1,361 research outputs found

    Search for cold gas in z>2 damped Lyman-alpha systems: 21-cm and H_2 absorption

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    (Abridged) We present the results of a systematic GBT and GMRT survey for 21-cm absorption in a sample of 10 DLAs at 2<z_abs<3.4. Analysis of L-band VLBA images of the background QSOs are also presented. We detect 21-cm absorption in only one DLA (at z_abs = 3.1745 towards J1337+3152). Combining our data with the data from the literature (a sample of 28 DLAs) and assuming the measured core fraction at milliarcsecond scale to represent the gas covering factor, we find that the HI gas in DLAs at z> 2 is predominantly constituted by WNM. The detection rate of 21-cm absorption seems to be higher for systems with higher N(HI) or metallicity. However, no clear correlation is found between the integrated 21-cm optical depth (or spin temperature) and either N(HI), metallicity or velocity spread of the low ionization species. There are 13 DLAs in our sample for which high resolution optical spectra covering the expected wavelength range of H_2 absorption are available. We report the detection of H_2 molecules in the z_abs = 3.3871 21-cm absorber towards J0203+1134 (PKS 0201+113). In 8 cases, neither H_2 nor 21-cm absorption are detected. The lack of 21-cm and H_2 absorption in these systems can be explained if most of the HI in these DLAs originate from low density high temperature gas. In one case we have a DLA with 21-cm absorption not showing H_2 absorption. In two cases, both species are detected but do not originate from the same velocity component. In the remaining 2 cases 21-cm absorption is not detected despite the presence of H_2 with evidence for the presence of cold gas. All this is consistent with the idea that the H_2 components seen in DLAs are compact (with sizes of < 15 pc) and contain only a small fraction (i.e typically <10%) of the total N(HI) measured in the DLAs.Comment: Accepted for publication in MNRA

    Experimental analysis of the particle transport in the magnetized plasma column with an application to the helicon discharge

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    International audienceDifferent transport mechanisms in a magnetized radio frequency plasmadischarge in the IShTAR device are compared. The total cross fieldparticle transport systematically shows the best agreement with theturbulent diffusion. Also, the ion mobility dominated transport couldsubstantially contribute to radial losses. The relative role of paralleland perpendicular losses in the overall particle confinement is alsocompared. The total perpendicular particle losses are comparable or evenlarger than the parallel ones, imposing a practical limitation onachieving high density plasma simply combining several helicon antennaesequentially arranged along the glass tube. For the same reason,reducing the diameter of a source tube, in an attempt to achieve ahigher plasma density, could be not very efficient when perpendicularparticle loss is dominant

    Discrimination and visualization of ELM types based on a probabilistic description of inter-ELM waiting times

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    Discrimination and visualization of different observed classes of edge-localized plasma instabilities (ELMs), using advanced data analysis techniques has been considered. An automated ELM type classifier which effectively incorporates measurement uncertainties is developed herein and applied to the discrimination of type I and type III ELMs in a set of carbon-wall JET plasmas. The approach involves constructing probability density functions (PDFs) for inter-ELM waiting times and global plasma parameters and then utilizing an effective similarity measure for comparing distributions: the Rao geodesic distance (GD). It is demonstrated that complete probability distributions of plasma parameters contain significantly more information than the measurement values alone, enabling effective discrimination of ELM type

    Search for cold gas in strong MgII absorbers at 0.5<z<1.5: nature and evolution of 21-cm absorbers

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    We report 4 new detections of 21-cm absorption from a systematic search of 21-cm absorption in a sample of 17 strong (Wr(MgII 2796)>1A) intervening MgII absorbers at 0.5<z<1.5. We also present 20-cm milliarcsecond scale maps of 40 quasars having 42 intervening strong MgII absorbers for which we have searched for 21-cm absorption. Combining 21-cm absorption measurements for 50 strong MgII systems from our surveys with the measurements from literature, we obtain a sample of 85 strong MgII absorbers at 0.5<z<1 and 1.1<z<1.5. We present detailed analysis of this sample, taking into account the effect of the varying 21-cm optical depth sensitivity and covering factor associated with the different quasar sight lines. We find that the 21-cm detection rate is higher towards the quasars with flat or inverted spectral index at cm wavelengths. About 70% of 21-cm detections are towards the quasars with linear size, LS<100 pc. The 21-cm absorption lines having velocity widths, DeltaV>100 km/s are mainly seen towards the quasars with extended radio morphology at arcsecond scales. However, we do not find any correlation between the integrated 21-cm optical depth or DeltaV with the LS measured from the milliarcsecond scale images. All this can be understood if the absorbing gas is patchy with a typical correlation length of ~30-100 pc. We show that within the measurement uncertainty, the 21-cm detection rate in strong MgII systems is constant over 0.5<z<1.5, i.e., over ~30% of the total age of universe. We show that the detection rate can be underestimated by up to a factor 2 if 21-cm optical depths are not corrected for the partial coverage estimated using milliarcsecond scale maps. Since stellar feedback processes are expected to diminish the filling factor of cold neutral medium over 0.5<z<1, this lack of evolution in the 21-cm detection rate in strong MgII absorbers is intriguing. [abridged]Comment: 28 pages, 14 figures, 9 tables, accepted for publication in Astronomy and Astrophysic

