126 research outputs found

    Analisi del settore della formazione manageriale

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    Per formazione manageriale intendiamo la formazione diretta allo sviluppo di quelle figure professionali alle quali Ăš demandato, a livello medio-alto dell'azienda, il compito di dirigere le organizzazioni complesse all'ottenimento di specifici obiettivi. Le attivitĂ  di formazione hanno il compito di fornire ed integrare conoscenze, abilitĂ , strumenti e comportamenti degli attuali e futuri managers, affinchĂš essi siano continuamente in grado di leggere l'ambiente esterno, anticiparne gli eventi, definire e modificare gli obiettivi aziendali, pianificare le attivitĂ  e dirigere l'organizzazione

    TNFα signals via p66Shcto induce E-selectin, promote leukocyte transmigration and enhance permeability in human endothelial cells

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    Endothelial cells participate in inflammatory events leading to atherogenesis by regulating endothelial cell permeability via the expression of VE-Cadherin and ÎČ-catenin and leukocyte recruitment via the expression of E-Selectins and other adhesion molecules. The protein p66Shc acts as a sensor/inducer of oxidative stress and may promote vascular dysfunction. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of p66Shc in tumor necrosis factor TNFα-induced E-Selectin expression and function in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Exposure of HUVEC to 50 ng/ml TNFα resulted in increased leukocyte transmigration through the endothelial monolayer and E-Selectin expression, in association with augmented phosphorylation of both p66Shc on Ser36 and the stress kinase c-Jun NH2-terminal protein kinase (JNK)-1/2, and higher intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Overexpression of p66 Shc in HUVEC resulted in enhanced p66Shc phosphorylation on Ser36, increased ROS and E-Selectin levels, and amplified endothelial cell permeability and leukocyte transmigration through the HUVEC monolayer. Conversely, overexpression of a phosphorylation-defective p66 Shc protein, in which Ser36 was replaced by Ala, did not augment ROS and E-Selectin levels, nor modify cell permeability or leukocyte transmigration beyond those found in wild-type cells. Moreover, siRNA-mediated silencing of p66Shc resulted in marked reduction of E-Selectin expression and leukocyte transmigration. In conclusion, p66Shc acts as a novel intermediate in the TNFα pathway mediating endothelial dysfunction, and its action requires JNK-dependent phosphorylation of p66 Shc on Ser36. © 2013 Laviola et al

    Evaluation of Endoglin (CD105) expression in pediatric rhabdomyosarcoma

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    BACKGROUND: The Intratumoral Microvessel Density (IMVD) is commonly used to quantify tumoral vascularization and is usually assessed by pan-endothelial markers, such as CD31. Endoglin (CD105) is a protein predominantly expressed in proliferating endothelium and the IMVD determined by this marker measures specifically the neovascularization. In this study, we investigated the CD105 expression in pediatric rhabdomyosarcoma and assessed the neovascularization by using the angiogenic ratio IMVD-CD105 to IMVD-CD31. METHODS: Paraffin-embedded archival tumor specimens were selected from 65 pediatric patients affected by rhabdomyosarcoma. The expression levels of CD105, CD31 and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) were investigated in 30 cases (18 embryonal and 12 alveolar) available for this study. The IMVD-CD105 to IMVD-CD31 expression ratio was correlated with clinical and pathologic features of these patients. RESULTS: We found a specific expression of endoglin (CD105) in endothelial cells of all the rhabdomyosarcoma specimens analyzed. We observed a significant positive correlation between the IMVD individually measured by CD105 and CD31. The CD105/CD31 expression ratio was significantly higher in patients with lower survival and embryonal histology. Indeed, patients with a CD105/CD31 expression ratio < 1.3 had a significantly increased OS (88%, 95%CI, 60%-97%) compared to patients with higher values (40%, 95%CI, 12%-67%). We did not find any statistical correlation among VEGF and EFS, OS and CD105/CD31 expression ratio. CONCLUSION: CD105 is expressed on endothelial cells of rhabdomyosarcoma and represent a useful tool to quantify neovascularization in this tumor. If confirmed by further studies, these results will indicate that CD105 is a potential target for combined therapies in rhabdomyosarcoma.We thank Professor Franco Locatelli for critical reading this paper and for his suggestions. We would also like to thank the children ’ s parents, who gave their informed consent for publication and “Il cuore grande di Flavio ”Onlus. Dr. Marta Colletti is a post-doctoral fellow of the Umberto Veronesi Founda- tion. To Valentina Polcini for proofreading.S

    Preparation, Characterization, and Biological Evaluation of a Hydrophilic Peptide Loaded on PEG-PLGA Nanoparticles

