355 research outputs found

    Investigation of electrical transport in anodized single TiO2 nanotubes

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    Electrical transport in anodized single titania nanotube (TNT) free from any structural effects of titania nanotube array (TNA) was investigated. An anodized TNA was disassembled into single TNTs with two-step anodization technique. Then, single TNT bridges between gold electrodes with a gap of 500 nm were prepared by dielectrophoretic alignment. Quantitative assessment of electron mobility inside single anatase and rutile TNT was carried out by 2-probe current-voltage measurement and analysis based on a metal-semiconductor-metal circuit model with Schottky barriers. Our approach to intrinsic electrical transport of single nanotube is quite effective for understanding the electronic and optical properties of TNA

    NDBを用いた新たな患者追跡手法の開発

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    The National Database of Health Insurance Claims and Specific Health Checkups of Japan (NDB) is a comprehensive database containing health insurance claim information. The structure of the NDB complicates long-term cohorts for two main reasons. First, the NDB data are stored on a per-claim basis. Second, the NDB is a billing-focused record structure. Therefore, the objective of this study was to use ID0 to modify the data structure to allow for long-term cohorts, provided that the data volume is not increased and the runtime per data year is maintained within one month. The NDB uses two primary keys (ID1 and ID2) made from hash values that mask personally identifiable information. ID0 is our recently developed key from ID1 and ID2, which improves patient-matching efficiency with excellent long-term tracing performance. Our study used claim data with filing dates between April 2013 and March 2016 to trace hospitalizations of one month or longer, including outpatient care, in three steps. In Step 1, claims were transferred to a CD-record format. As some diagnosis procedure combination (DPC) claim records contain a mixture of overlapping comprehensive and piece-rate data, we sorted and reorganized them. In Step 2, pharmacy and medical outpatient claims were integrated using the ID0 key, the medical institution code for issuing a prescription, and the prescription issue date. In Step 3, the transferred data were combined and converted from consecutive hospitalization days into sequences based on ID0, the medical institution code, and hospital ward classification. Consequently, the size of the originally extracted comma-separated variable dataset for three years (approximately 10.5 TB) was reduced to an approximately 6 TB main database file that was usable for processing. The process took approximately three months. With similar conventional methods, the data size was 30 times larger, and it took more than seven months to process a year's worth of data. In addition, to demonstrate the application of this method, we conducted a six-year mortality cohort for all Japanese citizens. Our technique makes it easy to perform follow-up and longitudinal cohort surveys while accurately tracing patient data in large-scale medical claims databases.博士(医学)・甲第854号・令和4年12月22日Copyright: ©2022 The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons BY 4.0 International (Attribution) License (https:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode), which permits the unrestricted distribution, reproduction and use of the article provided the original source and authors are credited

    季節と天候による骨折リスクの差 : 日本のレセプト情報データベースを用いた、全ての年齢・部位に関する包括的な分析

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    Although age- and season-specific effects on fracture risk have been reported, the effects of seasonality across different age groups and for different fracture sites have not yet been clarified. Therefore, our study aimed to comprehensively investigate the effects of seasonality on fracture risk across age and fracture sites using a large-scale population database of fracture incidence. Fracture data were accumulated over a 3-year period in the region of Tokyo and in surrounding areas, which accounts for a total population of 42 million. Information on fracture occurrence, fracture site, and patient demographics were obtained from the National Database of Health Insurance Claims and Specific Health Checkups of Japan (NDB). Over the study period, 508,051 fractures were identified across the following five age groups: 0-19, 20-39, 40-64, 65-79, and 80+ years. The incidence rate for fractures in 10 site groups was calculated. Fracture risk was the highest in the spring and autumn for children aged 0-19 years and was the highest in the winter for elderly individuals (65-79 and 80+ years). Toe fractures, which occurred more frequently in the summer, were the most notable exception. The risk of fracture of the distal radius and hip was associated with daily temperature and rainfall and was elevated on days with a mean temperature higher than that of the previous day. Fracture risk exhibited seasonal variations that differed between children and elderly individuals and between toe fractures and fractures at other sites. These findings can help us understand the epidemiology of fractures and develop preventive strategies, as well as aid in the allocation of healthcare resources.博士(医学)・甲第718号・令和元年9月27

    Anti-angiogenic effect of siphonaxanthin from green alga, Codium fragile.

