143 research outputs found

    Neural Transition-based Parsing of Library Deprecations

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    This paper tackles the challenging problem of automating code updates to fix deprecated API usages of open source libraries by analyzing their release notes. Our system employs a three-tier architecture: first, a web crawler service retrieves deprecation documentation from the web; then a specially built parser processes those text documents into tree-structured representations; finally, a client IDE plugin locates and fixes identified deprecated usages of libraries in a given codebase. The focus of this paper in particular is the parsing component. We introduce a novel transition-based parser in two variants: based on a classical feature engineered classifier and a neural tree encoder. To confirm the effectiveness of our method, we gathered and labeled a set of 426 API deprecations from 7 well-known Python data science libraries, and demonstrated our approach decisively outperforms a non-trivial neural machine translation baseline.Comment: 11 pages + references and appendix (14 total). This is an edited version of our rejected submission to ESEC/FSE 2022 to include a citation of our earlier short paper and remove all content pertaining to the demo paper submission currently under review for ICSE 202

    Enabling preemptive multiprogramming on GPUs

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    GPUs are being increasingly adopted as compute accelerators in many domains, spanning environments from mobile systems to cloud computing. These systems are usually running multiple applications, from one or several users. However GPUs do not provide the support for resource sharing traditionally expected in these scenarios. Thus, such systems are unable to provide key multiprogrammed workload requirements, such as responsiveness, fairness or quality of service. In this paper, we propose a set of hardware extensions that allow GPUs to efficiently support multiprogrammed GPU workloads. We argue for preemptive multitasking and design two preemption mechanisms that can be used to implement GPU scheduling policies. We extend the architecture to allow concurrent execution of GPU kernels from different user processes and implement a scheduling policy that dynamically distributes the GPU cores among concurrently running kernels, according to their priorities. We extend the NVIDIA GK110 (Kepler) like GPU architecture with our proposals and evaluate them on a set of multiprogrammed workloads with up to eight concurrent processes. Our proposals improve execution time of high-priority processes by 15.6x, the average application turnaround time between 1.5x to 2x, and system fairness up to 3.4x.We would like to thank the anonymous reviewers, Alexan- der Veidenbaum, Carlos Villavieja, Lluis Vilanova, Lluc Al- varez, and Marc Jorda on their comments and help improving our work and this paper. This work is supported by Euro- pean Commission through TERAFLUX (FP7-249013), Mont- Blanc (FP7-288777), and RoMoL (GA-321253) projects, NVIDIA through the CUDA Center of Excellence program, Spanish Government through Programa Severo Ochoa (SEV-2011-0067) and Spanish Ministry of Science and Technology through TIN2007-60625 and TIN2012-34557 projects.Peer ReviewedPostprint (author’s final draft

    Design space explorations for streaming accelerators using streaming architectural simulator

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    In the recent years streaming accelerators like GPUs have been pop-up as an effective step towards parallel computing. The wish-list for these devices span from having a support for thousands of small cores to a nature very close to the general purpose computing. This makes the design space very vast for the future accelerators containing thousands of parallel streaming cores. This complicates to exercise a right choice of the architectural configuration for the next generation devices. However, accurate design space exploration tools developed for the massively parallel architectures can ease this task. The main objectives of this work are twofold. (i) We present a complete environment of a trace driven simulator named SArcs (Streaming Architectural Simulator) for the streaming accelerators. (ii) We use our simulation tool-chain for the design space explorations of the GPU like streaming architectures. Our design space explorations for different architectural aspects of a GPU like device a e with reference to a base line established for NVIDIA's Fermi architecture (GPU Tesla C2050). The explored aspects include the performation effects by the variations in the configurations of Streaming Multiprocessors Global Memory Bandwidth, Channles between SMs down to Memory Hierarchy and Cache Hierarchy. The explorations are performed using application kernels from Vector Reduction, 2D-Convolution. Matrix-Matrix Multiplication and 3D-Stencil. Results show that the configurations of the computational resources for the current Fermi GPU device can deliver higher performance with further improvement in the global memory bandwidth for the same device.Peer ReviewedPostprint (author’s final draft