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    The encapsulation of peptides and proteins in nanosystems has been extensively investigated for masking unfavorable biopharmaceutical properties, including short half-life and poor permeation through biological membranes. Therefore, the aim of this work was to encapsulate a small antimicrobial hydrophilic peptide (H-Ser-Pro-Trp-Thr-NH2, FS10) in PEG-PLGA (polyethylene glycol-poly lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (Nps) and thereby overcome the common limitations of hydrophilic drugs, which because they facilitate water absorption suffer from rapid degradation. FS10 is structurally related to the well-known RNAIII inhibiting peptide (RIP) and inhibits S. aureus biofilm formation. Various parameters, including different method (double emulsion and nanoprecipitation), pH of the aqueous phase and polymeric composition, were investigated to load FS10 into PEG-PLGA nanoparticles. The combination of different strategies resulted in an encapsulation efficiency of around 25% for both the double emulsion and the nanoprecipitation method. It was found that the most influential parameters were the pH—which tailors the peptides charge—and the polymeric composition. FS10-PEG-PLGA nanoparticles, obtained under optimized parameters, showed size lower than 180 nm with zeta potential values ranging from −11 to −21 mV. In vitro release studies showed that the Nps had an initial burst release of 48–63%, followed by a continuous drug release up to 21 h, probably caused by the porous character of the Nps. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis revealed particles with a spherical morphology and size of around 100 nm. Antimicrobial assay showed that the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the FS10-loaded Nps, against S. aureus strains, was lower (>128 ”g/mL) than that of the free FS10 (>256 ”g/mL). The main goal of this work was to develop polymeric drug delivery systems aiming at protecting the peptide from a fast degradation, thus improving its accumulation in the target site and increasing the drug-bacterial membrane interactions

    High resolution melting analysis for a rapid identification of heterozygous and homozygous sequence changes in the MUTYH gene

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    Background: MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP) is an autosomal recessive form of intestinal polyposis predisposing to colorectal carcinoma. High resolution melting analysis (HRMA) is a mutation scanning method that allows detection of heterozygous sequence changes with high sensitivity, whereas homozygosity for a nucleotide change may not lead to significant curve shape or melting temperature changes compared to homozygous wildtype samples. Therefore, HRMA has been mainly applied to the detection of mutations associated with autosomal dominant or X-linked disorders, while applications to autosomal recessive conditions are less common. Methods: MUTYH coding sequence and UTRs were analyzed by both HRMA and sequencing on 88 leukocyte genomic DNA samples. Twenty-six samples were also examined by SSCP. Experiments were performed both with and without mixing the test samples with wild-type DNA. Results: The results show that all MUTYH sequence variations, including G > C and A > T homozygous changes, can be reliably identified by HRMA when a condition of artificial heterozygosity is created by mixing test and reference DNA. HRMA had a sensitivity comparable to sequencing and higher than SSCP. Conclusions: The availability of a rapid and inexpensive method for the identification of MUTYH sequence variants is relevant for the diagnosis of colorectal cancer susceptibility, since the MAP phenotype is highly variable

    Spectrum of mutations in Italian patients with familial hypercholesterolemia: New results from the LIPIGEN study

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    Background Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by elevated plasma levels of LDL-cholesterol that confers an increased risk of premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Early identification and treatment of FH patients can improve prognosis and reduce the burden of cardiovascular mortality. Aim of this study was to perform the mutational analysis of FH patients identified through a collaboration of 20 Lipid Clinics in Italy (LIPIGEN Study). Methods We recruited 1592 individuals with a clinical diagnosis of definite or probable FH according to the Dutch Lipid Clinic Network criteria. We performed a parallel sequencing of the major candidate genes for monogenic hypercholesterolemia (LDLR, APOB, PCSK9, APOE, LDLRAP1, STAP1). Results A total of 213 variants were detected in 1076 subjects. About 90% of them had a pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants. More than 94% of patients carried pathogenic variants in LDLR gene, 27 of which were novel. Pathogenic variants in APOB and PCSK9 were exceedingly rare. We found 4 true homozygotes and 5 putative compound heterozygotes for pathogenic variants in LDLR gene, as well as 5 double heterozygotes for LDLR/APOB pathogenic variants. Two patients were homozygous for pathogenic variants in LDLRAP1 gene resulting in autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia. One patient was found to be heterozygous for the ApoE variant p.(Leu167del), known to confer an FH phenotype. Conclusions This study shows the molecular characteristics of the FH patients identified in Italy over the last two years. Full phenotypic characterization of these patients and cascade screening of family members is now in progress

    Effectiveness of lithium in subjects with treatment-resistant depression and suicide risk: results and lessons of an underpowered randomised clinical trial

