7,621 research outputs found

    Compact Implementation of a 1‚ÄĎBit Adder by Coherent 2‚ÄĎBeam Excitation of a Single Plasmonic Cavity

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    We demonstrate experimentally the dual beam optical drive of an interconnect-free 2-input, 2-output 1-bit adder implemented inside a single gold plasmonic cavity, focused ion milled in an ultrathin single crystalline gold microplate. To obtain this result, we have set a coherent 2-beam excitation scheme up that allows us to independently and arbitrarily choose the intensity, polarization, and relative phase shift of two femtosecond-pulsed laser spots. The spots are focused on any chosen location of the micrometer-sized plasmonic cavity. The nonlinear photoluminescence (NPL) response of the cavity encodes the Boolean output, while the Boolean inputs are borne by the linear polarizations of the excitation. A generic map analysis tool is developed to pinpoint the realized Boolean functions and to assess their robustness. This tool is used to demonstrate the experimental implementation of the elusive XOR gate and its combination with an AND gate in the same cavity to perform the full 1-bit adder. The analysis of 160,000 instances of the 1-bit adder clearly shows the soundness of our approach and reveals some underlying mechanistic features of the remotely generated NPL. These results establish the first practical step of a general approach to cascade-free all-optical arithmetic and logic units


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    Este artigo de abordagem qualitativa teve como objetivo realizar uma revis√£o narrativa de estudos sobre Sa√ļde do idoso em situa√ß√£o de vulnerabilidade na Aten√ß√£o Prim√°ria √† Sa√ļde recordando pol√≠ticas p√ļblicas, al√©m de trazer √† luz os desafios que se imp√Ķem √† cidadania dessas pessoas. Para isso, como subs√≠dio, optou-se por recorrer a dados cient√≠ficos secund√°rios presentes nas bases de dados indexadas. Desse modo, observou-se a persistente presen√ßa da desigualdade social, a despeito da preconiza√ß√£o dos direitos sociais em √Ęmbito constitucional, o que se apresenta como √≥bice √† facticidade da cidadania. Assim, para presta√ß√£o de cuidados abrangentes no que diz respeito ao contexto h√≠gido de idosos vulner√°veis, insta a aten√ß√£o prim√°ria √† sa√ļde dar prioridade √† integra√ß√£o e √† colabora√ß√£o entre diversas disciplinas e prestadores de servi√ßos, o que sugere uma aten√ß√£o equ√Ęnime e resolutiva, n√£o obstante as limita√ß√Ķes estruturais.&nbsp

    CIAD System for Geographical Entity Detection at TextMine'24

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    International audienceThis paper outlines CIAD's approach to Named Entity Recognition (NER) in a corpus of nautical instruction. Employing a conventional entity detection approach, our system tackles the NER task through token classification. We handled this classification task using two approaches: 1. NER is performed using different BERT models (BERT-base, Tiny-BERT, and CamemBERT); 2. We also used a GCN-based token classification where a graph is built connecting words in the same context. Our results suggest that within these token classification setups, our models are bounded to an accuracy of around 92% on the test data regardless of the complexity of the used BERT model

    Extracellular vesicle mitochondrial DNA levels are associated with race and mitochondrial DNA haplogroup

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    Summary: Circulating cell-free mitochondrial DNA (ccf-mtDNA) acts as a damage-associated molecular pattern molecule and may be cargo within extracellular vesicles (EVs). ccf-mtDNA and select mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups are associated with cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that ccf-mtDNA and plasma EV mtDNA would be associated with hypertension, sex, self-identified race, and mtDNA haplogroup ancestry. Participants were normotensive (n = 107) and hypertensive (n = 108) African American and White adults from the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span study. ccf-mtDNA levels were higher in African American participants compared with White participants in both plasma and EVs, but ccf-mtDNA levels were not related to hypertension. EV mtDNA levels were highest in African American participants with African mtDNA haplogroup. Circulating inflammatory protein levels were altered with mtDNA haplogroup, race, and EV mtDNA. Our findings highlight that race is a social construct and that ancestry is crucial when examining health and biomarker differences between groups