    Incidence of HI 21-cm absorption in strong FeII systems at 0.5<z<1.50.5<z<1.5

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    We present the results from our search for HI 21-cm absorption in a sample of 16 strong FeII systems (WrW_{\rm r}(MgII λ2796\lambda2796) 1.0\ge1.0 \AA\ and WrW_{\rm r}(FeII λ2600\lambda2600) or WFeIIW_{\rm FeII} 1\ge1 \AA) at 0.5<z<1.50.5<z<1.5 using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope and the Green Bank Telescope. We report six new HI 21-cm absorption detections from our sample, which have increased the known number of detections in strong MgII systems at this redshift range by 50\sim50%. Combining our measurements with those in the literature, we find that the detection rate of HI 21-cm absorption increases with WFeIIW_{\rm FeII}, being four times higher in systems with WFeIIW_{\rm FeII} 1\ge1 \AA\ compared to systems with WFeIIW_{\rm FeII} <1<1 \AA. The NN(HI) associated with the HI 21-cm absorbers would be 2×1020\ge 2 \times 10^{20} cm2^{-2}, assuming a spin temperature of 500\sim500 K (based on HI 21-cm absorption measurements of damped Lyman-α\alpha systems at this redshift range) and unit covering factor. We find that HI 21-cm absorption arises on an average in systems with stronger metal absorption. We also find that quasars with HI 21-cm absorption detected towards them have systematically higher E(BV)E(B-V) values than those which do not. Further, by comparing the velocity widths of HI 21-cm absorption lines detected in absorption- and galaxy-selected samples, we find that they show an increasing trend (significant at 3.8σ3.8\sigma) with redshift at z<3.5z<3.5, which could imply that the absorption originates from more massive galaxy haloes at high-zz. Increasing the number of HI 21-cm absorption detections at these redshifts is important to confirm various trends noted here with higher statistical significance.Comment: 17 pages, 10 figures, 8 tables, accepted for publication in MNRA

    Optical/near-infrared selection of red QSOs: Evidence for steep extinction curves towards galactic centers?

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    We present the results of a search for red QSOs using a selection based on optical imaging from SDSS and near-infrared imaging from UKIDSS. For a sample of 58 candidates 46 (79%) are confirmed to be QSOs. The QSOs are predominantly dust-reddened except a handul at redshifts z>3.5. The dust is most likely located in the QSO host galaxies. 4 (7%) of the candidates turned out to be late-type stars, and another 4 (7%) are compact galaxies. The remaining 4 objects we could not identify. In terms of their optical spectra the QSOs are similar to the QSOs selected in the FIRST-2MASS red Quasar survey except they are on average fainter, more distant and only two are detected in the FIRST survey. We estimate the amount of extinction using the SDSS QSO template reddened by SMC-like dust. It is possible to get a good match to the observed (restframe ultraviolet) spectra, but for nearly all the reddened QSOs it is not possible to match the near-IR photometry from UKIDSS. The likely reasons are that the SDSS QSO template is too red at optical wavelengths due to contaminating host galaxy light and that the assumed SMC extinction curve is too shallow. Our survey has demonstrated that selection of QSOs based on near-IR photometry is an efficent way to select QSOs, including reddened QSOs, with only small contamination from late-type stars and compact galaxies. This will be useful with ongoing and future wide-field near-IR surveys such as the VISTA and EUCLID surveys. [Abridged]Comment: 74 pages, 6 figures. Accepted for for publication in ApJ

    A new B-dot probe-based diagnostic for amplitude, polarization, and wavenumber measurements of ion cyclotron range-of frequency fields on ASDEX Upgrade

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    A new B-dot probe-based diagnostic has been installed on an ASDEX Upgrade tokamak to characterize ion cyclotron range-of frequency (ICRF) wave generation and interaction with magnetized plasma. The diagnostic consists of a field-aligned array of B-dot probes, oriented to measure fast and slow ICRF wave fields and their field-aligned wavenumber (k(//)) spectrum on the low field side of ASDEX Upgrade. A thorough description of the diagnostic and the supporting electronics is provided. In order to compare the measured dominant wavenumber of the local ICRF fields with the expected spectrum of the launched ICRF waves, in-air near-field measurements were performed on the newly installed 3-strap ICRF antenna to reconstruct the dominant launched toroidal wavenumbers (k(tor)). Measurements during a strap current phasing scan in tokamak discharges reveal an upshift in k(//) as strap phasing is moved away from the dipole configuration. This result is the opposite of the k(tor) trend expected from in-air near-field measurements; however, the near-field based reconstruction routine does not account for the effect of induced radiofrequency (RF) currents in the passive antenna structures. The measured exponential increase in the local ICRF wave field amplitude is in agreement with the upshifted k(//), as strap phasing moves away from the dipole configuration. An examination of discharges heated with two ICRF antennas simultaneously reveals the existence of beat waves at 1 kHz, as expected from the difference of the two antennas' operating frequencies. Beats are observed on both the fast and the slow wave probes suggesting that the two waves are coupled outside the active antennas. Although the new diagnostic shows consistent trends between the amplitude and the phase measurements in response to changes applied by the ICRF antennas, the disagreement with the in-air near-field measurements remains. An electromagnetic model is currently under development to address this issue. (C) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC