73 research outputs found

    Patterns of ontogenetic evolution across extant marsupials reflect different allometric pathways to ecomorphological diversity

    Get PDF
    The relatively high level of morphological diversity in Australasian marsupials compared to that observed among American marsupials remains poorly understood. We undertake a comprehensive macroevolutionary analysis of ontogenetic allometry of American and Australasian marsupials to examine whether the contrasting levels of morphological diversity in these groups are reflected in their patterns of allometric evolution. We collate ontogenetic series for 62 species and 18 families of marsupials (n = 2091 specimens), spanning across extant marsupial diversity. Our results demonstrate significant lability of ontogenetic allometric trajectories among American and Australasian marsupials, yet a phylogenetically structured pattern of allometric evolution is preserved. Here we show that species diverging more than 65 million years ago converge in their patterns of ontogenetic allometry under animalivorous and herbivorous diets, and that Australasian marsupials do not show significantly greater variation in patterns of ontogenetic allometry than their American counterparts, despite displaying greater magnitudes of extant ecomorphological diversity.Fil: Wilson, Ana Laura. The Australian National University; Australia. University of New South Wales; AustraliaFil: López Aguirre, Camilo. University of Toronto; CanadáFil: Archer, Michael. University of New South Wales; AustraliaFil: Hand, Suzanne J.. University of New South Wales; AustraliaFil: Flores, David Alfredo. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico - Tucumán. Unidad Ejecutora Lillo; ArgentinaFil: Abdala, Nestor Fernando. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico - Tucumán. Unidad Ejecutora Lillo; ArgentinaFil: Giannini, Norberto Pedro. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico - Tucumán. Unidad Ejecutora Lillo; Argentina. Universidad Nacional de Tucumán; Argentin

    Acoustic differentiation and its relationships with ear size in three Histiotus species (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae) from Patagonia, Argentina

    No full text
    In Argentine Patagonia, three species of long-eared brown bats coexist, Histiotus macrotus, H. magellanicus, and H. montanus, which differ by ear length and other characters. Considering that pinna and tragus size and morphology may affect the perception of incoming echoes, we expected that differences in ear morphometry across species would match with interspecific variation in echolocation call structure. We studied echolocation calls of these species, recording calls of free-ranging Histiotus in eight localities from Chubut province (Argentina). We measured morphometric variables (mass, length of ear and tragus, forearm) in captured specimens. We analyzed eight acoustic parameters in 4020 recorded pulses (H. macrotus n = 2020, H. magellanicus n = 1409, and H. montanus n = 591). Principal components (PCA) and discriminant analyses (DFA) revealed that these species clearly segregate in acoustic space, consistent with interspecific differences in ear morphology. Comparatively, H. magellanicus with shorter ears ( 27¬†mm) emitted lower-frequency calls, in turn differentiating from each other by inter-pulse intervals. MANOVA indicated that these differences were highly significant. Redundancy analysis showed a strong correlation between ear and tragus length and acoustic structure. Our results suggest that these Histiotus species are distinguishable in terms of their bioacoustics, which likely have a functional basis linked to morphological variation of sensory organs.Fil: Gim√©nez, Anal√≠a Laura. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient√≠ficas y T√©cnicas. Centro Cient√≠fico Tecnol√≥gico Conicet - Patagonia Norte. Centro de Investigaci√≥n Esquel de Monta√Īa y Estepa Patag√≥ica. Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia "San Juan Bosco". Facultad de Ciencias Naturales - Sede Esquel. Centro de Investigaci√≥n Esquel de Monta√Īa y Estepa Patag√≥nica; ArgentinaFil: De Paz, √ďscar. Universidad de Alcal√°. Facultad de Ciencias; Espa√ĪaFil: Giannini, Norberto Pedro. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient√≠ficas y T√©cnicas. Centro Cient√≠fico Tecnol√≥gico - Tucum√°n. Unidad Ejecutora Lillo; Argentin

    Growing apart: comparative cranial ontogeny in the myrmecophagous aardwolf (Proteles cristata) and the bone-cracking spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta)

