541 research outputs found

    Development and validation of quantitative PCR assays for HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis in sub-Saharan Africa: a diagnostic accuracy study

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    Background: HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis is the second leading cause of AIDS-related deaths, with a 10-week mortality rate of 25–30%. Fungal load assessed by colony-forming unit (CFU) counts is used as a prognostic marker and to monitor response to treatment in research studies. PCR-based assessment of fungal load could be quicker and less labour-intensive. We sought to design, optimise, and validate quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays for the detection, identification, and quantification of Cryptococcus infections in patients with cryptococcal meningitis in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: We developed and validated species-specific qPCR assays based on DNA amplification of QSP1 (QSP1A specific to Cryptococcus neoformans, QSP1B/C specific to Cryptococcus deneoformans, and QSP1D specific to Cryptococcus gattii species) and a pan-Cryptococcus assay based on a multicopy 28S rRNA gene. This was a longitudinal study that validated the designed assays on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 209 patients with cryptococcal meningitis at baseline (day 0) and during anti-fungal therapy (day 7 and day 14), from the AMBITION-cm trial in Botswana and Malawi (2018–21). Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older and presenting with a first case of cryptococcal meningitis. Findings: When compared with quantitative cryptococcal culture as the reference, the sensitivity of the 28S rRNA was 98·2% (95% CI 95·1–99·5) and of the QSP1 assay was 90·4% (85·2–94·0) in CSF at day 0. Quantification of the fungal load with QSP1 and 28S rRNA qPCR correlated with quantitative cryptococcal culture (R2=0·73 and R2=0·78, respectively). Both Botswana and Malawi had a predominant C neoformans prevalence of 67% (95% CI 55–75) and 68% (57–73), respectively, and lower C gattii rates of 21% (14–31) and 8% (4–14), respectively. We identified ten patients that, after 14 days of treatment, harboured viable but non-culturable yeasts based on QSP1 RNA detection (without any positive CFU in CSF culture). Interpretation: QSP1 and 28S rRNA assays are useful in identifying Cryptococcus species. qPCR results correlate well with baseline quantitative cryptococcal culture and show a similar decline in fungal load during induction therapy. These assays could be a faster alternative to quantitative cryptococcal culture to determine fungal load clearance. The clinical implications of the possible detection of viable but non-culturable cells in CSF during induction therapy remain unclear. Funding: European and Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership; Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency; Wellcome Trust/UK Medical Research Council/UKAID Joint Global Health Trials; and UK National Institute for Health Research

    Doravirine plus lamivudine two-drug regimen as maintenance antiretroviral therapy in people living with HIV: a French observational study

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    International audienceBackground: Two-drug regimens based on integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) and boosted PIs have entered recommended ART. However, INSTIs and boosted PIs may not be suitable for all patients. We aimed to report our experience with doravirine/lamivudine as maintenance therapy in people living with HIV (PLWH) followed in French HIV settings.Methods: This observational study enrolled all adults who initiated doravirine/lamivudine between 1 September 2019 and 31 October 2021, in French HIV centres participating in the Dat'AIDS cohort. The primary outcome was the rate of virological success (plasma HIV-RNA < 50 copies/mL) at Week (W)48. Secondary outcomes included: rate of treatment discontinuation for non-virological reasons, evolution of CD4 count and CD4/CD8 ratio over follow-up.Results: Fifty patients were included, with 34 (68%) men; median age: 58 years (IQR 51-62), ART duration: 20 years (13-23), duration of virological suppression: 14 years (8-19), CD4 count: 784 cells/mm3 (636-889). Prior to switching, all had plasma HIV-RNA < 50 copies/mL. All but three were naive to doravirine, and 36 (72%) came from a three-drug regimen. Median follow-up was 79 weeks (IQR 60-96). Virological success rate at W48 was 98.0% (95% CI 89.4-99.9). One virological failure occurred at W18 (HIV-RNA = 101 copies/mL) in a patient who briefly discontinued doravirine/lamivudine due to intense nightmares; there was no resistance at baseline and no resistance emergence. There were three strategy discontinuations for adverse events (digestive disorders: n = 2; insomnia: n = 1). There was no significant change in CD4/CD8 ratio, while CD4 T cell count significantly increased.Conclusions: These preliminary findings suggest that doravirine/lamivudine regimens can maintain high levels of viral suppression in highly ART-experienced PLWH with long-term viral suppression, and good CD4+ T cell count