    Adaptive runtime-assisted block prefetching on chip-multiprocessors

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    Memory stalls are a significant source of performance degradation in modern processors. Data prefetching is a widely adopted and well studied technique used to alleviate this problem. Prefetching can be performed by the hardware, or be initiated and controlled by software. Among software controlled prefetching we find a wide variety of schemes, including runtime-directed prefetching and more specifically runtime-directed block prefetching. This paper proposes a hybrid prefetching mechanism that integrates a software driven block prefetcher with existing hardware prefetching techniques. Our runtime-assisted software prefetcher brings large blocks of data on-chip with the support of a low cost hardware engine, and synergizes with existing hardware prefetchers that manage locality at a finer granularity. The runtime system that drives the prefetch engine dynamically selects which cache to prefetch to. Our evaluation on a set of scientific benchmarks obtains a maximum speed up of 32 and 10 % on average compared to a baseline with hardware prefetching only. As a result, we also achieve a reduction of up to 18 and 3 % on average in energy-to-solution.Peer ReviewedPostprint (author's final draft

    Data stream classification using random feature functions and novel method combinations

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    Big Data streams are being generated in a faster, bigger, and more commonplace. In this scenario, Hoeffding Trees are an established method for classification. Several extensions exist, including high performing ensemble setups such as online and leveraging bagging. Also, k-nearest neighbors is a popular choice, with most extensions dealing with the inherent performance limitations over a potentially-infinite stream. At the same time, gradient descent methods are becoming increasingly popular, owing in part to the successes of deep learning. Although deep neural networks can learn incrementally, they have so far proved too sensitive to hyper-parameter options and initial conditions to be considered an effective 'off -the-shelf' data-streams solution. In this work, we look at combinations of Hoeffding-trees, nearest neighbor, and gradient descent methods with a streaming preprocessing approach in the form of a random feature functions filter for additional predictive power. We further extend the investigation to implementing methods on GPUs, which we test on some large real-world datasets, and show the benefits of using GPUs for data-stream learning due to their high scalability. Our empirical evaluation yields positive results for the novel approaches that we experiment with, highlighting important issues, and shed light on promising future directions in approaches to data-stream classification. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Peer ReviewedPostprint (author's final draft

    On-Chip memories, the OS perspective

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    This paper is a work in progress study of the operating system services required to manage on-chip memories. We are evaluating different CMP on-chip memories configurations. Chip-MultiProcessors (CMP) architectures integrating multiple computing and memory elements presents different problems (coherency, latency, ...) that must be solved. On-chip local memories are directly addressable and their latency is much shorter than off-chip main memories. Since memory latency is a key factor for application performance, we study how the OS can help.Postprint (author’s final draft

    Direct Inter-Process Communication (dIPC): Repurposing the CODOMs architecture to accelerate IPC

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    In current architectures, page tables are the fundamental mechanism that allows contemporary OSs to isolate user processes, binding each thread to a specific page table. A thread cannot therefore directly call another process's function or access its data; instead, the OS kernel provides data communication primitives and mediates process synchronization through inter-process communication (IPC) channels, which impede system performance. Alternatively, the recently proposed CODOMs architecture provides memory protection across software modules. Threads can cross module protection boundaries inside the same process using simple procedure calls, while preserving memory isolation. We present dIPC (for "direct IPC"), an OS extension that repurposes and extends the CODOMs architecture to allow threads to cross process boundaries. It maps processes into a shared address space, and eliminates the OS kernel from the critical path of inter-process communication. dIPC is 64.12× faster than local remote procedure calls (RPCs), and 8.87× faster than IPC in the L4 microkernel. We show that applying dIPC to a multi-tier OLTP web server improves performance by up to 5.12× (2.13× on average), and reaches over 94% of the ideal system efficiency.We thank Diego Marr´on for helping with MariaDB, the anonymous reviewers for their feedback and, especially, Andrew Baumann for helping us improve the paper. This research was partially funded by HiPEAC through a collaboration grant for Lluís Vilanova (agreement number 687698 for the EU’s Horizon2020 research and innovation programme), the Israel Science Fundation (ISF grant 769/12) and the Israeli Ministry of Science, Technology and Space.Peer ReviewedPostprint (author's final draft

