50 research outputs found

    SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN LOW CARBON, CLEANER AND GREENER ENERGIES AND THE ENVIRONMENT

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    The increased availability of reliable and efficient energy services stimulates new development alternatives. This article discusses the potential for such integrated systems in the stationary and portable power market in response to the critical need for cleaner energy technology. Several issues relating to renewable energies, environment, and sustainable development are examined from both current and future perspectives throughout the theme. It is concluded that green energies like wind, solar, ground source heat pumps, and biomass must be promoted, implemented, and demonstrated from the economic and/or environmental point of view. Biogas from biomass appears to have potential as an alternative energy source, potentially rich in biomass resources. The current literature is reviewed regarding the ecological, social, cultural and economic impacts of biogas technology. Finally, this article gives an overview of the present and future use of biomass as an industrial feedstock to produce fuels, chemicals and other materials. However, to be truly competitive in an open market situation, higher-value products are required. Results suggest that biogas technology must be encouraged, promoted, invested, implemented, and demonstrated, especially in remote rural areas. Anticipated future energy use patterns and consequent environmental impacts (acid precipitation, ozone depletion, greenhouse effect, or global warming) are discussed in this article. An approach is needed to integrate renewable energies in a way to meet high building performance. However, their ability to match demand is determined by adoption of one of the following two approaches: the utilisation of a capture area greater than that occupied by the community to be supplied, or the reduction of the community’s energy demands to a level commensurate with the locally available renewable resources. Adopting green or sustainable approaches to how society is run is seen as an important strategy in finding a solution to the energy problem. The key factors to reducing and controlling CO2, which is the major contributor to global warming, are the use of alternative approaches to energy generation and the exploration of how these alternatives are used today and may be used in the future as green energy sources

    SARS-CoV-2 vaccination modelling for safe surgery to save lives: data from an international prospective cohort study

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    Background: Preoperative SARS-CoV-2 vaccination could support safer elective surgery. Vaccine numbers are limited so this study aimed to inform their prioritization by modelling. Methods: The primary outcome was the number needed to vaccinate (NNV) to prevent one COVID-19-related death in 1 year. NNVs were based on postoperative SARS-CoV-2 rates and mortality in an international cohort study (surgical patients), and community SARS-CoV-2 incidence and case fatality data (general population). NNV estimates were stratified by age (18-49, 50-69, 70 or more years) and type of surgery. Best- and worst-case scenarios were used to describe uncertainty. Results: NNVs were more favourable in surgical patients than the general population. The most favourable NNVs were in patients aged 70 years or more needing cancer surgery (351; best case 196, worst case 816) or non-cancer surgery (733; best case 407, worst case 1664). Both exceeded the NNV in the general population (1840; best case 1196, worst case 3066). NNVs for surgical patients remained favourable at a range of SARS-CoV-2 incidence rates in sensitivity analysis modelling. Globally, prioritizing preoperative vaccination of patients needing elective surgery ahead of the general population could prevent an additional 58 687 (best case 115 007, worst case 20 177) COVID-19-related deaths in 1 year. Conclusion: As global roll out of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination proceeds, patients needing elective surgery should be prioritized ahead of the general population

    Promotion and implementation of bioenergy for a better environment: A minor edition

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    There is strong scientific evidence that the average temperature of the earth's surface is rising and this may be attribute to increased concentration of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), and other greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere as released by burning fossil fuels. One of the chief sources of greenhouse gases is burning of fossil fuels. Biogas from biomass appears to have potential as an alternative energy source, which is potentially rich in biomass resources. In the present paper, current literature is reviewed regarding the ecological, social, cultural and economic impacts of biogas technology. In this article an attempt has been made to give an overview of present and future use of biomass as an industrial feedstock for production of fuels, chemicals and other materials. However, to be truly competitive in an open market situation, higher value products are required

    Promotion and implementation of bioenergy for a better environment: A mini review

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    Abstract There is strong scientific evidence that the average temperature of the earth's surface is rising and this may be attribute to increased concentration of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), and other greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere as released by burning fossil fuels. One of the chief sources of greenhouse gases is burning of fossil fuels. Biogas from biomass appears to have potential as an alternative energy source, which is potentially rich in biomass resources. In the present paper, current literature is reviewed regarding the ecological, social, cultural and economic impacts of biogas technology. In this article an attempt has been made to give an overview of present and future use of biomass as an industrial feedstock for production of fuels, chemicals and other materials. However, to be truly competitive in an open market situation, higher value products are required

    ENERGY EFFICIENT DESIGN OF NEW BUILDING EXCEPT NEW LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS: CLEANER AND GREENER ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND ENVIRONMENT