    Meta de ampliação da oferta de creches e judicialização do direito à educação

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    O artigo tem como objetivo avaliar o desempenho dos munic√≠pios brasileiros quanto √† segunda parte da Meta 1 do Plano Nacional de Educa√ß√£o ‚Äď amplia√ß√£o da oferta de creches de modo a atender, at√© o final da vig√™ncia do plano (2024), no m√≠nimo 50% das crian√ßas de at√© 3 anos de idade ‚Äď, bem como relacionar referido desempenho com o fen√īmeno da judicializa√ß√£o do direito √† educa√ß√£o infantil no pa√≠s. A pesquisa tem natureza sociojur√≠dica e metodologia qualitativa. As conclus√Ķes indicam que o descumprimento da Meta 1 em termos nacionais revela uma persistente desigualdade regional e socioecon√īmica no acesso √†s creches, com o fen√īmeno da judicializa√ß√£o contribuindo para uma acelera√ß√£o da amplia√ß√£o da oferta fortemente dependente do estabelecimento de conv√™nios com institui√ß√Ķes privadas

    À revers du dedans : les rêves de la mobilité

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    International audienceAfter Hitler came to power in 1933, Charlotte Beradt, a Berlin journalist, began night after night to have a series of nightmares in which she saw herself being stalked and humiliated by Nazi storm troopers. Convinced that she was not the only one in this situation, Beradt documented the dream visions of her friends, neighbours and other Berlin Jews, as direct evidence of the persecution mechanisms of a totalitarian regime in the making. Some of the dreams are about being forbidden to speak, to express oneself, to rejoice or even to dream; all of them are Kafkaesque mini-narratives that blur the boundaries between subjugation and subjectivation. In 1968, with the help of his friend Hannah Arendt, Beradt published a collection of over three hundred dreams and nightmares under the title Das Dritte Reich des Traums. This collection constitutes an intimate seismography of the political history of the Third Reich: "Such dreams were not to be lost. They could be remembered the day the regime was judged as a historical phenomenon, because they seemed to be full of lessons about the affects and motivations of the people who were inserted like little wheels into the totalitarian mechanism", writes the author. After reading the book, we asked Tigrayan migrants who had fled the massacres of the Ethiopian conflict since autumn 2020, South Sudanese asylum seekers harassed by French bureaucracy in Calais, Ugandan refugees in Nairobi because of their sexual orientation and young displaced women in the Diffa region of Niger to tell us about their dreams. Between anthropological diagnosis and heterotopic knowledge, what can we learn from listening to dreams of mobility today? We will attempt to answer this question by drawing on nearly fifteen years' fieldwork with refugees and displaced persons in Central Asia, Africa and Europe, and on a collection of nearly 60 dreams begun in December 2020.The aim of our paper is to highlight the beautiful, strange and often terrifying fruits of today's dreams of mobility, by looking at them from the angle of the fault - the fault that snakes, splits, reveals and manifests the processes of subjectivation and self-recreation of the migrants and dreamers we have met. From this perspective, then, the flaw does not so much refer to a lack, a weak point or a defect, as to the staging of subjectivation struggles. We will thus try to read - behind the accounts and interpretations of dreams by migrant women and men from Calais, Kakuma, Diffa or Tunis - diagnoses in action, living seismographs, Etienne Balibar describes it as "a double process of subjectivation and objectivation, of subjecting the individual to rules and constructing the relationship between self and self in different practical ways, (a double process that makes up the) two sides of the same reality. " The aim, then, is to understand the modalities and mechanisms of subjection and subjectivation as experienced in the trajectories of migrant dreamers.Apr√®s l'arriv√©e d'Hitler au pouvoir en 1933, Charlotte Beradt, une journaliste berlinoise, commence nuit apr√®s nuit une s√©rie de cauchemars dans lesquels elle se voit traqu√©e et humili√©e par les troupes d'assaut nazies. Convaincue qu'elle n'est pas la seule dans cette