    No full text
    Hyaenids represent an interesting case of extant low diversity but remarkable morphofunctional disparity. Hyaenas comprise three bone-cracking species, whereas the aardwolf (Proteles cristata) is a myrmecophagous species. Morphology of the skull and dentition reflects this functional disparity, and here we investigated postnatal ontogeny of the skull¬†by applying multivariate allometry to 22 skull measurements taken in specimens from growth series of the spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta) and the aardwolf, which belong to hyaenid lineages that split in the middle Miocene or even earlier. We show that growth trends closely correspond to and explain the divergent morphofunctional patterning of the skull in each species. Interestingly, the smallest species ‚ÄĒthe aardwolf‚ÄĒ showed a pronounced pattern of skull elongation, whereas in the spotted hyaena, the skull showed the strongest allometric trends in depth dimensions; these results reverse a general trend (CREA) of craniofacial elongation more pronounced in larger species, suggesting that specialization in dietary extremes can deviate developmental patterns from pervasive trends apparent in most mammalian lineages.Fil: Rajmil, Juliana. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient√≠ficas y T√©cnicas. Centro Cient√≠fico Tecnol√≥gico - Tucum√°n. Unidad Ejecutora Lillo; ArgentinaFil: Velazco, Pa√ļl M.. Arcadia University; Estados Unidos. American Museum of Natural History; Estados UnidosFil: Giannini, Norberto Pedro. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient√≠ficas y T√©cnicas. Centro Cient√≠fico Tecnol√≥gico - Tucum√°n. Unidad Ejecutora Lillo; Argentina. Universidad Nacional de Tucum√°n. Facultad de Ciencias Naturales e Instituto Miguel Lillo; Argentina. American Museum of Natural History; Estados Unido

    Postweaning Skull Growth in Living American and Australasian Marsupials: Allometry and Evolution

    No full text
    Previous reports have shown an effect of historical legacy on patterns of growthof the mammal skull. The knowledge of developmental patterns of the marsupialskull are fundamental to understanding the evolution of skull form function in thisclade. The allometric patterns of skull growth are described and discussed,experienced on functional parts of the skull in representatives of all major livingmarsupial groups. The hypothesis that ontogenetic similarity is correlated withphylogeny in New and OldWorld marsupials, in a data set of 61 species, is tested.Ontogenetic trajectories onto the marsupial phylogeny are mapped, treating thetrajectories as composite, continuously varying characters. Didelphids, dasyurids,and diprotodontians differed widely in the magnitude of skull allometry acrossspecies. Splanchnocranial components exhibited all possible patterns of interspecificvariation, whereas mandibular variables were predominantly allometricallypositive or isometric, and neurocranial components were predominantly allometricallynegative. The ontogenetic trajectories deviated with respect to that ofreconstructed common ancestors in varying degree. Didelphids inherited anancestral constellation of allometry coefficients without change and retainedmuch of it throughout their lineage history, but Dasyuromorphia andDiprotodontia exhibited many changes from the ancestral allometric plan oneach group, evolving in highly modified patterns with respect to theirancestral plan.Fil: Flores, David Alfredo. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico - Tucumán. Unidad Ejecutora Lillo; ArgentinaFil: Abdala, Nestor Fernando. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico - Tucumán. Unidad Ejecutora Lillo; ArgentinaFil: Giannini, Norberto Pedro. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico - Tucumán. Unidad Ejecutora Lillo; Argentina. Universidad Nacional de Tucumán; Argentin

    Expert range maps of global mammal distributions harmonised to three taxonomic authorities