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    ABSTRACT The move towards a de-carbonised world, driven partly by climate science and partly by the business opportunities it offers, will need the promotion of environmentally friendly alternatives, if an acceptable stabilisation level of atmospheric carbon dioxide is to be achieved. This requires the harnessing and use of natural resources that produce no air pollution or greenhouse gases and provides comfortable coexistence of human, livestock, and plants. This article presents a comprehensive review of energy sources, and the development of sustainable technologies to explore these energy sources. It also includes potential renewable energy technologies, efficient energy systems, energy savings techniques and other mitigation measures necessary to reduce climate changes. The article concludes with the technical status of the ground source heat pumps (GSHP) technologies

    The absence of the curriculum in scientific research in Sudan

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    Abstract. This paper reviews the development of scientific and technological research highlights the efforts made sporadic in this area. In this study I try to put some solutions and recommendations that help the advancement of scientific research to resolve issues in the Sudanese society. Despite the obstacles, the movement of scientific research did not stop completely, because a number of researchers still believe in the inevitability of continued scientific research to benefit the maximum of what is available (and the efforts of individual) to attain the objectives of development, prosperity and keep pace with scientific development

    Space Heating And Air Conditioning with Heat Exchanger Under Groundwater

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    Globally buildings are responsible for approximately 40% of the total world annual energy consumption. Most of this energy is for the provision of lighting, heating, cooling and air conditioning. An increase in awareness of the environmental impact of CO2, NOx and CFCs emissions triggered a renewed interest in environmentally friendly cooling and heating technologies. Under the 1997 Montreal Protocol, governments agreed to phase out chemicals used as refrigerants that have the potential to destroy stratospheric ozone. It was therefore considered desirable to reduce energy consumption in order to decrease the rate of depletion of world energy reserves as well as the pollution to the environment. One way of reducing building energy consumption is to design buildings, which are more efficient in their use of energy for heating, lighting, cooling and ventilation. Passive measures, particularly natural or hybrid ventilation rather than air-conditioning, can dramatically reduce primary energy consumption. Therefore, promoting innovative renewable energy applications including the ground source energy may contribute to preservation of the ecosystem by reducing emissions at local and global levels. This will also contribute to the amelioration of environmental conditions by replacing conventional fuels with renewable energies that produce no air pollution or the greenhouse gases (GHGs). An approach is needed to integrate renewable energies in a way to achieve high building performance standards. However, because renewable energy sources are stochastic and geographically diffuse, their ability to match demand is determined by the adoption of one of the following two approaches: the utilisation of a capture area greater than that occupied by the community to be supplied, or the reduction of the community’s energy demands to a level commensurate with the locally available renewable resources. Ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems (also referred to as geothermal heat pump systems, earth-energy systems and GeoExchange systems) have received considerable attention in recent decades as an alternative energy source for residential and commercial space heating and cooling applications. The GSHP applications are one of three categories of geothermal energy resources as defined by ASHRAE and include high-temperature (>150°C) for electric power production, intermediate temperature (<150°C) for direct-use applications and GSHP applications (generally (<32°C). The GSHP applications are distinguished from the others by the fact that they operate at relatively low temperatures

    The Role of Green Energy Systems and Sustainable Development

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    People are relying upon oil for primary energy and this will continue for a few more decades. Other conventional sources may be more enduring, but are not without serious disadvantages. The renewable energy resources are particularly suited for the provision of rural power supplies and a major advantage is that equipment such as flat plate solar driers, wind machines, etc., can be constructed using local resources. Without the advantage results from the feasibility of local maintenance and the general encouragement such local manufacture gives to the buildup of small-scale rural based industry. This communication comprises a comprehensive review of energy sources, the environment and sustainable development. It includes the renewable energy technologies, energy efficiency systems, energy conservation scenarios, energy savings in greenhouses environment and other mitigation measures necessary to reduce climate change. This study gives some examples of small-scale energy converters, nevertheless it should be noted that small conventional, i.e., engines are currently the major source of power in rural areas and will continue to be so for a long time to come. There is a need for some further development to suit local conditions, to minimise spares holdings, to maximise the interchangeability of the engine parts, and of the engine applications. Emphasis should be placed on full local manufacture. It is concluded that renewable environmentally friendly energy must be encouraged, promoted, implemented and demonstrated by a full-scale plant (device) especially for use in remote rural areas

    Sustainable development of bioheat from agriculture wastes and environment

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    This communication discusses a comprehensive review of biomass energy sources, environment and sustainable development. This includes all the biomass energy technologies, energy efficiency systems, energy conservation scenarios, energy savings and other mitigation measures necessary to reduce emissions globally. The current literature is reviewed regarding the ecological, social, cultural and economic impacts of biomass technology. This study gives an overview of present and future use of biomass as an industrial feedstock for production of fuels, chemicals and other materials. However, to be truly competitive in an open market situation, higher value products are required. Results suggest that biomass technology must be encouraged, promoted, invested, implemented, and demonstrated, but especially in remote rural areas
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