114 research outputs found

    Precariat on the Polish Labor Market Attempt to Identify the Phenomenon

    Get PDF
    It is assumed that the emergence of precariat on contemporary labor markets, is associated with the intensification the process of globalization, technological change and strengthening of neo-liberal strategies, accentuating the in particular the need to raising the innovation and competitiveness of economies. As a consequence gaining strength phenomenon precarious work identified with uncertain employment, without security and prospects, mainly temporary, often low-paid. The aim of the article is to identify the causes and scale of precariat on the Polish labor market. Used for this purpose available data Central Statistical Office, Eurostat and coming from the Social Diagnosis.Przyjmuje się, że pojawienie się prekariatu na współczesnych rynkach pracy wiąże się z nasileniem procesu globalizacji, zmian technologicznych oraz umocnieniem neoliberalnych strategii akcentujących w sposób szczególny potrzebę podnoszenia innowacyjności i konkurencyjności gospodarek. W konsekwencji przybiera na sile zjawisko zatrudnienia prekaryjnego utożsamianego z zatrudnieniem niepewnym, bez zabezpieczeń i perspektyw, głównie tymczasowego, często nisko opłacanego. Celem artykułu jest identyfikacja przyczyn i skali prekariatu na polskim rynku pracy. Wykorzystano w tym celu dostępne dane statystyczne GUS, Eurostatu oraz te pochodzące z Diagnozy Społecznej

    The relationship between the cleavage-position and the EU-Position of Polish parties in the elections of 1997 and 2001

    Get PDF
    Titelblatt, Danksagung, Inhaltsverzeichnis, Tabellen- u. Abbildungsverzeichnis, Abkürzungsverzeichnis Zusammenfassung Summary Einleitung I. Politische Parteien: Konzeptionalisierung und Erklärungsansätze I.1. Theoretische Aspekte der Parteienforschung im Osteuropa-Kontext I.2. Erklärungsansätze der Parteienforschung im Osteuropa-Kontext II. Entstehung, Struktur und Probleme des polnischen Parteiensystems II.1. Von der Solidarnosc zur Fragmentierung des Parteiensystems in Polen II.2. Die politische Bühne Polens und die Wahlen II.3. Strukturelle Probleme der polnischen Parteien II.4. Herausarbeitung einer neuen polnischen Außenpotitik nach 1989 III. Cleavage-Struktur und Parteien in Polen III.1. Cleavages und EU-Positionen der Parteien: Einführung III.2. Cleavage-Struktur in Polen III.3. Cleavage-Positionen der politischen Parteien in Polen III.4. Der Charakter des EU-Themas in Polen III.5. Die EU-Positionen der polnischen Parteien III.6. Analyse des Zusammenhangs zwischen den cleavage-Positionen und den EU- Positionen der polnischen Parteien IV. Schlussfolgerungen Materialgrundlage 1\. Dokumentationen 2\. Forschungsliteratur 3\. Zeitschriftenbeiträge 4\. Internet RechercheParteienforschern bot sich nach 1989 die einmalige Gelegenheit, die Geburt von Parteiensystemen in den neuen Demokratien Osteuropas zu verfolgen. Nach der antikommunistischen Wende in Osteuropa waren zwar die Voraussetzungen für die Entstehung demokratischer Parteien gegeben, ihre Institutionalisierung hat sich jedoch als komplizierter Prozess erwiesen. Polen im Vorzimmer der Europäischen Union, war auf dem Weg zu einem konsolidierten Parteiensystem. Der Beitritt Polens zur Europäischen Union bot die Möglichkeit, unterschiedliche Hypothesen über strukturelle und politische Faktoren, die die Politik moderner Parteien zu einem großen Teil erklären, zu prüfen. In dieser Dissertation werden zum einen die Rahmenbedingungen der Entwicklung des polnischen Parteiensystems beschrieben, zum anderen werden die Gerinnungsprozesse ihrer Konfliktstrukturen dargestellt. Dabei wird die Frage nach den die Parteiensysteme prägenden Konfliktlinien besonders intensiv diskutiert. Die Erklärung der Entstehung eines Systems rivalisierender Parteien durch soziostrukturelle Konflikte (cleavages) ist eine der etabliertesten Theorien in der modernen Politikwissenschaft, die im Wesentlichen auf die Arbeit von Lipset/Rokkan (1967) zurückreicht. In dieser Abhandlung sollen die politischen Positionen der polnischen Parteien, deren Einbettung in die Sozialstruktur sowie europapolitischen Standpunkte analysiert werden. Des Weiteren wird untersucht, in welchem Zusammenhang die cleavage-Positionen mit den EU-Positionen der polnischen Parteien in den Parlamentswahlen 1997 und 2001 standen. Das Ergebnis der Studie deutet darauf hin, dass das Zusammenspiel der cleavages die Positionen der Parteien in einem hohen Grad bestimmt. Während die ökonomische Dimension wenig zur Erklärung der EU-Standpunkte beiträgt, besitzen die kulturell beladenen Konflikte eine höhere Erklärungskraft.Political scientists had the rare opportunity to study the birth of Party systems in the new democracies of Eastern Europe after 1989. After the fall of communism in Eastern Europe the foundations for the formation of democratic parties were at hand however their institutionalisation has proven to be a complicated process. As Poland approached European Union membership it was already on the way to having a developed Party system. The entry of Poland to the European Union offered the opportunity to test various Hypotheses that attempt to explain the structural and political factors of modern Party politics. This Dissertation will on the one hand describe the developmental framework of the Polish political system, on the other hand it will describe the coagulation of its conflict structures. Questions regarding the conflict lines that helped form the Party system will be discussed intensively. The explanation of the development of rival Parties through socio-structural conflicts (cleavages) is one of the most established theories within modern Political Science. This theory primarily goes back to the work of Lipset/Rokkan (1967). In this Treatise the political positions of the Polish political parties, how they are embedded in the social structure as well as their political viewpoint regarding Europe will be analysed. Furthermore the relationship between the Polish parties cleavage-positions and their EU- positions in the Parliamentary elections of 1997 and 2001 will be examined. The results of this study point to the cleavages determining the EU positions to a high degree. Whereas the economic dimensions contribute little to explaining the EU positions, the culturally loaded conflicts have a higher ability to explain these positions