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    Since anti-angiogenic therapy has becoming a promising approach in the prevention of cancer and related diseases, the present study was aimed to examine the anti-angiogenic effect of siphonaxanthin from green alga (Codium fragile) in cell culture model systems and ex vivo approaches using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and rat aortic ring, respectively. Siphonaxanthin significantly suppressed HUVEC proliferation (p<0.05) at the concentration of 2.5 μM (50% as compared with control) and above, while the effect on chemotaxis was not significant. Siphonaxanthin exhibited strong inhibitory effect on HUVEC tube formation. It suppressed the formation of tube length by 44% at the concentration of 10 μM, while no tube formation was observed at 25 μM, suggesting that it could be due to the suppression of angiogenic mediators. The ex vivo angiogenesis assay exhibited reduced microvessel outgrowth in a dose dependent manner and the reduction was significant at more than 2.5 μM. Our results imply a new insight on the novel function of siphonaxanthin in preventing angiogenesis related diseases

    BioGlue® coronary embolism during open heart surgery

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    AbstractIn cases of iatrogenic coronary embolism during cardiac surgery or percutaneous coronary intervention, small air bubbles or foreign bodies are directly injected, which usually result in serious adverse events if not treated promptly. We herein describe the case of a patient who developed acute myocardial infarction resulting in shock due to BioGlue® (CryoLife, Atlanta, GA, USA)-induced coronary embolism during the surgical repair of aortic dissection and was treated for retrieval of the material using a thrombectomy catheter.<Learning objective: Coronary embolism caused by surgical adhesives is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication. It is important for surgeons to promptly recognize and treat this serious condition in consultation with cardiologists.

    人工膝関節置換術後の関節周囲感染が疑われる症例の発生頻度は、術中麻酔維持使用薬剤の選択と関連するか(プロポフォールによる全静脈麻酔と、セボフルランでの麻酔維持での比較):後ろ向きコホート研究

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    PURPOSE: Periprosthetic joint infection is a serious complication of total knee arthroplasty. Though there are many factors that might increase its risk, the use of propofol for maintaining general anesthesia could theoretically increase the incidence of infection because of its lipid component that supports bacterial growth. Nevertheless, the relationship between anesthetic maintenance agents and the occurrence of periprosthetic joint infection remains uncertain. The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of suspected early-onset periprosthetic joint infection between patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty under propofol vs sevoflurane anesthesia. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients in the national inpatient Diagnosis Procedure Combination database in Japan who underwent total knee arthroplasty. Suspected periprosthetic joint infection was surrogately defined as the need for arthrocentesis or debridement within 30 days of surgery. Propensity score matching was performed between patients who received either propofol or sevoflurane for anesthetic maintenance to determine the proportion of those with infection. RESULTS: Eligible patients (n = 21,899) were categorized into either the propofol (n = 7,439) or sevoflurane (n = 14,460) groups. In the 5,140 propensity-matched patient pairs, there was no significant difference in the proportion of arthrocentesis or debridement [1.3% propofol vs 1.7% sevoflurane; respectively (relative risk, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.55 to 1.04; P = 0.10)] between the groups. The mean (SD) length of stay in the propofol group was significantly longer than in the sevoflurane group [32.5 (18.4) days vs 31.4 (14.4) days, respectively; mean difference, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.5 to 1.8; P < 0.001]. CONCLUSION: Propensity score analysis suggested no significant association between the choice of anesthetic maintenance agent and the occurrence of suspected early-onset periprosthetic joint infection in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty.博士(医学)・甲第700号・平成31年3月15日© Canadian Anesthesiologists' Society 2018This is a post-peer-review, pre-copyedit version of an article published in Canadian journal of anaesthesia. The final authenticated version is available online at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12630-018-1139-6