    Get PDF
    Aim: Comprehensive, global information on species' occurrences is an essential biodiversity variable and central to a range of applications in ecology, evolution, biogeography and conservation. Expert range maps often represent a species' only available distributional information and play an increasing role in conservation assessments and macroecology. We provide global range maps for the native ranges of all extant mammal species harmonised to the taxonomy of the Mammal Diversity Database (MDD) mobilised from two sources, the Handbook of the Mammals of the World (HMW) and the Illustrated Checklist of the Mammals of the World (CMW). Location: Global. Taxon: All extant mammal species. Methods: Range maps were digitally interpreted, georeferenced, error-checked and subsequently taxonomically aligned between the HMW (6253 species), the CMW (6431 species) and the MDD taxonomies (6362 species). Results: Range maps can be evaluated and visualised in an online map browser at Map of Life (mol.org) and accessed for individual or batch download for non-commercial use. Main conclusion: Expert maps of species' global distributions are limited in their spatial detail and temporal specificity, but form a useful basis for broad-scale characterizations and model-based integration with other data. We provide georeferenced range maps for the native ranges of all extant mammal species as shapefiles, with species-level metadata and source information packaged together in geodatabase format. Across the three taxonomic sources our maps entail, there are 1784 taxonomic name differences compared to the maps currently available on the IUCN Red List website. The expert maps provided here are harmonised to the MDD taxonomic authority and linked to a community of online tools that will enable transparent future updates and version control.Fil: Marsh, Charles J.. Yale University; Estados UnidosFil: Sica, Yanina. Yale University; Estados UnidosFil: Burguin, Connor. University of New Mexico; Estados UnidosFil: Dorman, Wendy A.. University of Yale; Estados UnidosFil: Anderson, Robert C.. University of Yale; Estados UnidosFil: del Toro Mijares, Isabel. University of Yale; Estados UnidosFil: Vigneron, Jessica G.. University of Yale; Estados UnidosFil: Barve, Vijay. University Of Florida. Florida Museum Of History; Estados UnidosFil: Dombrowik, Victoria L.. University of Yale; Estados UnidosFil: Duong, Michelle. University of Yale; Estados UnidosFil: Guralnick, Robert. University Of Florida. Florida Museum Of History; Estados UnidosFil: Hart, Julie A.. University of Yale; Estados UnidosFil: Maypole, J. Krish. University of Yale; Estados UnidosFil: McCall, Kira. University of Yale; Estados UnidosFil: Ranipeta, Ajay. University of Yale; Estados UnidosFil: Schuerkmann, Anna. University of Yale; Estados UnidosFil: Torselli, Michael A.. University of Yale; Estados UnidosFil: Lacher, Thomas. Texas A&M University; Estados UnidosFil: Wilson, Don E.. National Museum of Natural History; Estados UnidosFil: Abba, Agustin Manuel. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient√≠ficas y T√©cnicas. Centro Cient√≠fico Tecnol√≥gico Conicet - La Plata. Centro de Estudios Parasitol√≥gicos y de Vectores. Universidad Nacional de La Plata. Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo. Centro de Estudios Parasitol√≥gicos y de Vectores; ArgentinaFil: Aguirre, Luis F.. Universidad Mayor de San Sim√≥n; BoliviaFil: Arroyo Cabrales, Joaqu√≠n. Instituto Nacional de Antropolog√≠a E Historia, Mexico; M√©xicoFil: Ast√ļa, Diego. Universidade Federal de Pernambuco; BrasilFil: Baker, Andrew M.. Queensland University of Technology; Australia. Queensland Museum; AustraliaFil: Braulik, Gill. University of St. Andrews; Reino UnidoFil: Braun, Janet K.. Oklahoma State University; Estados UnidosFil: Brito, Jorge. Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad; EcuadorFil: Busher, Peter E.. Boston University; Estados UnidosFil: Burneo, Santiago F.. Pontificia Universidad Cat√≥lica del Ecuador; EcuadorFil: Camacho, M. Alejandra. Pontificia Universidad Cat√≥lica del Ecuador; EcuadorFil: de Almeida Chiquito, Elisandra. Universidade Federal do Esp√≠rito Santo; BrasilFil: Cook, Joseph A.. University of New Mexico; Estados UnidosFil: Cu√©llar Soto, Erika. Sultan Qaboos University; Om√°nFil: Davenport, Tim R. B.. Wildlife Conservation Society; TanzaniaFil: Denys, Christiane. Mus√©um National d'Histoire Naturelle; FranciaFil: Dickman, Christopher R.. The University Of Sydney; AustraliaFil: Eldridge, Mark D. B.. Australian Museum; AustraliaFil: Fernandez Duque, Eduardo. University of Yale; Estados UnidosFil: Francis, Charles M.. Environment And Climate Change Canada; Canad√°Fil: Frankham, Greta. Australian Museum; AustraliaFil: Freitas, Thales. Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul; BrasilFil: Friend, J. Anthony. Conservation And Attractions; AustraliaFil: Giannini, Norberto Pedro. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient√≠ficas y T√©cnicas. Centro Cient√≠fico Tecnol√≥gico - Tucum√°n. Unidad Ejecutora Lillo; ArgentinaFil: Gursky-Doyen, Sharon. Texas A&M University; Estados UnidosFil: Hackl√§nder, Klaus. Universitat Fur Bodenkultur Wien; AustriaFil: Hawkins, Melissa. National Museum of Natural History; Estados UnidosFil: Helgen, Kristofer M.. Australian Museum; AustraliaFil: Heritage, Steven. University of Duke; Estados UnidosFil: Hinckley, Arlo. Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cient√≠ficas. Estaci√≥n Biol√≥gica de Do√Īana; Espa√ĪaFil: Holden, Mary. American Museum of Natural History; Estados UnidosFil: Holekamp, Kay E.. Michigan State University; Estados UnidosFil: Humle, Tatyana. University Of Kent; Reino UnidoFil: Ib√°√Īez Ulargui, Carlos. Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cient√≠ficas. Estaci√≥n Biol√≥gica de Do√Īana; Espa√ĪaFil: Jackson, Stephen M.. Australian Museum; AustraliaFil: Janecka, Mary. University of Pittsburgh at Johnstown; Estados Unidos. University of Pittsburgh; Estados UnidosFil: Jenkins, Paula. Natural History Museum; Reino UnidoFil: Juste, Javier. Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cient√≠ficas. Estaci√≥n Biol√≥gica de Do√Īana; Espa√ĪaFil: Leite, Yuri L. R.. Universidade Federal do Esp√≠rito Santo; BrasilFil: Novaes, Roberto Leonan M.. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro; BrasilFil: Lim, Burton K.. Royal Ontario Museum; Canad√°Fil: Maisels, Fiona G.. Wildlife Conservation Society; Estados UnidosFil: Mares, Michael A.. Oklahoma State University; Estados UnidosFil: Marsh, Helene. James Cook University; AustraliaFil: Mattioli, Stefano. Universit√† degli Studi di Siena; ItaliaFil: Morton, F. Blake. University of Hull; Reino UnidoFil: Ojeda, Agustina Alejandra. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient√≠ficas y T√©cnicas. Centro Cient√≠fico Tecnol√≥gico Conicet - Mendoza. Instituto Argentino de Investigaciones de las Zonas √Āridas. Provincia de Mendoza. Instituto Argentino de Investigaciones de las Zonas √Āridas. Universidad Nacional de Cuyo. Instituto Argentino de Investigaciones de las Zonas √Āridas; ArgentinaFil: Ord√≥√Īez Garza, Nict√©. Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad; EcuadorFil: Pardi√Īas, Ulises Francisco J.. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient√≠ficas y T√©cnicas. Centro Cient√≠fico Tecnol√≥gico Conicet - Centro Nacional Patag√≥nico. Instituto de Diversidad y Evoluci√≥n Austral; ArgentinaFil: Pavan, Mariana. Universidade de Sao Paulo; BrasilFil: Riley, Erin P.. San Diego State University; Estados UnidosFil: Rubenstein, Daniel I.. University of Princeton; Estados UnidosFil: Ruelas, Dennisse. Museo de Historia Natural, Lima; Per√ļFil: Schai-Braun, St√©phanie. Universitat Fur Bodenkultur Wien; AustriaFil: Schank, Cody J.. University of Texas at Austin; Estados UnidosFil: Shenbrot, Georgy. Ben Gurion University of the Negev; IsraelFil: Solari, Sergio. Universidad de Antioquia; ColombiaFil: Superina, Mariella. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient√≠ficas y T√©cnicas. Centro Cient√≠fico Tecnol√≥gico Conicet - Mendoza. Instituto de Medicina y Biolog√≠a Experimental de Cuyo; ArgentinaFil: Tsang, Susan. American Museum of Natural History; Estados UnidosFil: Van Cakenberghe, Victor. Universiteit Antwerp; B√©lgicaFil: Veron, Geraldine. Universit√© Pierre et Marie Curie; FranciaFil: Wallis, Janette. Kasokwa-kityedo Forest Project; UgandaFil: Whittaker, Danielle. Michigan State University; Estados UnidosFil: Wells, Rod. Flinders University.; AustraliaFil: Wittemyer, George. State University of Colorado - Fort Collins; Estados UnidosFil: Woinarski, John. Charles Darwin University; AustraliaFil: Upham, Nathan S.. University of Yale; Estados UnidosFil: Jetz, Walter. University of Yale; Estados Unido