    Reduction in mortality from HIV-related CNS infections in routine care in Africa (DREAMM): a before-and-after, implementation study

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    BACKGROUND: Four decades into the HIV epidemic, CNS infection remains a leading cause of preventable HIV-related deaths in routine care. The Driving Reduced AIDS-associated Meningo-encephalitis Mortality (DREAMM) project aimed to develop, implement, and evaluate pragmatic implementation interventions and strategies to reduce mortality from HIV-related CNS infection. METHODS: DREAMM took place in five public hospitals in Cameroon, Malawi, and Tanzania. The main intervention was a stepwise algorithm for HIV-related CNS infections including bedside rapid diagnostic testing and implementation of WHO cryptococcal meningitis guidelines. A health system strengthening approach for hospitals was adopted to deliver quality care through a co-designed education programme, optimised clinical and laboratory pathways, and communities of practice. DREAMM was led and driven by local leadership and divided into three phases: observation (including situational analyses of routine care), training, and implementation. Consecutive adults (aged ≥18 years) living with HIV presenting with a first episode of suspected CNS infection were eligible for recruitment. The primary endpoint was the comparison of 2-week all-cause mortality between observation and implementation phases. This study completed follow-up in September, 2021. The project was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03226379. FINDINGS: From November, 2016 to April, 2019, 139 eligible participants were enrolled in the observation phase. From Jan 9, 2018, to March 25, 2021, 362 participants were enrolled into the implementation phase. 216 (76%) of 286 participants had advanced HIV disease (209 participants had missing CD4 cell count), and 340 (69%) of 494 participants had exposure to antiretroviral therapy (ART; one participant had missing ART data). In the implementation phase 269 (76%) of 356 participants had a probable CNS infection, 203 (76%) of whom received a confirmed microbiological or radiological diagnosis of CNS infection using existing diagnostic tests and medicines. 63 (49%) of 129 participants died at 2 weeks in the observation phase compared with 63 (24%) of 266 in the implementation phase; and all-cause mortality was lower in the implementation phase when adjusted for site, sex, age, ART exposure (adjusted risk difference –23%, 95% CI –33 to –13; p<0·001). At 10 weeks, 71 (55%) died in the observation phase compared with 103 (39%) in the implementation phase (–13%, –24 to –3; p=0·01). INTERPRETATION: DREAMM substantially reduced mortality from HIV-associated CNS infection in resource-limited settings in Africa. DREAMM scale-up is urgently required to reduce deaths in public hospitals and help meet Sustainable Development Goals. FUNDING: European and Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership, French Agency for Research on AIDS and Viral Hepatitis. TRANSLATIONS: For the French and Portuguese translations of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section

    Severe hematopoietic stem cell inflammation compromises chronic granulomatous disease gene therapy

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    X-linked chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is associated with defective phagocytosis, life-threatening infections, and inflammatory complications. We performed a clinical trial of lentivirus-based gene therapy in four patients (NCT02757911). Two patients show stable engraftment and clinical benefits, whereas the other two have progressively lost gene-corrected cells. Single-cell transcriptomic analysis reveals a significantly lower frequency of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in CGD patients, especially in the two patients with defective engraftment. These two present a profound change in HSC status, a high interferon score, and elevated myeloid progenitor frequency. We use elastic-net logistic regression to identify a set of 51 interferon genes and transcription factors that predict the failure of HSC engraftment. In one patient, an aberrant HSC state with elevated CEBPβ expression drives HSC exhaustion, as demonstrated by low repopulation in a xenotransplantation model. Targeted treatments to protect HSCs, coupled to targeted gene expression screening, might improve clinical outcomes in CGD

    What Is New in Pulmonary Mucormycosis?