    Noninvasive Demonstration of Dual Coronary Artery Fistulas to Main Pulmonary Artery with 64-Slice Multidetector-Computed Tomography: A Case Report

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    Coronary artery fistulas, including coronary pulmonary fistulas, are usually discovered accidently among the adult population when undergoing invasive coronary angiographies. We report here a 58-year-old woman with dual fistulas originating from the left anterior descending coronary artery and right coronary sinus to the main pulmonary artery, demonstrating noninvasively with multidetector-computed tomography (MDCT) and transthoracic echocardiography (TTE)

    重症低血糖後の急性冠症候群の絶対リスク : 日本のナショナルデータベースを用いた一般集団対象の2年間のコホート研究

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    Aims/introduction: Although the epidemiological relationship between hypoglycemia and increased risk of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) has been well established, the time period for increased risk of ACS after a severe hypoglycemic episode remains unknown. The present study aimed to determine the ACS risk after a severe hypoglycemic episode. Materials and methods: We carried out a retrospective population-based cohort study based on national claims data in Japan. We retrieved data of diabetes patients aged ≥35 years collected from April 2014 to March 2016. The absolute risk of ACS was defined as the occurrence of an emergency percutaneous coronary intervention after a severe hypoglycemic episode. Results: In total, data of 7,909,626 patients were included in the analysis. The absolute risk of ACS was 2.9 out of 1,000 person-years in all patients. ACS risk in patients with severe hypoglycemic episodes was 3.0 out of 1,000 person-years. Severe hypoglycemic episodes increased the absolute risk of ACS in patients aged ≥70 years, but not in patients aged <70 years. The absolute risk of ACS was 10.6 out of 1,000 person-years within 10 days of a severe hypoglycemic episode. There was a significant trend between shorter duration after an episode and higher ACS risk. Conclusions: Severe hypoglycemia was associated with an increased risk of ACS in elderly diabetes patients. ACS risk increased with a shorter period after a severe hypoglycemic episode, suggesting that severe hypoglycemia leads to an increased risk of ACS in diabetes patients. These findings show that it is important to avoid severe hypoglycemia while treating diabetes, particularly in elderly patients.博士(医学)・甲第732号・令和2年3月16日© 2019 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License(https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/), which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made

    日本における保険診療全透析患者追跡と死亡数の現状

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    Background: The survival rate of chronic dialysis patients in Japan remains the highest worldwide, so there is value in presenting Japan's situation internationally. We examined whether aggregate figures on dialysis patients in the National Database of Health Insurance Claims and Special Health Checkups of Japan (NDB), which contains data on insured procedures of approximately 100 million Japanese residents, complement corresponding figures in the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy Renal Data Registry (JRDR). Methods: Subjects were patients with medical fee points for dialysis recorded in the NDB during 2014-2018. We analyzed annual numbers of dialysis cases, newly initiated dialysis cases- and deaths. Results: Compared with the JRDR, the NDB had about 6-7% fewer dialysis cases but a similar number of newly initiated dialysis cases. In the NDB, the number of deaths was about 6-10% lower, and the number of hemodialysis cases was lower, while that of peritoneal dialysis cases was higher. The cumulative survival rate at dialysis initiation was approximately 6 percentage points lower in the NDB than in the JRDR, indicating that some patients die at dialysis initiation. Cumulative survival rate by age group was roughly the same between the NDB and JRDR in both sexes. Conclusion: The use of the NDB enabled us to aggregate data of dialysis patients. With the definition of dialysis patients used in this study, analyses of concomitant medications, comorbidities, surgeries, and therapies will become possible, which will be useful in many future studies.博士(医学)・甲第818号・令和4年3月15日© 2021. The Author(s). Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attri bution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adapta tion, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
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