    Toward a chronostratigraphy of the Paleocene-Eocene sedimentary record in northwestern Argentina

    No full text
    The Santa B√°rbara Subgroup of the Salta Group in northwestern Argentina represents a key sedimentary record to understand the geological, biological, and climatological changes that occurred in South America during the Paleogene. However, the lack of absolute ages in these non-marine successions have prevented conclusive interpretations and correlations at a regional-scale. In this contribution, we present an integrative study based on sedimentological and stratigraphic approaches, a paleontological review, and, for the first time, an absolute age from a tuff level in the upper section of the Mealla Formation. We propose the following scenario: 1) Cycles of low and high accommodation stages that can be tracked at basin-scale providing a criterion to regional correlations; 2) An U‚ÄďPb zircon age of 58 Ma, which combined with previously estimated ages for Santa B√°rbara Subgroup indicate that this unit is constrained between 61 and 49? Ma; 3) On view of this new age the fossil-bearing levels of the Mealla Formation fill a hiatus of more than 4 Myr in the South American vertebrate record for the middle to late Paleocene, reshaping our understanding of the early evolutionary stages of this fauna. Our results represent a robust first step to achieve reliable regional correlations and an integrative comprehension of the evolution of the Salta Basin and its fossil biota.Fil: del Papa, Cecilia Eugenia. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient√≠ficas y T√©cnicas. Centro Cient√≠fico Tecnol√≥gico Conicet - C√≥rdoba. Centro de Investigaciones en Ciencias de la Tierra. Universidad Nacional de C√≥rdoba. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas F√≠sicas y Naturales. Centro de Investigaciones en Ciencias de la Tierra; ArgentinaFil: Babot, Mar√≠a Judith. Fundaci√≥n Miguel Lillo; Argentina. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient√≠ficas y T√©cnicas. Centro Cient√≠fico Tecnol√≥gico Conicet - Tucum√°n; ArgentinaFil: Dahlquist, Juan Andr√©s. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient√≠ficas y T√©cnicas. Centro Cient√≠fico Tecnol√≥gico Conicet - C√≥rdoba. Centro de Investigaciones en Ciencias de la Tierra. Universidad Nacional de C√≥rdoba. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas F√≠sicas y Naturales. Centro de Investigaciones en Ciencias de la Tierra; ArgentinaFil: Garcia Lopez, Daniel Alfredo. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient√≠ficas y T√©cnicas. Centro Cient√≠fico Tecnol√≥gico Conicet - Tucum√°n. Instituto Superior de Correlaci√≥n Geol√≥gica. Universidad Nacional de Tucum√°n. Facultad de Ciencias Naturales e Instituto Miguel Lillo. Departamento de Geolog√≠a. C√°tedra Geolog√≠a Estructural. Instituto Superior de Correlaci√≥n Geol√≥gica; ArgentinaFil: Deraco, Maria Virginia. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient√≠ficas y T√©cnicas. Centro Cient√≠fico Tecnol√≥gico Conicet - Tucum√°n. Instituto Superior de Correlaci√≥n Geol√≥gica. Universidad Nacional de Tucum√°n. Facultad de Ciencias Naturales e Instituto Miguel Lillo. Departamento de Geolog√≠a. C√°tedra Geolog√≠a Estructural. Instituto Superior de Correlaci√≥n Geol√≥gica; ArgentinaFil: Herrera, Claudia Marcela Reina. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient√≠ficas y T√©cnicas. Centro Cient√≠fico Tecnol√≥gico Conicet - Tucum√°n. Instituto Superior de Correlaci√≥n Geol√≥gica. Universidad Nacional de Tucum√°n. Facultad de Ciencias Naturales e Instituto Miguel Lillo. Departamento de Geolog√≠a. C√°tedra Geolog√≠a Estructural. Instituto Superior de Correlaci√≥n Geol√≥gica; ArgentinaFil: Bertelli, Sara Beatriz. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient√≠ficas y T√©cnicas. Centro Cient√≠fico Tecnol√≥gico - Tucum√°n. Unidad Ejecutora Lillo; ArgentinaFil: Rougier, Guillermo W.. University of Louisville; Estados UnidosFil: Giannini, Norberto Pedro. American Museum of Natural History; Estados Unidos. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient√≠ficas y T√©cnicas. Centro Cient√≠fico Tecnol√≥gico - Tucum√°n. Unidad Ejecutora Lillo; Argentin

