356 research outputs found

    Brachytherapy in Japan

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    This study aimed to assess the current state of brachytherapy (BT) resources, practices and resident education in Japan. A nationwide survey was undertaken encompassing 177 establishments facilitating BT in 2022. Questionnaires were disseminated to each BT center, and feedback through online channels or postal correspondence was obtained. The questionnaire response rate was 90% (159/177), and every prefecture had a response in at least one center. The number of centers in each prefecture ranged from 0.6 to 3.6 (median: 1.3) per million population. The annual number of patients in each center ranged from 0 to 272 (median: 31). While most prefectures provided intracavitary (IC) BT for gynecological cancers and interstitial (IS) BT for prostate cancer, only one-third of the prefectures provided IS BT for cancer sites other than the prostate. The institutional image-guided BT implementation rate was 71%. IC and IS BT was performed for 15.4% of IC BT cases of gynecological cancer. Only 47% of the BT training centers answered that they could provide adequate training in BT for residents. The most common reason for this finding was the insufficient number of patients in each center. The results show that, although BT has achieved uniformity in terms of facility penetration, new technologies are not yet widespread enough. Furthermore, IS BT, which requires advanced skills, is limited to a few BT centers, and considerable number of BT training centers do not have sufficient caseloads to provide the necessary experience for their residents

    Additional file 1 of Novel subgroups of obesity and their association with outcomes: a data-driven cluster analysis

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    Additional file 1: Supplementary Table 1A. ICD-10 codes for Cluster 1. Supplementary Table 1B. Drug codes for Cluster 1. Supplementary Table 1C. Medical procedure codes for Cluster 1. Supplementary Table 2A. ICD-10 codes for Cluster 2. Supplementary Table 2B. Drug codes for Cluster 2. Supplementary Table 2C. Medical procedure codes for Cluster 2. Supplementary Table 3A. ICD-10 codes for Cluster 3. Supplementary Table 3B. Drug codes for Cluster 3. Supplementary Table 3C. Medical procedure codes for Cluster 3. Supplementary Table 4A. ICD-10 codes for Cluster 4. Supplementary Table 4B. Drug codes for Cluster 4. Supplementary Table 4C. Medical procedure codes for Cluster 4. Supplementary Table 5A. ICD-10 codes for Cluster 5. Supplementary Table 5B. Drug codes for Cluster 5. Supplementary Table 5C. Medical procedure codes for Cluster 5. Supplementary Table 6A. ICD-10 codes for Cluster 6. Supplementary Table 6B. Drug codes for Cluster 6. Supplementary Table 6C. Medical procedure codes for Cluster 6. Supplementary Table 7A. ICD-10 codes for Cluster 7. Supplementary Table 7B. Drug codes for Cluster 7. Supplementary Table 7C. Medical procedure codes for Cluster 7. Supplementary Table 8. ICD-10, drug, and medical procedure codes indicating retinopathy in Cluster 2. Supplementary Table 9A. ICD-10 codes indicating ocular diseases in Clusters 3 and 4. Supplementary Table 9B. Drug codes indicating ocular diseases in Clusters 3 and 4. Supplementary Table 9C. Medical procedure codes indicating ocular diseases in Clusters 3 and 4. Supplementary Fig. 1. Flowchart of the study. Supplementary Fig. 2. Elbow-Plot for K-means clustering Supplementary Fig. 3. Association between BMI and the proportion of the individuals with MHO. Supplementary Fig. 4. Health care fee of each cluster. Supplementary Fig. 5. UMAP plots of all individuals with BMI 30-35. Supplementary Data 1. Python Code for UMAP Reduction and K-means Clustering. Supplementary Data 2. Hierarchical Clustering

    Research note changes in the number of outpatient visits in Japan during the COVID-19 pandemic

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    Abstract Objective This study aimed to determine the change in the number of outpatient visits in Japan since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, using data on the outpatient claims submitted by medical institutions to insurers in 2019 and 2020, from the National Database of Health Insurance Claims and Specific Health Check-ups. We calculated the total number of outpatient visits, and number of visits for individual diseases according to the International Classification of Diseases-10 codes on the claim form. Results The number of outpatient visits per million people decreased by 9.98% in 2020 compared to 2019. Of the diseases included in the analysis, 71 showed a decrease in the number of visits by ≥ 1%. There were significant decreases in the number of visits related to infectious diseases (influenza, acute bronchitis, and acute laryngitis, etc.), and chronic diseases (hemorrhoids, cystic kidney disease, dyspepsia, and chronic sinusitis, etc.). The observed decreased rate of outpatient visit might have been due to, a decrease in the incidence of disease, a decreased frequency of visit by patients with the disease, or both. Our analysis method using actual health insurance claim data can be applied worldwide, where researchers have access to national information on health insurance claims

