquisition. However, the relationship between cortical organization for supporting LSS integration, including unimodal and multimodal processes, and reading skills in early readers remains unclear. In the present study, we measured brain responses to Finnish letters and speech sounds from 29 typically developing Finnish children in a child-friendly audiovisual integration experiment using magnetoencephalography. Brain source activations in response to auditory, visual and audiovisual stimuli as well as audiovisual integration response were correlated with reading skills and cognitive skills predictive of reading development after controlling for the effect of age. Regression analysis showed that from the brain measures, the auditory late response around 400 ms showed the largest association with phonological processing and rapid automatized naming abilities. In addition, audiovisual integration effect was most pronounced in the left and right temporoparietal regions and the activities in several of these temporoparietal regions correlated with reading and writing skills. Our findings indicated the important role of temporoparietal regions in the early phase of learning to read and their unique contribution to reading skills.peerReviewe

    Innovative Ways of Exploring Love: A Book Review of Modern Romance by Aziz Ansari (with Eric Klinenberg).

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    This is a book review, so there is no abstract

    Best Practices for International Service-Learning

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    Implementing service-learning courses is a highly rewarding, yet, sometimes challenging undertaking. A service-learning course abroad has the potential to lead to an even more life-changing educational experience than a domestic SL course, but the possible complications can also be more plentiful. Globalization opens new avenues and demands for SL abroad, and this panel will help participants navigate international SL courses - from the initial step to post-assessment. The panel will offer several different perspectives, incorporating both faculty and staff members. It will involve a service-learning director (Kimberly Mannahan, College of Coastal Georgia) and an international director (Adam Johnson, College of Coastal Georgia) to address the pedagogical and administrative sides of SL courses abroad. These two directors will focus mostly on devising such courses and the necessary steps for their successful launch. The organizer of the panel (Orsolya Kolozsvari, Assistant Professor of Sociology, College of Coastal Georgia) will also concentrate on the initial stages of drawing up service-learning courses abroad, for instance, choosing community partners, course outcomes, and preparing a study-abroad service-learning proposal. These issues will be illustrated through key points in a proposal for a service-learning sociology course in Hungary. The panel will also feature two participants who will discuss later stages in international service-learning projects: their actual implementation and post-assessment. Carly Redding, Assistant Professor of Human Services, University of North Georgia has ample experience with international SL courses. Over eight weeks during 2014 and 12 weeks in 2015 faculty members and students from the University of North Georgia had the opportunity to access one of the highly trafficked communities of Goa, India in order to conduct research and provide services as part of a multi-year cooperative agreement between the university and a local NGO. In order to receive credit students must take two courses (6 credit hours) and provide 200 hours of service learning once in India. Dr. Redding believes that the greatest reward of international service-learning is the positive growth and transformation that students seem to undergo in a short amount time. The main challenge in this particular area of India is the lack of what most students consider basic needs and comforts of home. Later students adjust, and it becomes exceptionally difficult for them to return to a life most consider privileged. The last panelist, Thomas R. Hochschild, Assistant Professor (Department of Sociology, Anthropology, and Criminal Justice, Valdosta State University) is a now seasoned international service-learning pioneer as well. He recommends that all international SL courses should ideally be grounded in social science. He has designed and implemented an urban social problems service-learning course in St. Petersburg, Russia, primarily focusing on homelessness. He utilized ethnographic studies, statistical data, sociological theories, class discussions, videos, guest speakers, personal journal reflections, and, of course, community service to create a dynamic learning experience. Along with the other panelists, his focus will be mostly on rewards and challenges that carrying out an SL course abroad presents

    Book Review of Bright-Sided: How Positive Thinking is Undermining America

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    Book Review of Bright-Sided: How Positive Thinking is Undermining America by Barbara Ehrenreich (Picador, 2010)

    “Physically We Are Apart, Mentally We Are Not.” Creating a Shared Space and a Sense of Belonging in Long-Distance Relationships

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    As couples tend to be referred to as “being together,” long-distance partners, who spend most of their time apart and in diff erent spaces, might face a challenge delineating and validating their relationship. Through in-depth interviews with 20 couples in a long-distance relationship, this study explores how long-distance partners linguistically and symbolically mark the boundaries of their relationship, and also transcend any real or perceived gaps between distance and closeness in the process. While they rarely shared a physical space, my participants created joint socio-mental spaces, which enhanced their sense of belonging and helped to expand defi nitions of intimacy and space
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