132 research outputs found

    Trends in mortality from major causes and lifestyle factors by per capita prefectural income: Ecological panel data analysis from 1995 to 2016 in Japan

    No full text
    In Japan, trends in mortality and lifestyle have not been fully investigated according to subnational socioeconomic factors. Forty-seven prefectures (subnational units) were divided into quartiles by annual per capita prefectural income. Age-standardized mortality from all causes, cancer, heart disease, and stroke was averaged by quartile in 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2015. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Survey were obtained for periods 1 (1995–1997), 2 (1999–2001), 3 (2003–2005), 4 (2007–2009), 5 (2012), and 6 (2016). Body mass index (BMI), the intake of vegetables and salt, the number of steps, and the prevalence of current smoking and drinking for the 40–69-year age range were standardized by 10-year age groups in the 2010 Japanese population and were averaged by quartile. Differences in mortality and lifestyle by year and period, and quartile were tested using a two-way analysis of variance. Mortality decreased in both sexes and mortality in men from all causes, cancer, and stroke differed by quartile, with mortality highest in the first (lowest) quartile. BMI in men and smoking prevalence in women increased, whereas remaining lifestyle factors except for the prevalence of drinking decreased in women. BMI and the number of steps in both sexes and current smoking prevalence in women differed by quartile, with lower quartiles showing a higher BMI and fewer step counts. In conclusion, favorable trends and significant differences in mortality from all causes, cancer, and stroke in men and BMI in women were observed by per capita prefectural income level

    Factors related to subjective well-being among community-dwelling older adults living alone: A stratified analysis by sex and marital status from the JAGES.

    No full text
    BackgroundPrevious cross-sectional studies suggest that negative health outcomes such as mortality, social isolation, loneliness, and depression among older adults living alone vary by sex and marital status, with men often worse off than women and unmarried people worse off than married people. However, limited evidence exists from longitudinal studies regarding whether positive health outcomes such as subjective well-being (SWB) also vary by sex and marital status. The focus by sex and marital status on the positive health outcomes and diverse profiles of older adults living alone is important for public health in the near future. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify changes in SWB over time and its associated factors by sex and marital status among older adults living alone in the community using a longitudinal study in a representative population.MethodsThis was a longitudinal study using data from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study. This study is the first to reveal differences in SWB and related factors over 3 years among older adults living alone in the community (n = 8,579) who were stratified by sex and marital status (married men, non-married men, married women, and non-married women).ResultsWomen moved to higher levels of SWB than did men, and married individuals moved to higher levels of SWB than did unmarried individuals. Independent functioning factors and interpersonal factors were significantly associated with SWB for married men and married women, but for unmarried women, the association by interpersonal factors was more pronounced, and for unmarried men, only limited emotional support and health promotion activities were significant among the interpersonal factors.ConclusionsThis study revealed that among older adults living alone, changes in SWB over time and the independent functioning factors and interpersonal factors associated with this change varied by sex and marital status among older people living alone. These findings are useful for policy-making and guiding intervention activities to promote SWB in a society in which the environment for older adults living alone is changing dramatically

    Association between the Standardized Mortality Ratio and Healthy Life Expectancy in Japan

    Get PDF
    Introduction: Healthy life expectancy (HLE) remains the principal target of various health plans. We aimed to identify the areas of priority and determinants of mortality to extend HLE across local governments in Japan. Methods: HLE according to secondary medical areas was calculated using the Sullivan method. People requiring long-term care of level 2 or higher were considered unhealthy. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for major causes of death were calculated using vital statistics data. The association between HLE and SMR was analyzed using simple and multiple regression analyses. Results: The average (standard deviation) HLE values were 79.24 (0.85) and 83.76 (0.62) years for men and women, respectively. A comparison of HLE revealed regional health gaps of 4.46 (76.90-81.36) and 3.46 (81.99-85.45) years for men and women, respectively. The coefficients of determination for the SMR of malignant neoplasms with HLE were the highest and were 0.402 and 0.219 among men and women, respectively, followed by those of cerebrovascular diseases, suicide, and heart diseases among men and those of heart disease, pneumonia, and liver disease among women. When all major preventable causes of death were analyzed simultaneously in a regression model, the coefficients of determination were 0.738 and 0.425 among men and women, respectively. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that local governments should prioritize preventing cancer deaths via cancer screening and smoking cessation measures in health plans, with a special focus on men

    Changes in the Characteristics and Outcomes of COVID-19 Patients from the Early Pandemic to the Delta Variant Epidemic: A Nationwide Population-based Study

