153 research outputs found

    Optogenetic manipulation of a value-coding pathway from the primate caudate tail facilitates saccadic gaze shift

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    価値あるものを見つける神経回路機構を解明 --価値情報を眼球運動に変換する仕組み--. 京都大学プレスリリース. 2020-04-23.How your brain finds the good objects. 京都大学プレスリリース. 2020-09-14.In the primate basal ganglia, the caudate tail (CDt) encodes the historical values (good or bad) of visual objects (i.e., stable values), and electrical stimulation of CDt evokes saccadic eye movements. However, it is still unknown how output from CDt conveys stable value signals to govern behavior. Here, we apply a pathway-selective optogenetic manipulation to elucidate how such value information modulates saccades. We express channelrhodopsin-2 in CDt delivered by viral vector injections. Selective optical activation of CDt-derived terminals in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) inhibits SNr neurons. Notably, these SNr neurons show inhibitory responses to good objects. Furthermore, the optical stimulation causes prolonged excitation of visual-saccadic neurons in the superior colliculus (SC), and induces contralateral saccades. These SC neurons respond more strongly to good than to bad objects in the contralateral hemifield. The present results demonstrate that CDt facilitates saccades toward good objects by serial inhibitory pathways through SNr

    An Open Resource for Non-human Primate Optogenetics.

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    Optogenetics has revolutionized neuroscience in small laboratory animals, but its effect on animal models more closely related to humans, such as non-human primates (NHPs), has been mixed. To make evidence-based decisions in primate optogenetics, the scientific community would benefit from a centralized database listing all attempts, successful and unsuccessful, of using optogenetics in the primate brain. We contacted members of the community to ask for their contributions to an open science initiative. As of this writing, 45 laboratories around the world contributed more than 1,000 injection experiments, including precise details regarding their methods and outcomes. Of those entries, more than half had not been published. The resource is free for everyone to consult and contribute to on the Open Science Framework website. Here we review some of the insights from this initial release of the database and discuss methodological considerations to improve the success of optogenetic experiments in NHPs

    The Neural Basis of Cognitive Efficiency in Motor Skill Performance from Early Learning to Automatic Stages

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    An Open Resource for Non-human Primate Optogenetics

    No full text
    Optogenetics has revolutionized neuroscience in small laboratory animals, but its effect on animal models more closely related to humans, such as non-human primates (NHPs), has been mixed. To make evidence-based decisions in primate optogenetics, the scientific community would benefit from a centralized database listing all attempts, successful and unsuccessful, of using optogenetics in the primate brain. We contacted members of the community to ask for their contributions to an open science initiative. As of this writing, 45 laboratories around the world contributed more than 1,000 injection experiments, including precise details regarding their methods and outcomes. Of those entries, more than half had not been published. The resource is free for everyone to consult and contribute to on the Open Science Framework website. Here we review some of the insights from this initial release of the database and discuss methodological considerations to improve the success of optogenetic experiments in NHPs.status: publishe

    Neuronal connections of direct and indirect pathways for stable value memory in caudal basal ganglia

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    Direct and indirect pathways in the basal ganglia work together for controlling behavior. However, it is still a controversial topic whether these pathways are segregated or merged with each other. To address this issue, we studied the connections of these two pathways in the caudal parts of the basal ganglia of rhesus monkeys using anatomical tracers. Our previous studies showed that the caudal basal ganglia control saccades by conveying long-term values (stable values) of many visual objects toward the superior colliculus. In experiment 1, we injected a tracer in the caudate tail (CDt), and found local dense plexuses of axon terminals in the caudal-dorsal-lateral part of substantia nigra pars reticulata (cdlSNr) and the caudal-ventral part of globus pallidus externus (cvGPe). These anterograde projections may correspond to the direct and indirect pathways, respectively. To verify this in experiment 2, we injected different tracers into cdlSNr and cvGPe, and found many retrogradely labeled neurons in CDt and, in addition, the caudal-ventral part of the putamen (cvPut). These cdlSNr-projecting and cvGPe-projecting neurons were found intermingled in both CDt and cvPut (which we call striatum tail). A small but significant proportion of neurons (<15%) were double-labeled, indicating that they projected to both cdlSNr and cvGPe. These anatomical results suggest that stable value signals (good vs. bad) are sent from the striatum tail to cdlSNr and cvGPe in a biased (but not exclusive) manner. These connections may play an important role in biasing saccades toward higher valued objects and away from lower valued objects © 2018 The Authors

    Direct and indirect pathways for choosing objects and actions

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    A prominent target of the basal ganglia is the superior colliculus (SC) which controls gaze orientation (saccadic eye movement in primates) to an important object. This object choice' is crucial for choosing an action on the object. SC is innervated by the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) which is controlled mainly by the caudate nucleus (CD). This CD-SNr-SC circuit is sensitive to the values of individual objects and facilitates saccades to good objects. The object values are processed differently in two parallel circuits: flexibly by the caudate head (CDh) and stably by the caudate tail (CDt). To choose good objects, we need to reject bad objects. In fact, these contrasting functions are accomplished by the circuit originating from CDt: The direct pathway focuses on good objects and facilitates saccades to them; the indirect pathway focuses on bad objects and suppresses saccades to them. Inactivation of CDt deteriorated the object choice, because saccades to bad objects were no longer suppressed. This suggests that the indirect pathway is important for object choice. However, the direct and indirect pathways for object choice', which aim at the same action (i.e., saccade), may not work for action choice'. One possibility is that circuits controlling different actions are connected through the indirect pathway. Additional connections of the indirect pathway with brain areas outside the basal ganglia may also provide a wider range of behavioral choice. In conclusion, basal ganglia circuits are composed of the basic direct/indirect pathways and additional connections and thus have acquired multiple functions. © 2018 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Lt

    Indirect Pathway of Caudal Basal Ganglia for Rejection of Valueless Visual Objects

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    The striatum controls behavior in two ways: facilitation and suppression through the direct and indirect pathways, respectively. However, it is still unclear what information is processed in these pathways. To address this question, we studied two pathways originating from the primate caudate tail (CDt). We found that the CDt innervated the caudal-dorsal-lateral part of the substantia nigra pars reticulata (cdlSNr), directly or indirectly through the caudal-ventral part of the globus pallidus externus (cvGPe). Notably, cvGPe neurons receiving inputs from the CDt were mostly visual neurons that encoded stable reward values of visual objects based on long-past experiences. Their dominant response was inhibition by valueless objects, which generated disinhibition of cdlSNr neurons and inhibition of superior colliculus neurons. Our data suggest that low-value signals are sent by the CDt-indirect pathway to suppress saccades to valueless objects, whereas high-value signals are sent by the CDt-direct pathway to facilitate saccades to valuable objects. (c) 2017 Elsevier Inc.5
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