situation, Beradt documente les visions oniriques de ses amis, voisins et autres Juifs berlinois, comme autant de preuves directes des m√©canismes de pers√©cution d'un r√©gime totalitaire en devenir. Certains r√™ves portent sur l'interdiction de parler, de s'exprimer, de se r√©jouir ou m√™me de r√™ver ; tous sont des mini-r√©cits kafka√Įens qui d√©jouent les cloisons entre assujettissement et subjectivation. En 1968, avec l'aide de son amie Hannah Arendt, Beradt publie un recueil de plus de trois cents r√™ves et cauchemars sous le titre Das Dritte Reich des Traums. Ce recueil constitue une sismographie intime de l'histoire politique du Troisi√®me Reich: ¬ę De tels r√™ves ne devaient pas √™tre perdus. On pouvait s'en souvenir le jour o√Ļ le r√©gime serait jug√© comme un ph√©nom√®ne historique, car ils semblaient riches d'enseignements sur les affects et les motivations des personnes qui √©taient ins√©r√©es comme de petites roues dans le m√©canisme totalitaire ¬Ľ √©crit son auteur. Apr√®s avoir lu le livre, nous avons demand√© √† des migrants tigr√©ens ayant fui les massacres du conflit √©thiopien depuis l'automne 2020, √† des demandeurs d'asile sud-soudanais harcel√©s par la bureaucratie fran√ßaise √† Calais, √† des Ougandais r√©fugi√©s √† Nairobi en raison de leur orientation sexuelle et √† de jeunes femmes d√©plac√©es dans la r√©gion de Diffa (Niger) de nous parler de leurs r√™ves. Entre diagnostic anthropologique et savoir h√©t√©rotopique, que nous apprend l‚Äô√©coute des r√™ves de mobilit√© aujourd'hui ? Nous essaierons de r√©pondre √† cette question en nous appuyant √† la fois sur un travail de terrain de pr√®s de quinze ans aupr√®s de r√©fugi√©s et d√©plac√©s en Asie Centrale, en Afrique comme en Europe, et sur une collecte de pr√®s de 60 r√™ves entam√©e depuis d√©cembre 2020.Notre communication entend ainsi mettre en √©vidence les fruits beaux, √©tranges et souvent terrifiants des r√™ves de mobilit√© d'aujourd'hui, en les pensant sous l‚Äôangle de la faille ‚Äď cette faille qui serpente, √©cart√®le, r√©v√®le et manifeste tout √† la fois les proc√®s de subjectivation et de recr√©ation de soi des migrants, r√™veurs et r√™veuses, que nous avons rencontr√©s. Dans cette perspective, la faille ne ferait donc pas tant r√©f√©rence au manque, au point faible ou au d√©faut, qu‚Äô√† la mise en sc√®ne de luttes de subjectivation. Nous essaierons ainsi de lire ‚Äď derri√®re les r√©cits et interpr√©tations de r√™ves par les femmes et les hommes migrants de Calais, Kakuma, Diffa ou Tunis ‚Äď des diagnostics en acte, des sismographes vivants, pour nous permettre de mieux cerner la question du sujet politique telle qu‚Äôelle se pose √† nous aujourd‚Äôhui et qu‚ÄôEtienne Balibar d√©crit comme ¬ę un double proc√®s de subjectivation et d‚Äôobjectivation, d‚Äôassujettissement de l‚Äôindividu √† des r√®gles et de construction du rapport de soi √† soi selon diff√©rentes modalit√©s pratiques, (double proc√®s qui compose les) deux faces d‚Äôune m√™me r√©alit√©. ¬Ľ Il s‚Äôagira donc de comprendre les modalit√©s et dispositifs d‚Äôassujettissement et de subjectivation tels qu‚Äôils s‚Äôexp√©rimentent dans les trajectoires des r√™veuses et r√™veurs migrants

    On the influence of bed roughness on saltation in inertial regime

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    International audienceIn extreme tidal environment, occurrences of saltating pebbles have been observed. The ambition to instal hydrokinetic turbines in such environment requires knowledge on the presence of pebbles in saltation in the water column because they can damage the structures. An experimental study is realized in a free-surface flume with no slope and different bed roughnesses as in marine environment. With fast camera the trajectories of hundreds of spherical particles are analysed. Our study deals with saltation in the inertial regime (i.e., large Stokes number) over fixed beds with various roughnesses. In inertial regime, the bed roughness has more influence on the collision process and the trajectory of the particles than for non-inertial motion where viscous forces play a key role. Jump height and length increase with bed roughness, with height increasing quicker than length leading to a more vertical trajectory for higher bed roughness. The vertical restitution coefficient is shown to increase with be