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    BACKGROUND: As lithium treatment might be effective in reducing the risk of deliberate self-harm (DSH) in adult patients with unipolar affective disorders, we designed a pragmatic randomised trial to assess its efficacy in more than 200 patients with treatment-resistant depression. However, we randomised 56 patients only. The aim of this report is therefore twofold: first, to disseminate the results of this underpowered study which may be incorporated into future meta-analytical reviews; second, to analyse some critical aspects of the study which might explain failure to reach the target sample size.METHODS: We carried out a randomised, parallel group, assessor-blinded superiority clinical trial. Adults with a diagnosis of major depression, an episode of DSH in the previous 12 months and inadequate response to at least two antidepressants given sequentially at an adequate dose for an adequate time for the current depressive episode were allocated to add lithium to usual care (intervention arm) versus usual care alone (control arm). Suicide completion and acts of DSH during the 12 months of follow-up constituted the composite primary outcome.RESULTS: Of 58 patients screened for inclusion, 29 were allocated to lithium plus usual care and 27 were assigned to usual care without lithium. Six patients in the lithium plus usual care group and seven in the usual care group committed acts of DSH during the follow-up phase. The survival probability did not differ between the two treatment arms (Chi2 = 0.17, p =0.676). With regard to changes in the severity of depressive symptomatology from baseline to endpoint, no significant differences were detected.CONCLUSIONS: The present study failed to achieve the minimum sample size needed to detect a clinically meaningful difference between the two treatment arms. Consequently, the finding that lithium, in addition to usual care, did not exert a positive effect in terms of reduction of DSH after 12 months of follow-up is likely due to the lack of sufficient statistical power to detect a difference, if a difference existed. The dissemination of the results of this underpowered study will inform future meta-analytical reviews on lithium and suicide-related outcomes.TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00927550

    Colorectal Cancer Stage at Diagnosis Before vs During the COVID-19 Pandemic in Italy

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    IMPORTANCE Delays in screening programs and the reluctance of patients to seek medical attention because of the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 could be associated with the risk of more advanced colorectal cancers at diagnosis. OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic was associated with more advanced oncologic stage and change in clinical presentation for patients with colorectal cancer. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This retrospective, multicenter cohort study included all 17 938 adult patients who underwent surgery for colorectal cancer from March 1, 2020, to December 31, 2021 (pandemic period), and from January 1, 2018, to February 29, 2020 (prepandemic period), in 81 participating centers in Italy, including tertiary centers and community hospitals. Follow-up was 30 days from surgery. EXPOSURES Any type of surgical procedure for colorectal cancer, including explorative surgery, palliative procedures, and atypical or segmental resections. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome was advanced stage of colorectal cancer at diagnosis. Secondary outcomes were distant metastasis, T4 stage, aggressive biology (defined as cancer with at least 1 of the following characteristics: signet ring cells, mucinous tumor, budding, lymphovascular invasion, perineural invasion, and lymphangitis), stenotic lesion, emergency surgery, and palliative surgery. The independent association between the pandemic period and the outcomes was assessed using multivariate random-effects logistic regression, with hospital as the cluster variable. RESULTS A total of 17 938 patients (10 007 men [55.8%]; mean [SD] age, 70.6 [12.2] years) underwent surgery for colorectal cancer: 7796 (43.5%) during the pandemic period and 10 142 (56.5%) during the prepandemic period. Logistic regression indicated that the pandemic period was significantly associated with an increased rate of advanced-stage colorectal cancer (odds ratio [OR], 1.07; 95%CI, 1.01-1.13; P = .03), aggressive biology (OR, 1.32; 95%CI, 1.15-1.53; P &lt; .001), and stenotic lesions (OR, 1.15; 95%CI, 1.01-1.31; P = .03). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE This cohort study suggests a significant association between the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and the risk of a more advanced oncologic stage at diagnosis among patients undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer and might indicate a potential reduction of survival for these patients

    Familial hypercholesterolemia: The Italian Atherosclerosis Society Network (LIPIGEN)

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    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Primary dyslipidemias are a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by abnormal levels of circulating lipoproteins. Among them, familial hypercholesterolemia is the most common lipid disorder that predisposes for premature cardiovascular disease. We set up an Italian nationwide network aimed at facilitating the clinical and genetic diagnosis of genetic dyslipidemias named LIPIGEN (LIpid TransPort Disorders Italian GEnetic Network). METHODS: Observational, multicenter, retrospective and prospective study involving about 40 Italian clinical centers. Genetic testing of the appropriate candidate genes at one of six molecular diagnostic laboratories serving as nationwide DNA diagnostic centers. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: From 2012 to October 2016, available biochemical and clinical information of 3480 subjects with familial hypercholesterolemia identified according to the Dutch Lipid Clinic Network (DLCN) score were included in the database and genetic analysis was performed in 97.8% of subjects, with a mutation detection rate of 92.0% in patients with DLCN score 656. The establishment of the LIPIGEN network will have important effects on clinical management and it will improve the overall identification and treatment of primary dyslipidemias in Italy