    REMOTE, a Wireless Sensor Network Based System to Monitor Rowing Performance

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    In this paper, we take a hard look at the performance of REMOTE, a sensor network based application that provides a detailed picture of a boat movement, individual rower performance, or his/her performance compared with other crew members. The application analyzes data gathered with a WSN strategically deployed over a boat to obtain information on the boat and oar movements. Functionalities of REMOTE are compared to those of RowX [1] outdoor instrument, a commercial wired sensor instrument designed for similar purposes. This study demonstrates that with smart geometrical configuration of the sensors, rotation and translation of the oars and boat can be obtained. Three different tests are performed: laboratory calibration allows us to become familiar with the accelerometer readings and validate the theory, ergometer tests which help us to set the acquisition parameters, and on boat tests shows the application potential of this technologies in sports

    CUsched: multiprogrammed workload scheduling on GPU architectures

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    Graphic Processing Units (GPUs) are currently widely used in High Performance Computing (HPC) applications to speed-up the execution of massively-parallel codes. GPUs are well-suited for such HPC environments because applications share a common characteristic with the gaming codes GPUs were designed for: only one application is using the GPU at the same time. Although, minimal support for multi-programmed systems exist, modern GPUs do not allow resource sharing among different processes. This lack of support restricts the usage of GPUs in desktop and mobile environment to a small amount of applications (e.g., games and multimedia players). In this paper we study the multi-programming support available in current GPUs, and show how such support is not sufficient. We propose a set of hardware extensions to the current GPU architectures to efficiently support multi-programmed GPU workloads, allowing concurrent execution of codes from different user processes. We implement several hardware schedulers on top of these extensions and analyze the behaviour of different work scheduling algorithms using system wide and per process metrics.Postprint (published version

    Optimization of atmospheric transport models on HPC platforms

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    The performance and scalability of atmospheric transport models on high performance computing environments is often far from optimal for multiple reasons including, for example, sequential input and output, synchronous communications, work unbalance, memory access latency or lack of task overlapping. We investigate how different software optimizations and porting to non general-purpose hardware architectures improve code scalability and execution times considering, as an example, the FALL3D volcanic ash transport model. To this purpose, we implement the FALL3D model equations in the WARIS framework, a software designed from scratch to solve in a parallel and efficient way different geoscience problems on a wide variety of architectures. In addition, we consider further improvements in WARIS such as hybrid MPI-OMP parallelization, spatial blocking, auto-tuning and thread affinity. Considering all these aspects together, the FALL3D execution times for a realistic test case running on general-purpose cluster architectures (Intel Sandy Bridge) decrease by a factor between 7 and 40 depending on the grid resolution. Finally, we port the application to Intel Xeon Phi (MIC) and NVIDIA GPUs (CUDA) accelerator-based architectures and compare performance, cost and power consumption on all the architectures. Implications on time-constrained operational model configurations are discussed.We thank M.S. Osores from the Argentinean National Scientific and Technical Research Council (CONICET) for providing hourly column heights for the Cordón Caulle eruption simulation and the constructive comments from two anonymous reviewers. This work was supported by NVIDIA through the UPC/BSC GPU Center of Excellence, and the Spanish Ministry of Science and Technology through the TIN2012-34557 project. Finally, we dedicate this work to our colleague and co-author Nacho Navarro, who sadly passed away during the reviewing process.Peer ReviewedPostprint (author's final draft
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