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    Mucormycosis is a rare but life-threatening fungal infection due to molds of the order Mucorales. The incidence has been increasing over recent decades. Worldwide, pulmonary mucormycosis (PM) presents in the lungs, which are the third main location for the infection after the rhino-orbito-cerebral (ROC) areas and the skin. The main risk factors for PM include hematological malignancies and solid organ transplantation, whereas ROC infections classically are classically favored by diabetes mellitus. The differences between the ROC and pulmonary locations are possibly explained by the activation of different mammalian receptors-GRP78 in nasal epithelial cells and integrin β1 in alveolar epithelial cells-in response to Mucorales. Alveolar macrophages and neutrophils play a key role in the host defense against Mucorales. The diagnosis of PM relies on CT scans, cultures, PCR tests, and histology. The reversed halo sign is an early, but very suggestive, sign of PM in neutropenic patients. Recently, the serum PCR test showed a very encouraging performance for the diagnosis and follow-up of mucormycosis. Liposomal amphotericin B is the drug of choice for first-line therapy, together with correction of underlying disease and surgery when feasible. After a stable or partial response, the step-down treatment includes oral isavuconazole or posaconazole delayed release tablets until a complete response is achieved. Secondary prophylaxis should be discussed when there is any risk of relapse, such as the persistence of neutropenia or the prolonged use of high-dose immunosuppressive therapy. Despite these novelties, the mortality rate from PM remains higher than 50%. Therefore, future research must define the place for combination therapy and adjunctive treatments, while the development of new treatments is necessary

    Multidrug-resistant Enterobacterales infections in abdominal solid organ transplantation

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    Background: Transplant recipients are highly susceptible to multidrug-resistant (MDR) related infections. The lack of early appropriate antimicrobial treatment may contribute to the high mortality due to MDR-related infections in transplant recipients especially in case of metallo-β-lactamases. Objectives: In this review, we present the current state of knowledge concerning multidrug-resistant Gram negative bacilli's risk management in the care of solid-organ transplant recipients and suggest control strategies. Sources: We searched for studies treating MDR g-negative bacilli related infections in the renal and hepatic transplant patient population. We included randomized and observational studies. Content: Solid-organ transplant is the best therapeutic option for patients diagnosed with end-stage organ disease. While the incidence of opportunistic infections is decreasing due to better prevention, the burden of “classical” infections related to MDR bacteria especially related to Gram-negative bacteria is constantly increasing. Over the last two decades, various MDR pathogens have emerged as a relevant cause of infection in this specific population associated with significant mortality. Several factors related to the management of transplant donor candidates and recipients increase the risk of MDR infections in transplant recipients. The awareness of this high susceptibility of transplant recipients to MDR-related infections challenges the choice of empirical therapy, while its appropriateness can only be validated a posteriori. Indeed, the lack of early appropriate antimicrobial treatment may contribute to the high mortality due to MDR-related infections in transplant recipients especially in case of metallo-β-lactamases. Implications: Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria are associated with high morbidity and mortality in solid organ transplant recipients. It seems important to identify patients at risk of colonization/MDR bacteria to evaluate strategies to limit the risk of secondary infections and to minimize the inappropriate use of broad-spectrum antibiotics

    Atypical imaging patterns during lung invasive mould diseases: lessons for clinicians.

