87 research outputs found

    Rezafungin versus caspofungin for treatment of candidaemia and invasive candidiasis (ReSTORE): a multicentre, double-blind, double-dummy, randomised phase 3 trial.

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    BACKGROUND: Rezafungin is a next-generation, once-a-week echinocandin in development for the treatment of candidaemia and invasive candidiasis and for the prevention of invasive fungal disease caused by Candida, Aspergillus, and Pneumocystis spp after blood and marrow transplantation. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of intravenous rezafungin versus intravenous caspofungin in patients with candidaemia and invasive candidiasis. METHODS: ReSTORE was a multicentre, double-blind, double-dummy, randomised phase 3 trial done at 66 tertiary care centres in 15 countries. Adults (≥18 years) with systemic signs and mycological confirmation of candidaemia or invasive candidiasis were eligible for inclusion and randomly assigned (1:1) to receive intravenous rezafungin once a week (400 mg in week 1, followed by 200 mg weekly, for a total of two to four doses) or intravenous caspofungin (70 mg loading dose on day 1, followed by 50 mg daily) for no more than 4 weeks. The primary endpoints were global cure (consisting of clinical cure, radiological cure, and mycological eradication) at day 14 for the European Medical Agency (EMA) and 30-day all-cause mortality for the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), both with a target non-inferiority margin of 20%, assessed in the modified intention-to-treat population (all patients who received one or more doses of study drug and had documented Candida infection based on a culture from blood or another normally sterile site obtained within 96 h before randomisation). Safety was evaluated by the incidence and type of adverse events and deaths in the safety population, defined as all patients who received any amount of study drug. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03667690, and is complete. FINDINGS: Between Oct 12, 2018, and Aug 29, 2021, 222 patients were screened for inclusion, and 199 patients (118 [59%] men; 81 [41%] women; mean age 61 years [SD 15·2]) were randomly assigned (100 [50%] patients to the rezafungin group and 99 [50%] patients to the caspofungin group). 55 (59%) of 93 patients in the rezafungin group and 57 (61%) of 94 patients in the caspofungin group had a global cure at day 14 (weighted treatment difference -1·1% [95% CI -14·9 to 12·7]; EMA primary endpoint). 22 (24%) of 93 patients in the rezafungin group and 20 (21%) of 94 patients in the caspofungin group died or had an unknown survival status at day 30 (treatment difference 2·4% [95% CI -9·7 to 14·4]; FDA primary endpoint). In the safety analysis, 89 (91%) of 98 patients in the rezafungin group and 83 (85%) of 98 patients in the caspofungin group had at least one treatment-emergent adverse event. The most common treatment-emergent adverse events that occurred in at least 5% of patients in either group were pyrexia, hypokalaemia, pneumonia, septic shock, and anaemia. 55 (56%) patients in the rezafungin group and 52 (53%) patients in the caspofungin group had serious adverse events. INTERPRETATION: Our data show that rezafungin was non-inferior to caspofungin for the primary endpoints of day-14 global cure (EMA) and 30-day all-cause mortality (FDA). Efficacy in the initial days of treatment warrants evaluation. There were no concerning trends in treatment-emergent or serious adverse events. These phase 3 results show the efficacy and safety of rezafungin and support its ongoing development. FUNDING: Cidara Therapeutics and Mundipharma

    Fighting post-COVID and ME/CFS - development of curative therapies

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    The sequela of COVID-19 include a broad spectrum of symptoms that fall under the umbrella term post-COVID-19 condition or syndrome (PCS). Immune dysregulation, autoimmunity, endothelial dysfunction, viral persistence, and viral reactivation have been identified as potential mechanisms. However, there is heterogeneity in expression of biomarkers, and it is unknown yet whether these distinguish different clinical subgroups of PCS. There is an overlap of symptoms and pathomechanisms of PCS with postinfectious myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). No curative therapies are available for ME/CFS or PCS. The mechanisms identified so far provide targets for therapeutic interventions. To accelerate the development of therapies, we propose evaluating drugs targeting different mechanisms in clinical trial networks using harmonized diagnostic and outcome criteria and subgrouping patients based on a thorough clinical profiling including a comprehensive diagnostic and biomarker phenotyping