    Samozatrudnienie jako forma rozwoju przedsiębiorczości osób starszych w Polsce

    Get PDF
    Rosnąca dynamika starzenia się zasobów pracy w Polsce stwarza potrzebę podjęcia działań ukierunkowanych na efektywniejsze wykorzystanie potencjału zawodowego osób starszych. Celem artykułu jest analiza samozatrudnienia osób starszych traktowanego jako przejaw indywidualnej przedsiębiorczości. Punktem wyjścia rozważań jest prezentacja argumentów uzasadniających potrzebę zwiększenia przedsiębiorczości wśród osób starszych. Analizie poddano również czynniki skłaniające osoby starsze do podjęcia własnej działalności gospodarczej oraz bariery utrudniające ten proces. Wykorzystano także dane udostępnione przez Eurostat

    Furcocercous cercariae (Trematoda) from freshwater snails in Central Finland

    Get PDF
    A total of eight species of furcocercous cercariae of four families (Strigeidae, Diplostomidae, Schistosomatidae and Sanguinicolidae), were found in 2005 in Lake Konnevesi in Central Finland in four snail species (Valvata macrostoma, Lymnaea stagnalis, Bathyomphalus contortus and Planorbarius corneus). Australapatemon burti (Miller, 1923), Australapatemon sp., Cotylurus brevis Dubois et Rausch, 1950, Cercaria spinulosa Ginetsinskaya, 1959 and Sanguinicola sp. are new species records for Finland. Ichthyocotylurus variegatus (Creplin, 1825) and Bilharziella polonica (Kowalewski, 1895) were first recorded as cercariae in Finland. The most common cercariae were A. burti (prevalence 13.3%) and Diplostomum pseudospathaceum Niewiadomska, 1984 (10.0%). Our study represents the first host record of Valvata macrostoma for larval stages of Australapatemon sp. and Sanguinicola sp

    Distinct Determinants in HIV-1 Vif and Human APOBEC3 Proteins Are Required for the Suppression of Diverse Host Anti-Viral Proteins

    Get PDF
    APOBEC3G (A3G) and related cytidine deaminases of the APOBEC3 family of proteins are potent inhibitors of many retroviruses, including HIV-1. Formation of infectious HIV-1 requires the suppression of multiple cytidine deaminases by Vif. HIV-1 Vif suppresses various APOBEC3 proteins through the common mechanism of recruiting the Cullin5-ElonginB-ElonginC E3 ubiquitin ligase to induce target protein polyubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation. The domains in Vif and various APOBEC3 proteins required for APOBEC3 recognition and degradation have not been fully characterized.In the present study, we have demonstrated that the regions of APOBEC3F (A3F) that are required for its HIV-1-mediated binding and degradation are distinct from those reported for A3G. We found that the C-terminal cytidine deaminase domain (C-CDD) of A3F alone is sufficient for its interaction with HIV-1 Vif and its Vif-mediated degradation. We also observed that the domains of HIV-1 Vif that are uniquely required for its functional interaction with full-length A3F are also required for the degradation of the C-CDD of A3F; in contrast, those Vif domains that are uniquely required for functional interaction with A3G are not required for the degradation of the C-CDD of A3F. Interestingly, the HIV-1 Vif domains required for the degradation of A3F are also required for the degradation of A3C and A3DE. On the other hand, the Vif domains uniquely required for the degradation of A3G are dispensable for the degradation of cytidine deaminases A3C and A3DE.Our data suggest that distinct regions of A3F and A3G are targeted by HIV-1 Vif molecules. However, HIV-1 Vif suppresses A3F, A3C, and A3DE through similar recognition determinants, which are conserved among Vif molecules from diverse HIV-1 strains. Mapping these determinants may be useful for the design of novel anti-HIV inhibitors

    The role of Alg13 N-acetylglucosaminyl transferase in the expression of pathogenic features of Candida albicans.