    The Sodium-Glucose Co-Transporter 2 (SGLT2) Inhibitor Empagliflozin Reverses Hyperglycemia-Induced Monocyte and Endothelial Dysfunction Primarily through Glucose Transport-Independent but Redox-Dependent Mechanisms

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    Purpose: Hyperglycaemia-induced oxidative stress and inflammation contribute to vascular cell dysfunction and subsequent cardiovascular events in T2DM. Selective sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor empagliflozin significantly improves cardiovascular mortality in T2DM patients (EMPA-REG trial). Since SGLT-2 is known to be expressed on cells other than the kidney cells, we investigated the potential ability of empagliflozin to regulate glucose transport and alleviate hyperglycaemia-induced dysfunction of these cells. Methods: Primary human monocytes were isolated from the peripheral blood of T2DM patients and healthy individuals. Primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and primary human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs), and fetoplacental endothelial cells (HPECs) were used as the EC model cells. Cells were exposed to hyperglycaemic conditions in vitro in 40 ng/mL or 100 ng/mL empagliflozin. The expression levels of the relevant molecules were analysed by RT-qPCR and confirmed by FACS. Glucose uptake assays were carried out with a fluorescent derivative of glucose, 2-NBDG. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation was measured using the H2DFFDA method. Monocyte and endothelial cell chemotaxis were measured using modified Boyden chamber assays. Results: Both primary human monocytes and endothelial cells express SGLT-2. Hyperglycaemic conditions did not significantly alter the SGLT-2 levels in monocytes and ECs in vitro or in T2DM conditions. Glucose uptake assays carried out in the presence of GLUT inhibitors revealed that SGLT-2 inhibition very mildly, but not significantly, suppressed glucose uptake by monocytes and endothelial cells. However, we detected the significant suppression of hyperglycaemia-induced ROS accumulation in monocytes and ECs when empagliflozin was used to inhibit SGLT-2 function. Hyperglycaemic monocytes and endothelial cells readily exhibited impaired chemotaxis behaviour. The co-treatment with empagliflozin reversed the PlGF-1 resistance phenotype of hyperglycaemic monocytes. Similarly, the blunted VEGF-A responses of hyperglycaemic ECs were also restored by empagliflozin, which could be attributed to the restoration of the VEGFR-2 receptor levels on the EC surface. The induction of oxidative stress completely recapitulated most of the aberrant phenotypes exhibited by hyperglycaemic monocytes and endothelial cells, and a general antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) was able to mimic the effects of empagliflozin. Conclusions: This study provides data indicating the beneficial role of empagliflozin in reversing hyperglycaemia-induced vascular cell dysfunction. Even though both monocytes and endothelial cells express functional SGLT-2, SGLT-2 is not the primary glucose transporter in these cells. Therefore, it seems likely that empagliflozin does not directly prevent hyperglycaemia-mediated enhanced glucotoxicity in these cells by inhibiting glucose uptake. We identified the reduction of oxidative stress by empagliflozin as a primary reason for the improved function of monocytes and endothelial cells in hyperglycaemic conditions. In conclusion, empagliflozin reverses vascular cell dysfunction independent of glucose transport but could partially contribute to its beneficial cardiovascular effects

    A√ß√Ķes de populariza√ß√£o, de divulga√ß√£o da informa√ß√£o cient√≠fica e de aproxima√ß√£o com a sociedade

