38 research outputs found

    Stable isotope-labeled carnitine reveals its rapid transport into muscle cells and acetylation during contraction

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    Carnitine plays multiple roles in skeletal muscle metabolism, including fatty acid transport and buffering of excess acetyl-CoA in the mitochondria. The skeletal muscle cannot synthesize carnitine; therefore, carnitine must be taken up from the blood into the cytoplasm. Carnitine metabolism, its uptake into cells, and the subsequent reactions of carnitine are accelerated by muscle contraction. Isotope tracing enables the marking of target molecules and monitoring of tissue distribution. In this study, stable isotope-labeled carnitine tracing was combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) imaging to determine carnitine distribution in mouse skeletal muscle tissues. Deuterium-labeled carnitine (d3-carnitine) was intravenously injected into the mice and diffused to the skeletal muscles for 30 and 60 min. To examine whether muscle contraction changes the distribution of carnitine and its derivatives, unilateral in situ muscle contraction was performed; 60 min muscle contraction showed increased d3-carnitine and its derivative d3-acetylcarnitine in the muscle, indicating that carnitine uptake in cells is promptly converted to acetylcarnitine, consequently, buffering accumulated acetyl-CoA. While the endogenous carnitine was localized in the slow type fibers rather than fast type, the contraction-induced distributions of d3-carnitine and acetylcarnitine were not necessarily associated with muscle fiber type. In conclusion, the combination of isotope tracing and MALDI-MS imaging can reveal carnitine flux during muscle contraction and show the significance of carnitine in skeletal muscles

    Primary and secondary glomerulonephritides 1.

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    Presynaptic selectivity of a ligand for serotonin 1A receptors revealed by in vivo PET assays of rat brain.

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    A novel investigational antidepressant with high affinity for the serotonin transporter and the serotonin 1A (5-HT(1A)) receptor, called Wf-516 (structural formula: (2S)-1-[4-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)piperidin-1-yl]-3-[2-(5-methyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)benzo[b]furan-4-yloxy]propan-2-ol monohydrochloride), has been found to exert a rapid therapeutic effect, although the mechanistic basis for this potential advantage remains undetermined. We comparatively investigated the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of Wf-516 and pindolol by positron emission tomographic (PET) and autoradiographic assays of rat brains in order to elucidate their molecular interactions with presynaptic and postsynaptic 5-HT(1A) receptors. In contrast to the full receptor occupancy by pindolol in PET measurements, the binding of Wf-516 to 5-HT(1A) receptors displayed limited capacity, with relatively high receptor occupancy being achieved in regions predominantly containing presynaptic receptors. This selectivity was further proven by PET scans of neurotoxicant-treated rats deficient in presynaptic 5-HT(1A) receptors. In addition, [(35)S]guanosine 5'-O-[γ-thio]triphosphate autoradiography indicated a partial agonistic ability of Wf-516 for 5-HT(1A) receptors. This finding has lent support to reports that diverse partial agonists for 5-HT(1A) receptors exert high sensitivity for presynaptic components. Thus, the present PET data suggest a relatively high capacity of presynaptic binding sites for partial agonists. Since our in vitro and ex vivo autoradiographies failed to illustrate these distinct features of Wf-516, in vivo PET imaging is considered to be, thus far, the sole method capable of pharmacokinetically demonstrating the unique actions of Wf-516 and similar new-generation antidepressants

    Addition of Leukotriene Receptor Antagonists to Inhaled Corticosteroids Improved QOL of Patients with Bronchial Asthma Surveyed in Suburban Tokyo, Japan

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    Background: Bronchial asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease that has a severe impact on health worldwide. Methods: A survey of 10,771 patients with bronchial asthma in the Tama region, Tokyo was conducted for 5 years to examine treatment and quality of life (QOL). Subjects were patients aged ≥16 years and their physicians who replied to a questionnaire sent in November from 2002 to 2006. Symptoms of bronchial asthma, visits to an emergency room, use of drugs, and severity of asthma were investigated. Results: Asthmatic symptoms improved over the 5 years, with a reduction in the number of emergency room visits. Since inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) were used by >80% of patients in 2002, we suspected that increased use of concomitant leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRA) and long-acting β2 agonists (LABA) might have contributed to these findings. The effects of these drugs were compared between ICS + LTRA (n = 45) and ICS + LABA (n = 54) groups of patients. There was no significant difference in the ICS dose between these groups. In the ICS + LABA group, 18.5% and 22.2% of patients visited an emergency room before and after initiation of combination therapy, respectively, with no statistically significant difference. In contrast, the rate of emergency room visits in the ICS + LTRA group decreased from 24.4% to 6.6% after addition of LTRA. Conclusions: These results suggest that the frequency of visits to an emergency room was decreased by complementing the anti-inflammatory effect of ICS with further treatment of inflammation, particularly with LTRA