    New mandibular remains of Callistoe (Metatheria, Sparassodonta) reveal unexpected anatomical, functional, and evolutionary aspects of this carnivorous genus

    Get PDF
    We present a detailed description of the anatomy of the dentary and lower teeth of a new specimen of Callistoe vincei, a large carnivorous metatherian from the Eocene (?Ypresian) of northwestern Argentina. The recently collected specimen is a young adult represented by a partial right dentary with the canine, p1, roots of p3, and very well-preserved m1 to m4. The description includes a comparison with the holotype specimen, a much older individual, and other closely related large sparassodonts (e.g., Arminiheringia). The analysis of this new material allowed identifying plesiomorphic molar features in Callistoe, such as the presence of a reduced metaconid on the m3 and a tricuspated, basined talonid on m1‚Äďm3. We also described the mesowear facets in the lower dentition, showing that the self-sharpening facet typically present in extinct and extant placental and some marsupial carnivorous forms, was absent in Callistoe. The presence of a short-term cutting edge in the trigonid related to the thinness of the enamel layer, and the associated tooth wear susceptibility, were likely compensated by a dental mechanism (overeruption) to maintain occlusal contact among antagonist teeth. This process could explain the marked extrusion of the tooth roots observed in Callistoe as well as in other large closely related members of the group.Fil: Babot, Mar√≠a Judith. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient√≠ficas y T√©cnicas; Argentina. Fundaci√≥n Miguel Lillo; ArgentinaFil: Rougier, Guillermo Walter. University of Louisville; Estados UnidosFil: Garcia Lopez, Daniel Alfredo. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient√≠ficas y T√©cnicas. Centro Cient√≠fico Tecnol√≥gico Conicet - Tucum√°n. Instituto Superior de Correlaci√≥n Geol√≥gica. Universidad Nacional de Tucum√°n. Facultad de Ciencias Naturales e Instituto Miguel Lillo. Departamento de Geolog√≠a. C√°tedra Geolog√≠a Estructural. Instituto Superior de Correlaci√≥n Geol√≥gica; Argentina. Universidad Nacional de Tucum√°n. Facultad de Ciencias Naturales e Instituto Miguel Lillo; ArgentinaFil: Bertelli, Sara Beatriz. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient√≠ficas y T√©cnicas. Centro Cient√≠fico Tecnol√≥gico - Tucum√°n. Unidad Ejecutora Lillo; ArgentinaFil: Herrera, Claudia Marcela Reina. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient√≠ficas y T√©cnicas. Centro Cient√≠fico Tecnol√≥gico Conicet - Tucum√°n. Instituto Superior de Correlaci√≥n Geol√≥gica. Universidad Nacional de Tucum√°n. Facultad de Ciencias Naturales e Instituto Miguel Lillo. Departamento de Geolog√≠a. C√°tedra Geolog√≠a Estructural. Instituto Superior de Correlaci√≥n Geol√≥gica; Argentina. Universidad Nacional de Tucum√°n. Facultad de Ciencias Naturales e Instituto Miguel Lillo; ArgentinaFil: Deraco, Maria Virginia. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient√≠ficas y T√©cnicas. Centro Cient√≠fico Tecnol√≥gico Conicet - Tucum√°n. Instituto Superior de Correlaci√≥n Geol√≥gica. Universidad Nacional de Tucum√°n. Facultad de Ciencias Naturales e Instituto Miguel Lillo. Departamento de Geolog√≠a. C√°tedra Geolog√≠a Estructural. Instituto Superior de Correlaci√≥n Geol√≥gica; ArgentinaFil: Giannini, Norberto Pedro. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient√≠ficas y T√©cnicas. Centro Cient√≠fico Tecnol√≥gico - Tucum√°n. Unidad Ejecutora Lillo; Argentin

