1,055 research outputs found

    Impact of Salinity Stress and Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on Macro and Micronutrient Assimilation: Unraveling the Link between Environmental Factors and Nutrient Uptake

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    The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the effects of salinity (NaCl) on the mineral composition and macro- and micronutrient contents of rice plants. The experiment was conducted at the Department of Biotechnology's experimental area in SVPUAT Meerut. Various salinity treatments were applied, including T0 (Control), T1 (60 mM NaCl), T2 (80 mM NaCl), T3 (100 mM NaCl), T4 (ZnO NPs 50 mg/L + 60 mM NaCl), T5 (ZnO NPs 50 mg/L + 80 mM NaCl), and T6 (ZnO NPs 50 mg/L + 100 mM NaCl). The results analysis revealed that the micro- and micronutrients in rice genotypes decreased compared to the control treatment. However, when 50 mg/L of ZnO-NPs were applied, the concentrations of both macro- and micronutrient contents in rice plants were found to increase. This is the most significant finding of this researc

    An Effectiveness of Group Model Coaching for Improving Life Balance Among Youth

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    Life imbalanced amongst youth regarding moral, behaviour and personality problems have been discussed in many studies. However, not many of these research articles discussed on effective interventions process to improve the imbalance especially on youth life. Hence, this study offers a methodology on conducting an effectiveness intervention to improvise youth life-balance. A group of 90 youths were selected from a secondary school to participate the intervention process based on their low academic performance. First phase of the intervention was to investigate the imbalanced elements using a modified Wheel of Life which consisted of 8 elements with 10-points scale. During the investigation session, youth are required to shed the modified Wheel of Life based on individual perspective. The coach analysed all the 90 shaded Wheel of Life and found that personality and discipline element has the lowest score. Then, only 9 youth that having lowest score in this element are grouped and proceed to second phase which is called coaching session. In this session, the youth have undergone 5 interaction sessions where the first session is known as ice breaking activity then followed by another 4 interactions coaching sessions using GROUP model approach. The purpose of ice breaking session was to gain rapport amongst youth.  Then during the GROUP model coaching session, a pre and post coaching forms were prepared and filled by the youth to gauge their life balance status. These GROUP model coaching sessions continued until the fourth session. Then, the pre and post coaching forms were analysed to quantify the impact of the coaching sessions on the youth personality and discipline element. For the last phase, the results of these coaching sessions were validated through the interview session with the teachers and parents of the youth. It was found that the average effectiveness percentage of the GROUP model coaching is 72.95%.  It is hope that this study contributes new knowledge on intervention process to improvise youth life balance

    Global, regional, and national incidence of six major immune-mediated inflammatory diseases: findings from the global burden of disease study 2019Research in context

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    Summary: Background: The causes for immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs) are diverse and the incidence trends of IMIDs from specific causes are rarely studied. The study aims to investigate the pattern and trend of IMIDs from 1990 to 2019. Methods: We collected detailed information on six major causes of IMIDs, including asthma, inflammatory bowel disease, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and atopic dermatitis, between 1990 and 2019, derived from the Global Burden of Disease study in 2019. The average annual percent change (AAPC) in number of incidents and age standardized incidence rate (ASR) on IMIDs, by sex, age, region, and causes, were calculated to quantify the temporal trends. Findings: In 2019, rheumatoid arthritis, atopic dermatitis, asthma, multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease accounted 1.59%, 36.17%, 54.71%, 0.09%, 6.84%, 0.60% of overall new IMIDs cases, respectively. The ASR of IMIDs showed substantial regional and global variation with the highest in High SDI region, High-income North America, and United States of America. Throughout human lifespan, the age distribution of incident cases from six IMIDs was quite different. Globally, incident cases of IMIDs increased with an AAPC of 0.68 and the ASR decreased with an AAPC of −0.34 from 1990 to 2019. The incident cases increased across six IMIDs, the ASR of rheumatoid arthritis increased (0.21, 95% CI 0.18, 0.25), while the ASR of asthma (AAPC = −0.41), inflammatory bowel disease (AAPC = −0.72), multiple sclerosis (AAPC = −0.26), psoriasis (AAPC = −0.77), and atopic dermatitis (AAPC = −0.15) decreased. The ASR of overall and six individual IMID increased with SDI at regional and global level. Countries with higher ASR in 1990 experienced a more rapid decrease in ASR. Interpretation: The incidence patterns of IMIDs varied considerably across the world. Innovative prevention and integrative management strategy are urgently needed to mitigate the increasing ASR of rheumatoid arthritis and upsurging new cases of other five IMIDs, respectively. Funding: The Global Burden of Disease Study is funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. The project funded by Scientific Research Fund of Sichuan Academy of Medical Sciences & Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital (2022QN38)

    Evaluation of a quality improvement intervention to reduce anastomotic leak following right colectomy (EAGLE): pragmatic, batched stepped-wedge, cluster-randomized trial in 64 countries

