647 research outputs found

    The difficult-to-control spread of carbapenemase producers in Enterobacteriaceae worldwide

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    Spread of carbapenemase producers in Enterobacteriaceae is now identified worldwide. Three main carbapenemases are reported which belong to three classes of ß-lactamases that are KPC, NDM and OXA-48. The main reservoirs of KPC are Klebsiella pneumoniae in the USA, Israel, Greece and Italy, of NDM are K. pneumoniae and Escherichia coli in the Indian subcontinent, and of OXA-48 are K. pneumoniae and E. coli in North Africa and Turkey. KPC producers remain mostly identified in nosocomial isolates whereas NDM and OXA-48 producers are both nosocomial and community-acquired pathogens. Control of their spread is still possible in hospital settings and relies on the use of rapid diagnostic techniques and strict implemention of hygiene measures

    Rapidec Carba NP Test for Rapid Detection of Carbapenemase Producers

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    Performances of the Rapidec Carba NP test (bioMérieux) were evaluated for detection of all types of carbapenemases in Enterobacteriaceae, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In less than 2 h after sample preparation, it showed a sensitivity and specificity of 96%. This ready-to-use test is well adapted to the daily need for detection of carbapenemase producers in any laboratory worldwide

    CHROMagar Acinetobacter medium for detection of carbapenemase-producing Acinetobacter spp. strains from spiked stools

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    The recently modified CHROMagar Acinetobacter medium was evaluated for detection of carbapenemase-producing Acinetobacter baumannii from spiked stools. A total of 45 Acinetobacter spp. isolates were tested. The CHROMagar Acinetobacter medium had a high sensitivity of 86.5% and a specificity of 75%. This medium is likely to be most useful for controlling outbreaks and in endemic situations

    Real-time PCR for detection of plasmid-mediated polymyxin resistance (mcr-1) from cultured bacteria and stools

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    The aim of the study was to develop a simple assay for rapid detection of the mcr-1 gene, recently identified as a source of plasmid-mediated acquired resistance to polymyxins in Enterobacteriaceae.Methods: A SYBR Green-based real-time PCR assay was designed for detection of the mcr-1 gene. This assay was applied to cultured bacteria and to spiked human and cattle stools.Results: The mcr-1 gene could be detected with a lower limit of 102 cultured bacteria. This test was highly sensitive and specific, and generated no false-positive results. The assay was also conclusive when applied to stools spiked with mcr-1-positive Escherichia coli.Conclusions: This simple, rapid, sensitive and specific assay will be useful for rapid screening of this resistance trait in both human medicine and veterinary medicine

    Dissemination of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in France, 2012

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    Objectives Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolates (n = 1485) were received at the French Associated National Reference Center for Antibiotic Resistance in 2012 and were characterized for their mechanism of resistance to carbapenems. Methods Carbapenemase production was detected using the biochemical-based Carba NP test, based on the detection of in vitro hydrolysis of imipenem. All isolates with a positive Carba NP test result were characterized by PCR and sequencing. Results Carbapenemase production was identified in 23.1% of the isolates. The main carbapenemase type identified was OXA-48 and derivatives (75.5%). An overseas source was clearly demonstrated for only 27.6% of the isolates. Conclusions OXA-48 and derivatives are now the most prevalent carbapenemases in France, with a possible spread of these producers in the communit

    Clonal distribution of multidrug-resistant Enterobacter cloacae

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    A multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme including 7 housekeeping genes was used to evaluate whether the current spread of multidrug-resistant Enterobacter cloacae isolates worldwide might be associated to specific successful clones. Fifty E. cloacae clinical isolates of worldwide origin, with various β-lactamase content, and recovered at different periods of time were studied. Forty-four sequence types were identified, highlighting a high clonal diversity with 3 main lineages. This study revealed that a precise identification of the isolates by sequencing of the chromosomal ampC gene of E. cloacae would provide a significant added value to improve the reliability of the MLST scheme

    Comparison of three biochemical tests for rapid detection of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae

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    Enterobacterial isolates producing clavulanic-inhibited extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) are increasingly spreading in the community and are often responsible for nosocomial infections. Rapid biochemical tests have been developed recently for their detection. Three tests, namely the Rapid ESBL NDP test, the β-Lacta test and the Rapid ESBL Screen have been evaluated with a collection of 108 well-characterized strains including wild-type strains, strains producing ESBLs, overexpressed cephalosporinases, and carbapenemases. The ESBL NDP test and the Rapid ESBL Screen (a copy of the ESBL NDP test) are aimed to detect ESBL producers while the ß-Lacta test is aimed to detect not only ESBL producers but also cephalosporinase and carbapenemase producers. The sensitivity and specificity of detection of ESBL producers (n = 60) were 95% and 100% for the Rapid ESBL NDP test, 80% and 87% (after 30 min) and 92% and 83% (after 2 h) for the Rapid ESBL Screen, and 91% and 96% for the ß-Lacta test. Variable and time-consuming detection (up to 2h) of ESBLs by the Rapid ESBL Screen and concomittant and variable detection of producers of AmpC and several type of carbapenemases correspond to significant shortcomings for using the Rapid Screen ESBL and ß-Lacta tests, respectively
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