1,154 research outputs found

    Correlation of protein molecular structural features with chemical profile and CNCPS subfractions and in situ biodegradation parameters.

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    a, correlation of protein molecular structure features with protein chemical profile and CNCPS subfractions; b, correlation of protein molecular structure features with in situ biodegradation parameters. CP, crude protein; NPN, non-protein nitrogen; SCP, soluble CP; NDICP, neutral detergent insoluble CP; ADICP, acid detergent insoluble CP; PA1, ammonia; PA2, soluble non-ammonia CP; PB1, moderately degradable CP; PB2, slowly degradable CP; PC, unavailable CP; Kd, ruminal degradation rate; S, soluble CP in the in situ incubation; D, insoluble but potentially degradable CP in the in situ incubation; U, potential undegradable CP in the in situ incubation; RUP, the CP fraction of bypass rumen; EDCP, the effective degradable fraction of CP in the rumen.</p

    Effect of growing regions on morphological characteristics, protein subfractions, rumen degradation and molecular structures of various whole-plant silage corn cultivars.

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    Little information exists on the variation in morphological characteristics, nutritional value, ruminal degradability, and molecular structural makeup of diverse whole-plant silage corn (WPSC) cultivars among different growing regions. This study investigated the between-regions (Beijing, Urumchi, Cangzhou, Liaoyuan, Tianjin) discrepancies in five widely used WPSC cultivars in China (FKBN, YQ889, YQ23, DK301 and ZD958), in terms of 1) morphological characteristics; 2) crude protein (CP) chemical profile; 3) Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS) CP subfractions; 4) in situ CP degradation kinetics; and 5) CP molecular structures. Our results revealed significant growing region and WPSC cultivar interaction for all estimated morphological characteristics (P < 0.001), CP chemical profile (P < 0.001), CNCPS subfractions (P < 0.001) and CP molecular structural features (P < 0.05). Except ear weight (P = 0.18), all measured morphological characteristics varied among different growing regions (P < 0.001). Besides, WPSC cultivars planted in different areas had remarkably different CP chemical profiles and CNCPS subfractions (P < 0.001). All spectral parameters of protein primary structure of WPSC differed (P < 0.05) due to the growing regions, except amide II area (P = 0.28). Finally, the area ratio of amide I to II was negatively correlated with the contents of soluble CP (δ = -0.66; P = 0.002), CP (δ = -0.61; P = 0.006), non-protein nitrogen (δ = -0.56; P = 0.004) and acid detergent insoluble CP (δ = -0.43; P = 0.008), in conjunction with a positive correlation with moderately degradable CP (PB1; δ = 0.58; P = 0.01). In conclusion, the cultivar of DK301 exhibited high and stable CP content. The WPSC planted in Beijing showed high CP, SCP and NPN. The low rumen degradable protein of WPSC was observed in Urumchi. Meanwhile, above changes in protein profiles and digestibility were strongly connected with the ratio of amide I and amide II

    Mechanistic evaluation of antiarthritic and anti-inflammatory effect of campesterol ester derivatives in complete Freund’s adjuvant-induced arthritic rats

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    Background: Current therapies for RA have limitations and side effects, leading to a growing need for safer treatment options. Natural compounds from plants are gaining attention for their therapeutic benefits and fewer side effects. One such compound is the campesterol derivative, a steroid derivative occurring in plants. Studies have shown that this derivative has anti-inflammatory properties and can impact the expression of pro-inflammatory factors. The primary objective of this study was to explore and assess the potential therapeutic effects of Campesterol Ester Derivatives (CED) utilizing a rat model of arthritis induced by Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (CFA).Method: The rats were divided into specific experimental groups and treated with either CED or piroxicam (as a positive control) for a duration of 28 days. We determined the effects of CED on various parameters including paw edema, thermal hyperalgesia, and mechanical allodynia at different time points. Furthermore, serum levels of inflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress markers and histological analyses were performed. Additionally, mRNA expression levels of inflammatory markers, both pro-inflammatory (such as TNF-α, NF-κB, IL-6, COX-1, COX-2, and IL-4) and anti-inflammatory were analyzed.Results: In the arthritic rat model, CED exhibited significant anti-inflammatory effects and resulted in a notable reduction in paw edema levels compared to the control group. Histopathological examination of the treated rats’ paws confirmed a decrease in inflammation and tissue damage, including reduced pannus formation and bone erosion. Importantly, there were no observable signs of damage to the liver and kidneys following CED treatment, indicating its safety profile and potential for organ protection. At the molecular level, CED treatment downregulated mRNA expression levels of pro-inflammatory markers, indicating its ability to suppress inflammation. Conversely, certain anti-inflammatory markers were upregulated following CED treatment, suggesting a positive influence on the immune response. The positive effects of CED were not limited to joint inflammation; it also showed systemic benefits by positively influencing hematological and biochemical parameters.Conclusion: CED demonstrated promising therapeutic potential as an anti-inflammatory intervention for arthritis in the experimental rat model. Its ability to reduce inflammation, protect tissues, and improve organ function indicates its multifaceted benefits