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    Background Anastomotic leak affects 8 per cent of patients after right colectomy with a 10-fold increased risk of postoperative death. The EAGLE study aimed to develop and test whether an international, standardized quality improvement intervention could reduce anastomotic leaks. Methods The internationally intended protocol, iteratively co-developed by a multistage Delphi process, comprised an online educational module introducing risk stratification, an intraoperative checklist, and harmonized surgical techniques. Clusters (hospital teams) were randomized to one of three arms with varied sequences of intervention/data collection by a derived stepped-wedge batch design (at least 18 hospital teams per batch). Patients were blinded to the study allocation. Low- and middle-income country enrolment was encouraged. The primary outcome (assessed by intention to treat) was anastomotic leak rate, and subgroup analyses by module completion (at least 80 per cent of surgeons, high engagement; less than 50 per cent, low engagement) were preplanned. Results A total 355 hospital teams registered, with 332 from 64 countries (39.2 per cent low and middle income) included in the final analysis. The online modules were completed by half of the surgeons (2143 of 4411). The primary analysis included 3039 of the 3268 patients recruited (206 patients had no anastomosis and 23 were lost to follow-up), with anastomotic leaks arising before and after the intervention in 10.1 and 9.6 per cent respectively (adjusted OR 0.87, 95 per cent c.i. 0.59 to 1.30; P = 0.498). The proportion of surgeons completing the educational modules was an influence: the leak rate decreased from 12.2 per cent (61 of 500) before intervention to 5.1 per cent (24 of 473) after intervention in high-engagement centres (adjusted OR 0.36, 0.20 to 0.64; P < 0.001), but this was not observed in low-engagement hospitals (8.3 per cent (59 of 714) and 13.8 per cent (61 of 443) respectively; adjusted OR 2.09, 1.31 to 3.31). Conclusion Completion of globally available digital training by engaged teams can alter anastomotic leak rates. Registration number: NCT04270721 (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov)

    Sequence Analysis of the Malaysian Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Strain H5N2 from Duck

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    The avian influenza viruses (AIV) of the H5 subtype have the ability to mutate from low pathogenic (LPAI) to highly pathogenic (HPAI), which can cause high mortality in poultry. Little is known about the pathogenic switching apart from the mutations at the haemagglutinin cleavage site, which significantly contributes to the virus virulence switching phenomenon. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the molecular markers in the haemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA), and matrix (M) genes of a locally isolated LPAI AIV strain H5N2 from Malaysia with the reference HPAI strains using bioinformatics approaches, emphasising the pathogenic properties of the viral genes. First, the H5N2 strain A/Duck/Malaysia/8443/2004 was propagated in SPF eggs. The viral presence was verified by haemagglutination assay, RT-PCR, and sequencing. Results showed successful amplifications of HA (1695 bp), NA (1410 bp), and M (1019 bp) genes. The genes were sequenced and the deduced amino acid sequences were analysed computationally using MEGA 11 and NetNGlyc software. Analysis of the HA protein showed the absence of the polybasic cleavage motif, but presence of two amino acid residues that are known to affect pathogenicity. There were also two glycosylation sites (glycosites) compared to the reference HPAI viruses, which had three or more at the HA globular head domain. No NA stalk deletion was detected but the haemadsorbing and active centres of the studied NA protein were relatively similar to the reference HPAI H5N2 isolates of duck but not chicken origins. Six NA glycosites were also identified. Finally, we observed a consistent M1 and M2 amino acid sequences between our LPAI isolate with the other HPAI H5N1 or H5N2 reference proteins. These data demonstrate distinct characteristics of the Malaysian LPAI H5N2, compared to HPAI H5N2 or H5N1 from ducks or chickens, potentially aiding the epidemiological research on genetic dynamics of circulating AIV in poultry

    Epidemiology and outcomes of hospital-acquired bloodstream infections in intensive care unit patients: the EUROBACT-2 international cohort study

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    Purpose In the critically ill, hospital-acquired bloodstream infections (HA-BSI) are associated with significant mortality. Granular data are required for optimizing management, and developing guidelines and clinical trials. Methods We carried out a prospective international cohort study of adult patients (≄ 18 years of age) with HA-BSI treated in intensive care units (ICUs) between June 2019 and February 2021. Results 2600 patients from 333 ICUs in 52 countries were included. 78% HA-BSI were ICU-acquired. Median Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score was 8 [IQR 5; 11] at HA-BSI diagnosis. Most frequent sources of infection included pneumonia (26.7%) and intravascular catheters (26.4%). Most frequent pathogens were Gram-negative bacteria (59.0%), predominantly Klebsiella spp. (27.9%), Acinetobacter spp. (20.3%), Escherichia coli (15.8%), and Pseudomonas spp. (14.3%). Carbapenem resistance was present in 37.8%, 84.6%, 7.4%, and 33.2%, respectively. Difficult-to-treat resistance (DTR) was present in 23.5% and pan-drug resistance in 1.5%. Antimicrobial therapy was deemed adequate within 24 h for 51.5%. Antimicrobial resistance was associated with longer delays to adequate antimicrobial therapy. Source control was needed in 52.5% but not achieved in 18.2%. Mortality was 37.1%, and only 16.1% had been discharged alive from hospital by day-28. Conclusions HA-BSI was frequently caused by Gram-negative, carbapenem-resistant and DTR pathogens. Antimicrobial resistance led to delays in adequate antimicrobial therapy. Mortality was high, and at day-28 only a minority of the patients were discharged alive from the hospital. Prevention of antimicrobial resistance and focusing on adequate antimicrobial therapy and source control are important to optimize patient management and outcomes

    Diminishing benefits of urban living for children and adolescents’ growth and development