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    Imaging of pulmonary invasive mould diseases (IMDs), which represents a cornerstone in their work-up, is mainly based on computed tomography (CT). The purpose of this review is to discuss their CT features, mainly those related to aspergillosis and mucormycosis. We will especially focus on atypical radiological presentations that are increasingly observed among non-neutropenic emerging populations of patients at risk, such as those receiving novel anticancer therapies or those in the intensive care unit. We will also discuss the interest of other available imaging techniques, mainly positron emission tomography/CT, that may play a role in the diagnosis as well as evaluation of disease extent and follow-up. We will show that any new airway-centred abnormality or caveated lesion should evoke IMDs in mildly immunocompromised hosts. Limitations in their recognition may be due to potential underlying abnormalities that increase the complexity of interpretation of lung imaging, as well as the non-specificity of imaging features. In this way, the differentials of all morphological/metabolic aspects must be kept in mind for the optimal management of patients, as well as the benefit of evaluation of the vascular status

    Childhood encephalitis in the Greater Mekong region (the SouthEast Asia Encephalitis Project): a multicentre prospective study

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    Background Encephalitis is a worldwide public health issue, with a substantially high burden among children in southeast Asia. We aimed to determine the causes of encephalitis in children admitted to hospitals across the Greater Mekong region by implementing a comprehensive state-of-the-art diagnostic procedure harmonised across all centres, and identifying clinical characteristics related to patients’ conditions. Methods In this multicentre, observational, prospective study of childhood encephalitis, four referral hospitals in Cambodia, Vietnam, Laos, and Myanmar recruited children (aged 28 days to 16 years) who presented with altered mental status lasting more than 24 h and two of the following minor criteria: fever (within the 72 h before or after presentation), one or more generalised or partial seizures (excluding febrile seizures), a new-onset focal neurological deficit, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) white blood cell count of 5 per mL or higher, or brain imaging (CT or MRI) suggestive of lesions of encephalitis. Comprehensive diagnostic procedures were harmonised across all centres, with first-line testing was done on samples taken at inclusion and results delivered within 24 h of inclusion for main treatable causes of disease and second-line testing was done thereafter for mostly non-treatable causes. An independent expert medical panel reviewed the charts and attribution of causes of all the included children. Using multivariate analyses, we assessed risk factors associated with unfavourable outcomes (ie, severe neurological sequelae and death) at discharge using data from baseline and day 2 after inclusion. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04089436, and is now complete. Findings Between July 28, 2014, and Dec 31, 2017, 664 children with encephalitis were enrolled. Median age was 4·3 years (1·8–8·8), 295 (44%) children were female, and 369 (56%) were male. A confirmed or probable cause of encephalitis was identified in 425 (64%) patients: 216 (33%) of 664 cases were due to Japanese encephalitis virus, 27 (4%) were due to dengue virus, 26 (4%) were due to influenza virus, 24 (4%) were due to herpes simplex virus 1, 18 (3%) were due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, 17 (3%) were due to Streptococcus pneumoniae, 17 (3%) were due to enterovirus A71, 74 (9%) were due to other pathogens, and six (1%) were due to autoimmune encephalitis. Diagnosis was made within 24 h of admission to hospital for 83 (13%) of 664 children. 119 (18%) children had treatable conditions and 276 (42%) had conditions that could have been preventable by vaccination. At time of discharge, 153 (23%) of 664 children had severe neurological sequelae and 83 (13%) had died. In multivariate analyses, risk factors for unfavourable outcome were diagnosis of M tuberculosis infection upon admission (odds ratio 3·23 [95% CI 1·04–10·03]), coma on day 2 (2·90 [1·78–4·72]), supplementary oxygen requirement (1·89 [1·25–2·86]), and more than 1 week duration between symptom onset and admission to hospital (3·03 [1·68–5·48]). At 1 year after inclusion, of 432 children who were discharged alive from hospital with follow-up data, 24 (5%) had died, 129 (30%) had neurological sequelae, and 279 (65%) had completely recovered. Interpretation In southeast Asia, most causes of childhood encephalitis are either preventable or treatable, with Japanese encephalitis virus being the most common cause. We provide crucial information that could guide public health policy to improve diagnostic, vaccination, and early therapeutic guidelines on childhood encephalitis in the Greater Mekong region. Funding Institut Pasteur, Institut Pasteur International Network, Fondation Merieux, Aviesan Sud, INSERM, Wellcome Trust, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), and Fondation Total. Translations For the Khmer, Lao, Vietnamese and Burmese translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section
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