    Get PDF
    Background: The pathogenic potential of Candida albicans depends on adhesion to the host cells mediated by highly glycosylated adhesins, hyphae formation and growth of biofilm. These factors require effective N-glycosylation of proteins. Here, we present consequences of up- and down- regulation of the newly identified ALG13 gene encoding N-acetylglucosaminyl transferase, a potential member of the Alg7p/Alg13p/Alg14p complex catalyzing the first two initial reactions in the N-glycosylation process. Methods: We constructed C. albicans strain alg13∆::hisG/TRp-ALG13 with one allele of ALG13 disrupted and the other under the control of a regulatable promoter, TRp. Gene expression and enzyme activity were measured using RT-qPCR and radioactive substrate. Cell wall composition was estimated by HPLC DIONEX. Protein glycosylation status was analyzed by electrophoresis of HexNAcase, a model N-glycosylated protein in C. albicans. Results: Both decreased and elevated expression of ALG13 changed expression of all members of the complex and resulted in a decreased activity of Alg7p and Alg13p and under-glycosylation of HexNAcase. The alg13 strain was also defective in hyphae formation and growth of biofilm. These defects could result from altered expression of genes encoding adhesins and from changes in the carbohydrate content of the cell wall of the mutant. General significance: This work confirms the important role of protein N-glycosylation in the pathogenic potential of C. albicans

    Abdominal aorta aneurysm screening program in Swietokrzyskie Voivodeship: early results

    Get PDF
    Introduction: The prevalence of abdominal aorta aneurysms (AAA) is estimated to be between 1.3–12.5%in men and 5.2% in women, which poses a serious public health issue. Ruptured aorta aneurysm most oftencauses internal bleeding and ultimately leads to death. The cause of high mortality is the asymptomatic occurrenceof AAA. Usually, the first symptom is its ruptureThe aim of our paper is to provide a relationship between the percentage of the population reporting to thevascular surgeon and the type of residence based on the analysis of data from screening studies carried out inone of the regions of Poland. Material and methods: Patients previously informed about the free diagnostics in the Provincial Hospital inKielce were examined by qualified physicians with ESAOTE MyLab Seven ultrasound device. Prior to that, patientswere asked to fill a questionnaire to acquire data about their risk factors, demography, and medical history. Results: A total of 22 (7.3%) aneurysms were found in a group of 301 patients, of which 20 (6.6%) werefound in men and 2 (0.66%) in women. Conclusions: Screening tests are an effective method to significantly improve early detection of AAAs. However,it is necessary to provide easier access to health professionals qualified to perform ultrasound examinations.It is especially important for the population of men with a family history of AAA, because they are at a higherrisk of developing this pathology. The incidence rate of AAA observed in our study is consistent with the datapublished in worldwide literature

    A combination of bacterial products and cover crops as an innovative method of weed control in organic spring barley

    Get PDF
    Field research was conducted at Siedlce University of Natural Sciences and Humanities in 2019–2021. The objective was to determine the effects of bacterial formulations and cover crops on the biomass, number and species composition of dominating weeds prior to spring barley harvest. The field trial involved two factors: A – bacterial formulations: I – control, II – nitrogen-fixing bacteria ( Azospirillum lipoferum Br17, Azotobacter chroococcum), III – nitrogen-fixing bacteria ( Azospirillum lipoferum Br17, Azotobacter chroococcum) + phosphorus-solubilizing bacteria ( Bacillus megaterium var, phosphaticum, Arthrobacter agilis), IV – nitrogen-fixing bacteria ( Azotobacter chroococcum) + plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) ( Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Pseudomonas fluorescens); B – cover crops: control without a cover crop, red clover, red clover + Italian ryegrass, Italian ryegrass. Spring barley was harvested in late July. Weed samples were collected just before harvest to determine the fresh and dry matter of weeds as well as their number and species composition. The research demonstrated conclusively that an application of bacterial products combined with cover crops contributed to a significant reduction in the weight and number of weeds including dominating species such as Chenopodium album, Sinapis arvensis, Tripleurospermum inodorum and Elymus repens. Superior weed control was achieved in spring barley grown in combination with Azotobacter chroococcum + PGPR and a mixture of red clover and Italian ryegrass as a cover crop
    corecore