    Pleistocene extinction and geographic singularity explain differences in global felid ensemble structure

    Get PDF
    Extant felids are hyper-carnivorous predators that originated in Asia c. 11 Mya and diversified in 8 distinct lineages, with 41 species surviving to the Recent. These species occupy almost every terrestrial habitat available in the four continental land masses they occupy and exhibit morphological and behavioral specializations to various locomotor styles and hunting modes. Today, distinct felid ensembles inhabit each continent and major biogeographic region. How the differential structuring of these ensembles was generated, and which evolutionary processes shaped these differences across ensembles, are key emerging questions. Using multivariate statistics, we analyzed a large dataset of 31 cranial and 92 postcranial linear variables describing shape and functional proxies of the entire skeleton of extant felids. We statistically demonstrate the existence of nine felid morphotypes at the global scale, whose occurrence is characteristic of different continental or biogeographic ensembles. Phylogenetically explicit analyses show that morphotypes from different felid lineages converged in different continents, but still ensembles remain distinct due to the fact that various morphotypes are missing in several of those ensembles. However, fossil evidence suggests that most of these missing morphotypes were represented by species from those territories that went extinct during the Quaternary. Furthermore, reconstructing the hypothetical felid ensembles before Pleistocene extinctions rendered the continental felid faunas remarkably more similar to each other than they presently are, leaving their remaining, relatively minor differences to outstanding geographic singularities of each continental land mass.Fil: Morales, Miriam Mariana. Universidad Nacional de Jujuy; Argentina. Universidad Nacional de Jujuy. Instituto de Ecorregiones Andinas. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico Conicet - Salta. Instituto de Ecorregiones Andinas; ArgentinaFil: Giannini, Norberto Pedro. Fundación Miguel Lillo; Argentina. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico - Tucumán. Unidad Ejecutora Lillo; Argentin

    Geoeconomic variations in epidemiology, ventilation management, and outcomes in invasively ventilated intensive care unit patients without acute respiratory distress syndrome: a pooled analysis of four observational studies

    No full text
    Background: Geoeconomic variations in epidemiology, the practice of ventilation, and outcome in invasively ventilated intensive care unit (ICU) patients without acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) remain unexplored. In this analysis we aim to address these gaps using individual patient data of four large observational studies. Methods: In this pooled analysis we harmonised individual patient data from the ERICC, LUNG SAFE, PRoVENT, and PRoVENT-iMiC prospective observational studies, which were conducted from June, 2011, to December, 2018, in 534 ICUs in 54 countries. We used the 2016 World Bank classification to define two geoeconomic regions: middle-income countries (MICs) and high-income countries (HICs). ARDS was defined according to the Berlin criteria. Descriptive statistics were used to compare patients in MICs versus HICs. The primary outcome was the use of low tidal volume ventilation (LTVV) for the first 3 days of mechanical ventilation. Secondary outcomes were key ventilation parameters (tidal volume size, positive end-expiratory pressure, fraction of inspired oxygen, peak pressure, plateau pressure, driving pressure, and respiratory rate), patient characteristics, the risk for and actual development of acute respiratory distress syndrome after the first day of ventilation, duration of ventilation, ICU length of stay, and ICU mortality. Findings: Of the 7608 patients included in the original studies, this analysis included 3852 patients without ARDS, of whom 2345 were from MICs and 1507 were from HICs. Patients in MICs were younger, shorter and with a slightly lower body-mass index, more often had diabetes and active cancer, but less often chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and heart failure than patients from HICs. Sequential organ failure assessment scores were similar in MICs and HICs. Use of LTVV in MICs and HICs was comparable (42·4% vs 44·2%; absolute difference -1·69 [-9·58 to 6·11] p=0·67; data available in 3174 [82%] of 3852 patients). The median applied positive end expiratory pressure was lower in MICs than in HICs (5 [IQR 5-8] vs 6 [5-8] cm H2O; p=0·0011). ICU mortality was higher in MICs than in HICs (30·5% vs 19·9%; p=0·0004; adjusted effect 16·41% [95% CI 9·52-23·52]; p<0·0001) and was inversely associated with gross domestic product (adjusted odds ratio for a US$10 000 increase per capita 0·80 [95% CI 0·75-0·86]; p<0·0001). Interpretation: Despite similar disease severity and ventilation management, ICU mortality in patients without ARDS is higher in MICs than in HICs, with a strong association with country-level economic status