    National trends in the outcomes of subarachnoid haemorrhage and the prognostic influence of stroke centre capability in Japan: retrospective cohort study

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    Objectives To examine the national, 6-year trends in in-hospital clinical outcomes of patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) who underwent clipping or coiling and the prognostic influence of temporal trends in the Comprehensive Stroke Center (CSC) capabilities on patient outcomes in Japan.Design Retrospective study.Setting Six hundred and thirty-one primary care institutions in Japan.Participants Forty-five thousand and eleven patients with SAH who were urgently hospitalised, identified using the J-ASPECT Diagnosis Procedure Combination database.Primary and secondary outcome measures Annual number of patients with SAH who remained untreated, or who received clipping or coiling, in-hospital mortality and poor functional outcomes (modified Rankin Scale: 3–6) at discharge. Each CSC was assessed using a validated scoring system (CSC score: 1–25 points).Results In the overall cohort, in-hospital mortality decreased (year for trend, OR (95% CI): 0.97 (0.96 to 0.99)), while the proportion of poor functional outcomes remained unchanged (1.00 (0.98 to 1.02)). The proportion of patients who underwent clipping gradually decreased from 46.6% to 38.5%, while that of those who received coiling and those left untreated gradually increased from 16.9% to 22.6% and 35.4% to 38%, respectively. In-hospital mortality of coiled (0.94 (0.89 to 0.98)) and untreated (0.93 (0.90 to 0.96)) patients decreased, whereas that of clipped patients remained stable. CSC score improvement was associated with increased use of coiling (per 1-point increase, 1.14 (1.08 to 1.20)) but not with short-term patient outcomes regardless of treatment modality.Conclusions The 6-year trends indicated lower in-hospital mortality for patients with SAH (attributable to better outcomes), increased use of coiling and multidisciplinary care for untreated patients. Further increasing CSC capabilities may improve overall outcomes, mainly by increasing the use of coiling. Additional studies are necessary to determine the effect of confounders such as aneurysm complexity on outcomes of clipped patients in the modern endovascular era

    心室中隔欠損症に対する小児心臓カテーテル検査における麻酔方法と重症合併症の関連

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    Pediatric cardiac catheterization requires unconsciousness and immobilization through general anesthesia or sedation. This study aimed to compare the occurrence of severe complications in pediatric diagnostic cardiac catheterization for ventricular septal defect between general anesthesia and sedation performed under similar institutional environments. Using the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination database, we retrospectively identified pediatric patients (aged <2 years) who underwent diagnostic cardiac catheterization for ventricular septal defect between July 2010 and March 2019. The composite outcome was the occurrence of severe complications, including catecholamine use and intensive care unit admission, within seven days after catheterization. Overlap weighting based on propensity scores was used to adjust for patient- and hospital-level confounding factors. We identified 3159 patients from 87 hospitals, including 930 under general anesthesia and 2229 under sedation. The patient- and hospital-level baseline characteristics differed between the groups. After adjustment, the proportion of patients with severe complications was significantly higher in the general anesthesia group than in the sedation group (2.4% vs. 0.6%; risk difference, 1.8% [95% confidence interval, 0.93–2.6%]). Severe complications occurred more frequently in the general anesthesia group than in the sedation group. Further research on anesthetic methods is necessary to assess the safety and accuracy of pediatric diagnostic cardiac catheterization.博士(医学)・甲第867号・令和5年3月15

    Recent global nonhydrostatic modeling approach without using a cumulus parameterization to understand the mechanisms underlying cloud changes due to global warming

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    Abstract Clouds are the primary source of uncertainty in the prediction of climate change. To reduce the uncertainty of cloud simulations and overcome this difficulty in prediction, many climate modeling centers are now developing a new type of climate model, the global nonhydrostatic atmospheric model, which reduces the uncertainty arising from a cumulus parameterization by computing clouds explicitly using a cloud microphysics scheme. Among the global nonhydrostatic atmospheric models used in recent intercomparison studies, NICAM aims to project climate change by improving our understanding of cloud changes due to warming and related physical processes. NICAM is the first global nonhydrostatic model and was developed by our research team. This review summarizes the outcomes of a recent major five-year research program in Japan for studying climate using NICAM, as well as providing an overview of current issues regarding the use of global kilometer-scale simulations in high-resolution climate modeling