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    It presents the results of a study that aimed to suggest actions to popularize, disseminate science and bring scientific knowledge closer to society. To propose these actions, a literature review was carried out with classic and contemporary authors of the themes in focus, as well as an exploratory approach, aiming to broaden reflections and understanding on how to build the paths outlined in this investigation. The results demonstrate that it is necessary to implement actions to popularize science, establishing partnerships between teaching and research institutions, government agencies, museums, science centers, libraries in order to develop different actions such as: lectures and events open to the public; classes and debates with topics of interest to the community; periodic visits to schools to hold conversation circles; debates, workshops, courses and training for different audiences; elaboration of videos and informative content, approaching topics relevant to the daily life of the population; creation of research groups, including scientists and society; between others. In the end, it is understood that these actions of approximation with society emerge in a scenario of urgent attention, regarding the elaboration of public policies, aiming to change a reality of distance, of lack of criticality, of the propagation of false news, of miraculous and fanciful cures and disbelief in scientific advances.Presenta los resultados de un estudio que tuvo como objetivo sugerir acciones para popularizar, divulgar la ciencia y acercar el conocimiento cient√≠fico a la sociedad. Para proponer estas acciones, se realiz√≥ una revisi√≥n bibliogr√°fica con autores cl√°sicos y contempor√°neos de los temas en foco, as√≠ como un abordaje exploratorio, con el objetivo de ampliar reflexiones y entendimientos sobre c√≥mo construir los caminos trazados en esta investigaci√≥n. Los resultados demuestran que es necesario implementar acciones de divulgaci√≥n cient√≠fica, estableciendo alianzas entre instituciones de ense√Īanza e investigaci√≥n, agencias gubernamentales, museos, centros de ciencia, bibliotecas para desarrollar diferentes acciones como: conferencias y eventos abiertos al p√ļblico; clases y debates con temas de inter√©s para la comunidad; visitas peri√≥dicas a las escuelas para realizar c√≠rculos de conversaci√≥n; debates, talleres, cursos y capacitaciones para diferentes p√ļblicos; elaboraci√≥n de videos y contenidos informativos, abordando temas relevantes para el d√≠a a d√≠a de la poblaci√≥n; creaci√≥n de grupos de investigaci√≥n, incluidos los cient√≠ficos y la sociedad; entre otros. Al final, se entiende que estas acciones de acercamiento con la sociedad emergen en un escenario de urgente atenci√≥n, en cuanto a la elaboraci√≥n de pol√≠ticas p√ļblicas, visando cambiar una realidad de distanciamiento, de falta de criticidad, de propagaci√≥n de fake news, de curas milagrosas y fantasiosas y la incredulidad en los avances cient√≠ficos.Apresenta resultado de estudo que objetivou sugerir a√ß√Ķes de populariza√ß√£o, divulga√ß√£o da ci√™ncia e de aproxima√ß√£o do conhecimento cient√≠fico com a sociedade. Para propor essas a√ß√Ķes, foi realizada revis√£o de literatura com autores cl√°ssicos e contempor√Ęneos das tem√°ticas em foco, bem como uma abordagem de cunho explorat√≥rio, visando ampliar as reflex√Ķes e a compreens√£o sobre como construir os caminhos delineados nesta investiga√ß√£o. Os resultados demonstram que √© preciso implementar a√ß√Ķes de populariza√ß√£o da ci√™ncia, firmando parcerias entre as institui√ß√Ķes de ensino e pesquisa, organismos governamentais, museus, centros de ci√™ncia, bibliotecas com o intuito de desenvolver diferentes a√ß√Ķes como: palestras e eventos abertos ao p√ļblico; aulas e debates com tem√°ticas de interesse da comunidade; visitas peri√≥dicas nas escolas para a realiza√ß√£o de rodas de conversas; debates, oficinas, cursos e capacita√ß√Ķes para  diferentes p√ļblicos; elabora√ß√£o de v√≠deos e conte√ļdos informativos, abordando temas pertinentes para o cotidiano da popula√ß√£o; cria√ß√£o de grupos de pesquisa, incluindo cientistas e a sociedade; entre outros. Ao final, compreende-se que estas a√ß√Ķes de aproxima√ß√£o com a sociedade emergem em um cen√°rio premente de aten√ß√£o, no que concerne √† elabora√ß√£o de pol√≠ticas p√ļblicas, visando mudar uma realidade de distanciamento, da falta de criticidade, da propaga√ß√£o de not√≠cias falsas, de curas milagrosas e fantasiosas e da descren√ßa nos avan√ßos cient√≠ficos
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