    No full text
    The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has dramatically changed because of virus mutations, vaccine dissemination, treatment development and policies, among other factors. These factors have a dynamic and complex effect on the characteristics and outcomes of patients. Therefore, there is an urgent need to understand those changes and update the evidence. We used a large-scale real-world data set of 937,758 patients with COVID-19 from a nationwide claims database that included outpatients and inpatients in Japan to investigate the changes in their characteristics, outcomes and risk factors for severity/mortality from the early pandemic to the delta variant-predominant waves. The severity of COVID-19 was defined according to the modified World Health Organization clinical-progression ordinal scale. With changing waves, mean patient age decreased, and proportion of patients with comorbidities decreased. The incidences of “severe COVID-19 or death (i.e. ≥severe COVID-19)” and “death” markedly declined (5.0% and 2.9%, wild-type-predominant; 4.6% and 2.2%, alpha variant-predominant and 1.4% and 0.4%, delta variant-predominant waves, respectively). Across the wave shift, risk factors for ≥severe COVID-19 and death, including older age, male, malignancy, congestive heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, were largely consistent. The significance of some factors, such as liver disease, varied as per the wave. This study, one of the largest population-based studies on COVID-19, showed that patient characteristics and outcomes changed during the waves. Risk factors for severity/mortality were similar across all waves, but some factors were inconsistent. These data suggest that the clinical status of COVID-19 will change further with the coming epidemic wave.</p

    Trends in Prevalence, Treatment, and Control of Hypertension According to 40-Year-Old Life Expectancy at Prefectures in Japan from the National Health and Nutrition Surveys

    No full text
    The prevalence of hypertension has been decreasing in Japan due to improved medical treatment and a decrease in dietary salt intake. However, disparities in the prevalence, treatment, and control of hypertension are expected to occur in different regions. This study aimed to investigate the trends in the prevalence, treatment, and control of hypertension at the prefectural level of life expectancy among Japanese population. We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Survey and analysed the individual survey information of individuals aged 40&ndash;69 years by dividing it into six terms, i.e., 1995&ndash;1997, 1999&ndash;2001, 2003&ndash;2005, 2007&ndash;2009, 2012, and 2016. Prefectures were classified into four groups according to their 40-year-old life expectancy in 2000. Outcome values were standardised to the population by 10-year age groups in 2010, and they were tested by two-way analysis of variance according to six terms and life expectancies. The prevalence of hypertension tended to decrease, especially among women, whereas the treatment and control tended to improve from the first to the sixth period in both men and women. The prevalence and treatment of hypertension in men with longer life expectancy tended to be lower than that in other groups, and there was no obvious difference in the control. In women, there were no obvious differences in the prevalence, treatment, or control. Reducing the prevalence of hypertension by improving lifestyle factors, such as high salt intake in each prefecture with a relatively short life expectancy, may be important to resolve the disparity in life expectancy among prefectures

    Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among older recipients of public welfare assistance in Japan

    Get PDF
    [Background] The high suicide rate among older adults is an important public health issue. Financial insecurity has been linked to suicidal behaviour. Despite this, as yet, there has been little research on suicide-related behaviours among older recipients of public welfare. This study will examine if suicidal ideation and suicide attempts are more prevalent in older recipients of public welfare assistance in Japan. [Methods] This cross-sectional study analysed data from 16 135 adults aged ≥65 years who participated in the 2019 wave of the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study. Information was obtained on receiving public welfare assistance, lifetime suicidal ideation and attempts, and a variety of covariates. Poisson regression analysis with robust variance estimates was used to examine associations. [Results] Suicidal ideation was reported by 4.8% of the participants, while the corresponding figure for attempted suicide was 2.2%. In fully adjusted analyses public welfare recipients had an almost 1.5 times higher prevalence of lifetime suicidal ideation (prevalence ratio, PR 1.47, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.13), and an almost two times higher prevalence of attempted suicide (PR 1.91, 95% CI 1.20 to 3.04) when compared with their counterparts not receiving public welfare assistance. [Conclusion] Older recipients of public welfare have a higher prevalence of suicidal behaviour in Japan. An urgent focus is now warranted on this vulnerable population to determine the specific factors underlying this association

    Relationship of the Difficulty of Helicobacter pylori Eradication with Drinking Habits and Allergic Disease

    No full text
    Eradication of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is crucial to reduce the risk of developing gastric ulcers and gastric cancer. Although immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels and alcohol consumption have been shown to influence the failure of H. pylori eradication, the relationship between these factors and the mechanism of failure has not been clarified. Because high IgE levels are associated with eradication failure, the purpose of this study was to clarify the factors leading to high IgE levels. Completed questionnaires and blood test data were collected from patients who visited a university hospital for H. pylori eradication. Logistic regression analysis was per-formed to examine the relationship between high IgE levels and allergic diseases. We also examined the relationship between alcohol intake and high IgE levels. Linear regression analysis was performed on the relationship between the amount of alcohol consumed and IgE measurements. The results showed that patients with allergic diseases and those with high alcohol intake had significantly higher IgE levels. High IgE levels are a risk factor for failure of H. pylori eradication that is associated with drinking habits and alcohol consumption, and our results suggest that daily alcohol consumption should be avoided even in non-allergic patients
    corecore