    The Cranial Morphospace of Extant Marsupials

    No full text
    Marsupials represent a major mammalian diversification today restricted geographically to the Americas (but chiefly to the Neotropical Region) and Australasia. The group is highly diverse in morphology, ecology, and habits, and this is reflected to a great extent in cranial morphology. Here, we selected the largest specimens available from a post-weaning developmental series of a large-scale ongoing ontogenetic study to generate a linear multivariate morphospace of the skull of living marsupials. This sample comprised 106 species covering most living clades, and we used a basic set of measurements that estimate dimensions of major skull structures. We specified some predictions suited for a diverse but ancient group with an allopatric distribution. The cranial morphospace of living marsupials was low-dimensional, dominated by size/allometric as well as shape trends of robustness versus gracility and elongation versus depth. Phylogenetic structuring was present, especially in relation to diprotodontians, and the ecological imprint of patterns in phylomorphospace was marked. Evolutionary convergence was statistically detectable between selected species clusters combining Neotropical and Australasian species, chiefly among animalivorous forms but also in predominantly phytophagous arboreal possums and woolly opossums. Convergence among Australian large grazers may be influenced or limited by interspecific competition. Evolutionary divergence was remarkable in some groups, but evolutionary rates varied greatly across divergent forms. Some space voids may be due to extinction; fossil forms are expected to fill in these voids, expand the realized morphospace, and perhaps increase intra- and intercontinental convergence.Fil: Giannini, Norberto Pedro. American Museum of Natural History; Estados Unidos. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient√≠ficas y T√©cnicas. Centro Cient√≠fico Tecnol√≥gico - Tucum√°n. Unidad Ejecutora Lillo; Argentina. Universidad Nacional de Tucum√°n. Facultad de Ciencias Naturales e Instituto Miguel Lillo; ArgentinaFil: Morales, Miriam Mariana. Universidad Nacional de Jujuy. Instituto de Ecorregiones Andinas. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient√≠ficas y T√©cnicas. Centro Cient√≠fico Tecnol√≥gico Conicet - Salta. Instituto de Ecorregiones Andinas; ArgentinaFil: Wilson, Laura A. B.. University of New South Wales; AustraliaFil: Velazco, Pa√ļl M.. American Museum of Natural History; Estados UnidosFil: Abdala, Nestor Fernando. University of the Witwatersrand; Sud√°frica. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient√≠ficas y T√©cnicas. Centro Cient√≠fico Tecnol√≥gico - Tucum√°n. Unidad Ejecutora Lillo; ArgentinaFil: Flores, David Alfredo. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient√≠ficas y T√©cnicas. Centro Cient√≠fico Tecnol√≥gico - Tucum√°n. Unidad Ejecutora Lillo; Argentina. Fundaci√≥n Miguel Lillo. Direcci√≥n de Zoolog√≠a. Instituto de Vertebrados; Argentin
    • ‚Ķ
    corecore