    Baseline Chest Computed Tomography as Standard of Care in High-Risk Hematology Patients

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    Baseline chest computed tomography (BCT) in high-risk hematology patients allows for the early diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). The distribution of BCT implementation in hematology departments and impact on outcome is unknown. A web-based questionnaire was designed. International scientific bodies were invited. The estimated numbers of annually treated hematology patients, chest imaging timepoints and techniques, IPA rates, and follow-up imaging were assessed. In total, 142 physicians from 43 countries participated. The specialties included infectious diseases (n = 69; 49%), hematology (n = 68; 48%), and others (n = 41; 29%). BCT was performed in 57% (n = 54) of 92 hospitals. Upon the diagnosis of malignancy or admission, 48% and 24% performed BCT, respectively, and X-ray was performed in 48% and 69%, respectively. BCT was more often used in hematopoietic cell transplantation and in relapsed acute leukemia. European centers performed BCT in 59% and non-European centers in 53%. Median estimated IPA rate was 8% and did not differ between BCT (9%; IQR 5-15%) and non-BCT centers (7%; IQR 5-10%) (p = 0.69). Follow-up computed tomography (CT) for IPA was performed in 98% (n = 90) of centers. In high-risk hematology patients, baseline CT is becoming a standard-of-care. Chest X-ray, while inferior, is still widely used. Randomized, controlled trials are needed to investigate the impact of BCT on patient outcome

    Risk Factors for Intra-Abdominal Candidiasis in Intensive Care Units: Results from EUCANDICU Study

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    INTRODUCTION: Intra-abdominal infections represent the second most frequently acquired infection in the intensive care unit (ICU), with mortality rates ranging from 20% to 50%. Candida spp. may be responsible for up to 10-30% of cases. This study assesses risk factors for development of intra-abdominal candidiasis (IAC) among patients admitted to ICU. METHODS: We performed a case-control study in 26 European ICUs during the period January 2015-December 2016. Patients at least 18 years old who developed an episode of microbiologically documented IAC during their stay in the ICU (at least 48 h after admission) served as the case cohort. The control group consisted of adult patients who did not develop episodes of IAC during ICU admission. Matching was performed at a ratio of 1:1 according to time at risk (i.e. controls had to have at least the same length of ICU stay as their matched cases prior to IAC onset), ICU ward and period of study. RESULTS: During the study period, 101 case patients with a diagnosis of IAC were included in the study. On univariate analysis, severe hepatic failure, prior receipt of antibiotics, prior receipt of parenteral nutrition, abdominal drain, prior bacterial infection, anastomotic leakage, recurrent gastrointestinal perforation, prior receipt of antifungal drugs and higher median number of abdominal surgical interventions were associated with IAC development. On multivariate analysis, recurrent gastrointestinal perforation (OR 13.90; 95% CI 2.65-72.82, p = 0.002), anastomotic leakage (OR 6.61; 95% CI 1.98-21.99, p = 0.002), abdominal drain (OR 6.58; 95% CI 1.73-25.06, p = 0.006), prior receipt of antifungal drugs (OR 4.26; 95% CI 1.04-17.46, p = 0.04) or antibiotics (OR 3.78; 95% CI 1.32-10.52, p = 0.01) were independently associated with IAC. CONCLUSIONS: Gastrointestinal perforation, anastomotic leakage, abdominal drain and prior receipt of antifungals or antibiotics may help to identify critically ill patients with higher probability of developing IAC. Prospective studies are needed to identify which patients will benefit from early antifungal treatment

    Detailed stratified GWAS analysis for severe COVID-19 in four European populations

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    Given the highly variable clinical phenotype of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a deeper analysis of the host genetic contribution to severe COVID-19 is important to improve our understanding of underlying disease mechanisms. Here, we describe an extended GWAS meta-analysis of a well-characterized cohort of 3255 COVID-19 patients with respiratory failure and 12 488 population controls from Italy, Spain, Norway and Germany/Austria, including stratified analyses based on age, sex and disease severity, as well as targeted analyses of chromosome Y haplotypes, the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region and the SARS-CoV-2 peptidome. By inversion imputation, we traced a reported association at 17q21.31 to a ~ 0.9-Mb inversion polymorphism that creates two highly differentiated haplotypes and characterized the potential effects of the inversion in detail. Our data, together with the 5th release of summary statistics from the COVID-19 Host Genetics Initiative including non-Caucasian individuals, also identified a new locus at 19q13.33, including NAPSA, a gene which is expressed primarily in alveolar cells responsible for gas exchange in the lung