    World-first report of low anterior resection for rectal cancer with the hinotori™ Surgical Robot System: a case report

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    Abstract Background The hinotori™ Surgical Robot System was approved for use in colorectal cancer surgery in Japan in 2022. This robot has advantages, such as an operation arm with eight axes, an adjustable arm base, and a flexible three-dimensional viewer, and is expected to be utilized in rectal cancer surgery. Herein, we report the world's first surgery for rectal cancer using the hinotori™ Surgical Robot System. Case presentation A 71-year-old woman presented to our hospital with bloody stools. A colonoscopy revealed type 2 advanced cancer in the rectum, and a histological examination exposed a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma. Abdominal enhanced computed tomography divulged rectal wall thickening without significant swelling of the lymph nodes or distant metastasis. Pelvic magnetic resonance imaging showed tumor invasion beyond the intrinsic rectal muscle layer. The patient was diagnosed with cStage IIa (cT3N0M0) rectal cancer and underwent low anterior resection using the hinotori™ Surgical Robot System. Based on an adequate simulation, surgery was safely performed with appropriate port placement and arm base-angle adjustment. The operating time was 262 min, with a cockpit time of 134 min. Subsequently, the patient was discharged 10 days postoperatively without complications. The pathological diagnosis was pStage IIA (cT3N0M0) and the circumferential resection margin was 6 mm. Conclusions We report the first case of low anterior resection for rectal cancer using the hinotori™ Surgical Robot System, in which a safe and appropriate oncological surgery was performed

    Development of split-force-controlled body weight support (SF-BWS) robot for gait rehabilitation

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    This study introduces a body-weight-support (BWS) robot actuated by two pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs). Conventional BWS devices typically use springs or a single actuator, whereas our robot has a split force-controlled BWS (SF-BWS), in which two force-controlled actuators independently support the left and right sides of the user’s body. To reduce the experience of weight, vertical unweighting support forces are transferred directly to the user’s left and right hips through a newly designed harness with an open space around the shoulder and upper chest area to allow freedom of movement. A motion capture evaluation with three healthy participants confirmed that the proposed harness does not impede upper-body motion during laterally identical force-controlled partial BWS walking, which is quantitatively similar to natural walking. To evaluate our SF-BWS robot, we performed a force-tracking and split-force control task using different simulated load weight setups (40, 50, and 60 kg masses). The split-force control task, providing independent force references to each PAM and conducted with a 60 kg mass and a test bench, demonstrates that our SF-BWS robot is capable of shifting human body weight in the mediolateral direction. The SF-BWS robot successfully controlled the two PAMs to generate the desired vertical support forces

    Robotized Knee-Ankle-Foot Orthosis-Assisted Gait Training on Genu Recurvatum during Gait in Patients with Chronic Stroke: A Feasibility Study and Case Report

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    Genu recurvatum (knee hyperextension) is a common problem after stroke. It is important to promote the coordination between knee and ankle movements during gait; however, no study has investigated how multi-joint assistance affects genu recurvatum. We are developing a gait training technique that uses robotized knee-ankle-foot orthosis (KAFO) to assists the knee and ankle joints simultaneously. This report aimed to investigate the safety of robotized KAFO-assisted gait training (Experiment 1) and a clinical trial to treat genu recurvatum in a patient with stroke (Experiment 2). Six healthy participants and eight patients with chronic stroke participated in Experiment 1. They received robotized KAFO-assisted gait training for one or 10 sessions. One patient with chronic stroke participated in Experiment 2 to investigate the effect of robotized KAFO-assisted gait training on genu recurvatum. The patient received the training for 30 min/day for nine days. The robot consisted of KAFO and an attached actuator of four pneumatic artificial muscles. The assistance parameters were adjusted by therapists to prevent genu recurvatum during gait. In Experiment 2, we evaluated the knee joint angle during overground gait, Fugl-Meyer Assessment of lower extremity (FMA-LE), modified Ashworth scale (MAS), Gait Assessment and Intervention Tool (G.A.I.T.), 10-m gait speed test, and 6-min walk test (6MWT) before and after the intervention without the robot. All participants completed the training in both experiments safely. In Experiment 2, genu recurvatum, FMA-LE, MAS, G.A.I.T., and 6MWT improved after robotized KAFO-assisted gait training. The results indicated that the multi-joint assistance robot may be effective for genu recurvatum after stroke
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