    The emergence of COVID-19 associated mucormycosis: a review of cases from 18 countries

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    International audienceReports of COVID-19-associated mucormycosis have been increasing in frequency since early 2021, particularly among patients with uncontrolled diabetes. Patients with diabetes and hyperglycaemia often have an inflammatory state that could be potentiated by the activation of antiviral immunity to SARS-CoV2, which might favour secondary infections. In this Review, we analysed 80 published and unpublished cases of COVID-19-associated mucormycosis. Uncontrolled diabetes, as well as systemic corticosteroid treatment, were present in most patients with COVID-19-associated mucormycosis, and rhino-orbital cerebral mucormycosis was the most frequent disease. Mortality was high at 49%, which was particularly due to patients with pulmonary or disseminated mucormycosis or cerebral involvement. Furthermore, a substantial proportion of patients who survived had life-changing morbidities (eg, loss of vision in 46% of survivors). Our Review indicates that COVID-19-associated mucormycosis is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis of pulmonary mucormycosis is particularly challenging, and might be frequently missed in India. © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 licens

    Characterization and outcome of invasive infections due to Paecilomyces variotii: Analysis of patients from the FungiScope®registry and literature reports

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    Objectives: To provide a basis for clinical management decisions in Paecilomyces variotii infection. Methods: Unpublished cases of invasive P. variotii infection from the FungiScope® registry and all cases reported in the literature were analysed. Results: We identified 59 cases with P. variotii infection. Main baseline factors were presence of indwelling devices in 29 cases (49.2%), particularly peritoneal catheters (33.9%) and prosthetic heart valves (10.2%), haematological or oncological diseases in 19 (32.2%), major surgery in 11 (18.6%), and diabetes mellitus in 10 cases (16.9%). The most prevalent infection sites were peritoneum (n = 20, 33.3%) and lungs (n = 16, 27.1%). Pain and fever were frequent (n = 35, 59.3% and n = 33, 55.9%, respectively). Diagnosis was established by culture in 58 cases (98.3%). P. variotii caused breakthrough infection in 8 patients. Systemic antifungals were given in 52 patients (88.1%). Amphotericin B was administered in 39, itraconazole in 15, and posaconazole in 8 patients. Clinical isolates were frequently resistant to voriconazole, whereas the above-mentioned antifungals showed good in vitro activity. Infections of the blood and CNS caused high mortality. Overall mortality was 28.8% and death was attributed to P. variotii in 10 cases. Conclusions: P. variotii causes life-threatening infections, especially in immunocompromised and critically ill patients with indwelling devices. Patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis are at particular risk. Multidisciplinary management is paramount, including molecular techniques for diagnosis and treatment with efficacious systemic antifungals. Amphotericin B, itraconazole and posaconazole are regarded as treatments of choice. Combination with flucytosine may be considered. Surgical debridement and removal of indwelling devices facilitate favourable outcome. © 2021 The Author(s). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

    Defining and managing COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis: the 2020 ECMM/ISHAM consensus criteria for research and clinical guidance

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    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 causes direct damage to the airway epithelium, enabling aspergillus invasion. Reports of COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis have raised concerns about it worsening the disease course of COVID-19 and increasing mortality. Additionally, the first cases of COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis caused by azole-resistant aspergillus have been reported. This article constitutes a consensus statement on defining and managing COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis, prepared by experts and endorsed by medical mycology societies. COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis is proposed to be defined as possible, probable, or proven on the basis of sample validity and thus diagnostic certainty. Recommended first-line therapy is either voriconazole or isavuconazole. If azole resistance is a concern, then liposomal amphotericin B is the drug of choice. Our aim is to provide definitions for clinical research and up-to-date recommendations for clinical management of the diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis
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